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This book is due at the LOUIS R. WILSON LIBRARY on the 
last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold it may be 
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Leo Tolstoy 

Author of 
"Anna Karenina," "War and Peace," etc. 

Translated by 
Mrs. Louise Maude 

With Illustrations by Pa s t e r n a k 

New York 


L '• 

PG 3 3b U 




and 1899, as the "Awakening," 


f^ J^lJ/^^/? 4JL£k^&)h& 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


OPINIONS about Tolstoy and his work differ, but on 
one point there surely might be unanimity. A writer 
of world-wide reputation should be at least allowed to know 
how to spell his own name. Why should any one insist on 
spelling it " Tolstoi'' (with one, two or three dots over the 
"i"), when he himself writes it "Tolstoy"? The only 
reason I have ever heard suggested is, that in England and 
America such outlandish views are attributed to him, that 
an outlandish spelling is desirable to match those views. 

This novel, written in the rough by Tolstoy some years 
ago and founded upon an actual occurrence, was completely 
rewritten by him during the last year and a half, and all the 
proceeds have been devoted by him to aiding the Doukho- 
bors, a sect who were persecuted in the Caucasus (especially 
from 1895 to 1898) for refusing to learn war. About seven 
thousand three hundred of them are settled in Canada, and 
about a hundred of the leaders are exiled to the remote 
parts of Siberia. 

Anything I may receive for my work in translating the 
book will go to the same cause. " Prevention is better than 
cure," and I would rather help people to abstain from killing 
and wounding each other than devote the money to patch 
up their wounds after the battle. 





I. Maslova in Prison I 

II. Maslova's Early Life 5 

III. Nekhludoff 10 

IV. Missy IS 

V. The Jurymen 18 

VI. The Judges 21 

VII. The Officials of the Court 25 

VIII. Swearing in the Jury 28 

IX. The Trial — The Prisoners Questioned 31 

X. The Trial — The Indictment 35 

XI. The Trial — Maslova Cross-examined 38 

XII. Twelve Years Before . . 44 

XIII. Life in the Army 49 

XIV. The Second Meeting with Maslova 53 

XV. The Early Mass 57 

XVI. The First Step 62 

XVII. Nekhludoff and Kahisha 65 

XVIII. Afterwards 68 

XIX. The Trial — Resumption , 71 

XX. The Trial— The Medical Report 74 

XXI. The Trial — The Prosecutor and the Advocates. 78 

XXII. The Trial— The Summing "Up 83 

XXIII. The Trial— The Verdict 86 

XXIV. The Trial— The Sentence 94 

XXV. Nekhludoff Consults an Advocate 97 

XXVI. The House o£ Korchagin 99 

XXVII. Missy's Mother 104 

XXVIII. The Awakening: 109 

vi Contents 


XXIX. Maslova in Prison 115 

XXX. The Cell 119 

XXXI. The Prisoners 122 

XXXII. A Prison Quarrel 125 

XXXIII. The Leaven at Work— Nekhludoff's Do- 
mestic Changes 129 

XXXIV. The Absurdity of Law— Reflections of a 
Juryman 133 

XXXV. The Procureur— Nekhludoff Refuses to 
Serve 138 

XXXVI. Nekhludoff Endeavours to Visit Maslova. . 141 

XXXVII. Maslova Recalls the Past 144 

XXXVIII. Sunday in Prison — Preparing for Mass. . 148 

XXXIX. The Prison Church — Blind Leaders of the 
Blind 151 

XL. The Husks of Religion 155 

XLI. Visiting Day— The Men's Ward 158 

XLII. Visiting Day — The Women's Ward 163 

XLIII. Nekhludoff Visits Maslova 166 

XLIV. Maslova's View of Life 172 

XLV. Fanarin, the Advocate — The Petition 175 

XLVI. A Prison Flogging 181 

XLVII. Nekhludoff Again Visits Maslova 184 

XLVIII. Maslova Refuses to Marry 187 

XLIX. Vera Doiikhova 191 

L. The Vice-Governor of the Prison 194 

LI. The Cells 198 

LII. No. 21 201 

LIII. Victims of Government 204 

LI V. Prisoners and Friends 207 

LV. Vera Doiikhova Explains 210 

LVI. Nekhludoff and the Prisoners 213 

LVII. The Vice-Governor's " At-Home " 216 

LVIII. The Vice-Governor Suspicious 220 

LIX. Nekhludoff's Third Interview with Maslova in 

Prison 223 

BOOK 11 

I. Property in Land 229 

II. Efforts at Land Restoration 235 

Contents vii 


III. Old Associations 239 

IV. The Peasants' Lot 242 

V. Maslova's Aunt 246 

VI. Reflections of a Landlord 250 

VII. The Disinherited 256 

VIII. God's Peace in the Heart 260 

IX. The Land Settlement . 263 

X. Nekhludoff Returns to Town 269 

XL An Advocate's View on Judges and Prosecutors. 274 

XII. Why the Peasants Flock to Town 277 

XIII. Nurse Maslova 280 

XIV. An Aristocratic Circle . 286 

XV. An Average Statesman 292 

XVI. An Up-to-date Senator 297 

XVII. Countess Katerina Ivanovna's Dinner Party. . 301 

XVIII. Officialdom 304 

XIX. An Old General of Repute 308 

XX. Maslova's Appeal 314 

XXI. The Appeal Dismissed 318 

XXII. An Old Friend 322 

XXIII. The Public Prosecutor , 325 

XXIV. Mariette Tempts Nekhludoff 329 

XXV. Lydia Shotistova's Home 336 

XXVI. Lydia's Aunt 341 

XXVII. The State Church and the People 343 

XXVIII. The Meaning of Mariette's Attraction 349 

XXIX. " For Her Sake and for God's " 353 

XXX. The Astonishing Institution Called Criminal 
Law 359 

XXXI. Nekhludoff 's Sister and Her Husband 364 

XXXII. Nekhludoff 's Anarchism '367 

XXXIII. The Aim of the Law 372 

XXXI V. The Prisoners Start for Siberia 376 

XXXV. " Not Men but Strange and Terrible Crea- 
tures ? " 381 

XXXVI. The Tender Mercies of the Lord 385 

XXXVII. " Spilled Like Water on the Ground ". . . . 390 

XXXVIII. The Convict Train 395 

XXXIX. Brother and Sister 399 

XL. The Fundamental Law of Human Life 404 

XLI. Taras's Story 408 

XLII. Le Vrai Grand Monde 454 

viii Contents 



I. Maslova Makes New Friends 421 

II. An Incident of the March 424 

III. Mary Pavlovna 427 

IV. Simonson 430 

V. The Political Prisoners 433 

VI. Kryltzoff's Story 437 

VII. Nekhludoff Seeks an Interview with Maslova. . . 441 

VIII. Nekhludoff and the Officer 444 

IX. The Political Prisoners 448 

X. Makar Devkin 451 

XL Maslova and Her Companions 453 

XII. Nabatoff and Markel 457 

XIII. Love Affairs of the Exiles 462 

XIV. Conversations in Prison 465 

XV. Novodvoroff 468 

XVI. Simonson Speaks to Nekhludoff 470 

XVII. " I Have Nothing More to Say " 474 

XVIII. Neveroff's Fate 477 

XIX. " Why Is It Done? " 480 

XX. The Journey Resumed 485 

XXI. " Just a Worthless Tramp " 489 

XXII. Nekhludoff Sees the General 492 

XXIII. The Sentence Commuted 495 

XXIV. The General's Household 500 

XXV. Maslova's Decision 505 

XXVI. The English Visitor 509 

XXVII. Kryltzoff at Rest . . . 511 

XXVIII. A New Life Dawns for Nekhludoff ... 514 


Prince Dmitri Ivanovitch Nekhludoff (Mitinka). 
Katerina Mikhaelovna Maslova 

(Katusha, Lubov, Lubka) 
Simon Michaelovitch Kartinkin, ) Prisoners in 


Carolina Albertovna Kitaeva (Brothel-keeper). 

Merchant Theropont Emilianovitch Smelkoff 


Sophia Ivanovna, ) XT t , t , , _, A 

,, T , \ Nekhludoff's Aunts. 

Mary Ivanovna, ) 

Matrona Pavlovna, ) - . 

r^, c their Servants. 

Tikhon, ) 

Agraphena Petrovna, ) AT , t , , , „. 

~ r Nekhludolt s Servants. 


Peter Gerasimovitch (one of the Jury). 
Korableva (Maslova's Fellow-prisoner). 
Prince Korchagin. 

Princess Sophia Vasilievna Korchagin. 
Princess Mary Korchagin (Missy). 

" Then came Peter and said to Him, Lord, how oft shall my 
brother sin against me and I forgive him? Until seven times? 
Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times; but 
Until seventy times seven." — Matt, xviii., 21-22. 

" And why beholdest thou the mote in thy brother's eye, but con- 
siderest not the beam that is in thine own eye? " — Matt, vii., 3. 

" He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at 
her." — John viii., 7. 

u The disciple is not above his master, but every one when he is 
perfected shall be as his master." — Luke vL, 40. 

Book I 




Though hundreds of thousands had done their very best 
to disfigure the small piece of land on which they were 
crowded together, by paving the ground with stones, 
scraping away every vestige of vegetation, cutting down 
the trees, turning away birds and beasts, and filling the air 
with the smoke of naphtha and coal, still spring was spring, 
even in the town. 

The sun shone warm, the air was balmy; everywhere, 
where it did not get scraped away, the grass revived and 
sprang up between the paving-stones as well as on the 
narrow strips of lawn on the boulevards. The birches, the 
poplars, and the wild cherry unfolded their gummy and 
fragrant leaves, the limes were expanding their opening 
buds ; crows, sparrows, and pigeons, filled with the joy of 
spring, were getting their nests ready ; the flies were buz- 
zing along the walls, warmed by the sunshine. All were 
glad, the plants, the birds, the insects, and the children. 
But men, grown-up men and women, did not leave off 
cheating and tormenting themselves and each other. It was 
not this spring morning men thought sacred and worthy of 
consideration, not the beauty of God's world, given for a 
joy to all creatures, this beauty which inclines the heart to 
peace, to harmony, and to love, but only their own devices 
for enslaving one another. 

Thus, in the prison office of the Government town, it was 
not the fact that men and animals had received the grace 
and gladness of spring that was considered sacred and 
important, but that a notice, numbered and with a super- 
scription, had come the day before, ordering that on this 
28th day of April, at 9 a.m., three prisoners at present 

2 Resurrection 

detained in the prison, a man and two women (one of these 
women, as the chief criminal, to be conducted separately), 
had to appear at Court. So now, on the 28th of April, 
at 8 o'clock, a jailer and soon after him a woman warder 
with curly grey hair, dressed in a jacket with sleeves 
trimmed with gold, with a blue-edged belt round her waist, 
and having a look of suffering on her face, came into the cor- 

" You want Maslova? " she asked, coming up to the cell 
with the jailer who was on duty. 

The jailer, rattling the iron padlock, opened the door of 
the cell, from which there came a whiff of air fouler even 
than that in the corridor, and called out, " Maslova ! to the 
Court/' and closed the door again. 

Even into the prison yard the breeze had brought the 
fresh vivifying air from the fields. But in the corridor the 
air was laden with the germs of typhoid, the smell of 
sewage, putrefaction, and tar ; every newcomer felt sad and 
dejected in it. The woman warder felt this, though she was 
used to bad air. She had just come in from outside, and 
entering the corridor, she at once became sleepy. 

From inside the cell came the sound of bustle and 
women's voices, and the patter of bare feet on the floor. 

" Now, then, hurry up, Maslova, I say!" called out the 
jailer, and in a minute or two a small young woman with 
a very full bust came briskly out of the door and went up 
to the jailer. She had on a grey cloak over a white jacket 
and petticoat. On her feet she wore linen stockings and 
prison shoes, and round her head was tied a white kerchief, 
from under which a few locks of black hair were brushed 
over the forehead with evident intent. The face of the 
woman was of that whiteness peculiar to people who have 
lived long in confinement, and which puts one in mind of 
shoots of potatoes that spring up in a cellar. Her small 
broad hands and full neck, which showed from under the 
broad collar of her cloak, were of the same hue. Her black, 
sparkling eyes, one with a slight squint, appeared in strik- 
ing contrast to the dull pallor of her face. 

She carried herself very straight, expanding her full 

With her head slightly thrown back, she stood in the 
corridor, looking straight into the eyes of the jailer, ready 
to comply with any order. 

Resurrection 3 

The jailer was about to lock the door when a wrinkled 
and severe-looking old woman put out her grey head and 
began speaking to Maslova. But the jailer closed the door, 
pushing the old woman's head with it. A woman's laughter 
was heard from the cell, and Maslova smiled, turning to the 
little grated opening in the cell door. The old woman 
pressed her face to the grating from the other side, and said, 
in a hoarse voice : 

" Now mind, and when they begin questioning you, 
just repeat over the same thing, and stick to it ; tell nothing 
that is not wanted." 

" Well, it could not be worse than it is now, anyhow ; I 
only wish it was settled one way or another/' 

" Of course, it will be settled one way or another," saic 
the jailer, with a superior's self-assured witticism. " Now, 
then, get along ! Take your places ! " 

The old woman's eyes vanished from the grating, and 
Maslova stepped out into the middle of the corridor. The 
warder in front, they descended the stone stairs, past the 
still fouler, noisy cells of the men's ward, where they were 
followed by eyes looking out of every one of the gratings 
in the doors, and entered the office, where two soldiers 
were waiting to escort her. A clerk who was sitting there 
gave one of the soldiers a paper reeking of tobacco, and 
pointing to the prisoner, remarked, " Take her." 

The soldier, a peasant from Nijni Novgorod, with a red, 
pock-marked face, put the paper into the sleeve of his coat, 
winked to his companion, a broad-shouldered Tchouvash, 
and then the prisoner and the soldiers went to the front 
entrance, out of the prison yard, and through the town up 
the middle of the roughly-paved street. 

Isvostchiks* tradespeople, cooks, workmen, and gov- 
ernment clerks, stopped and looked curiously at the pris- 
oner ; some shook their heads and thought, " This is what 
evil conduct, conduct unlike ours, leads to." The children 
stopped and gazed at the robber with frightened looks ; but 
the thought that the soldiers were preventing her from 
doing more harm quieted their fears. A peasant, who had 
sold his charcoal, and had had some tea in the town, came 
up, and, after crossing himself, gave her a copeck. The 
prisoner blushed and muttered something; she noticed that 
she was attracting everybody's attention, and that pleased 
*Isvostchik — cabman. 

4 Resurrection 

her. The comparatively fresh air also gladdened her, but 
it was painful to step on the rough stones with the ill-made 
prison shoes on her feet, which had become unused to 
walking. Passing by a corn-dealer's shop, in front of which 
a few pigeons were strutting about, unmolested by any one, 
the prisoner almost touched a grey-blue bird with her foot ; 
it fluttered up and flew close to her ear, fanning her with 
its wings. She smiled, then sighed deeply as she remem- 
bered her present position. 


maslova's early life. 

The story of the prisoner Maslova's life was a very com- 
mon one. 

Maslova's mother was the unmarried daughter of a vil- 
lage woman, employed on a dairy farm, whkh belonged to 
two maiden ladies who were landowners. This unmarried 
woman had a baby every year, and, as often happens 
among the village people, each one of these undesired 
babies, after it had been carefully baptised, was neglected 
by its mother, whom it hindered at her work, and left to 
starve. Five children had died in this way. They had all 
been baptised and then not sufficiently fed, and just left to 
die. The sixth baby, whose father was a gipsy tramp, 
would have shared the same fate, had it not so happened 
that one of the maiden ladies came into the farmyard to 
scold the dairymaids for sending up cream that smelt of 
the cow. The young woman was lying in the cowshed, 
with a fine, healthy, new-born baby. The old maiden lady 
scolded the maids again for allowing the woman (who had 
just been confined) to lie in the cowshed, and was about to 
go away, but seeing the baby her heart was touched, and 
she offered to stand godmother to the little girl, and pity for 
her little god-daughter induced her to give milk and a little 
money to the mother, so that she should feed the baby ; and 
the little girl lived. The old ladies spoke of her as " the 
saved one." When the child was three years old, her mother 
fell ill and died, and the maiden ladies took the child from 
her old grandmother, to whom she was nothing but a 

The little black-eyed maiden grew to be extremely 
pretty, and so full of spirits that the ladies found her very 

The younger of the ladies, Sophia Ivanovna, who had 
stood godmother to the girl, had the kinder heart of the 
two sisters; Mari^ Ivanovna, the elder, was rather hard. 

6 Resurrection 

Sophia Ivanovna dressed the little girl in nice clothes, and 
taught her to read and write, meaning to educate her like 
a lady. Maria Ivanovna thought the child should be 
brought up to work, and trained her to be a good servant. 
She was exacting; she punished, and, when in a bad tem- 
per, even struck the little girl. Growing up under these two 
different influences, the girl turned out half servant, half 
young lady. They called her Katusha, which sounds less 
refined than Katinka, but is not quite so common as Katka. 
She used to sew, tidy up the rooms, polish the metal cases 
of the icons, and do other light work, and sometimes she 
sat and read to the ladies. 

Though she had more than one offer, she would not 
marry. She felt that life as the wife of any of the working 
men who were courting her would be too hard ; spoilt as she 
was by a life of ease. 

She lived in this manner till she was sixteen, when the 
nephew of the old ladies, a rich young prince, and a univer- 
sity student, came to stay with his aunts, and Katusha, not 
daring to acknowledge it even to herself, fell in love with 

Then two years later this same nephew stayed four days 
with his aunts before proceeding to join his regiment, and 
the night before he left he betrayed Katusha, and, after 
giving her a ioo- rouble note, went away. Five months 
later she knew for certain that she was to be a mother. 
After that everything seemed repugnant to her, her only 
thought being how to escape from the shame that awaited 
her. She began not only to serve the ladies in a half- 
hearted and negligent way, but once, without knowing how 
it happened, was very rude to them, and gave them 
notice, a thing she repented of later, and the ladies let her 
go, noticing something wrong and very dissatisfied with 
her. Then she got a housemaid's place in a police-officer's 
house, but stayed there only three months, for the police- 
officer, a man of fifty, began to torment her, and once, when 
he was in a specially enterprising mood, she fired up, called 
him " a fool and old devil," and gave him such a knock in 
the chest that he fell. She was turned out for her rude- 
ness. It was useless to look for another situation, for the 
time of her confinement was drawing near, so she went to 
the house of a village midwife, who also sold wine. The 
confinement was easy ; but the midwife, who had a case of 

Resurrection 7 

fever in the village, infected Katusha, and her baby boy 
had to be sent to the foundlings' hospital, where, according 
to the words of the old woman who took him there, he at 
once died. When Katusha went to the midwife she had 
127 roubles in all, 2J which she had earned and 100 given 
her by her betrayer. When she left she had but six 
roubles ; she did not know how to keep money, but spent 
it on herself, and gave to all who asked. The midwife took 
40 roubles for two months' board and attendance, 25 went 
to get the baby into the foundlings' hospital, and 40 the 
midwife borrowed to buy a cow with. Twenty roubles went 
just for clothes and dainties. Having nothing left to live 
on, Katusha had to look out for a place again, and found 
one in the house of a forester. The forester was a married 
man, but he, too, began to annoy her from the first day. 
He disgusted her, and she tried to avoid him. But he, 
more experienced and cunning, besides being her master, 
who could send her wherever he liked, managed to accom- 
plish his object. His wife found it out, and, catching 
Katusha and her husband in a room all by themselves, 
began beating her. Katusha defended herself, and they 
had a fight, and Katusha got turned out of the house with- 
out being paid her wages. 

Then Katusha went to live with her aunt in town. The 
aunt's husband, a bookbinder, had once been comfortably 
off, but had lost all his customers, and had taken to drink, 
and spent all he could lay hands on at the public-house. 
The aunt kept a little laundry, and managed to support 
herself, her children^ and her wretched husband. She 
offered Katusha the place of an assistant laundress ; but 
seeing what a life of misery and hardship her aunt's assist- 
ants led, Katusha hesitated, and applied to a registry office 
for a place. One was found for her with a lady who 
lived with her two sons, pupils at a public day school. A 
week after Katusha had entered the house the elder, a big 
fellow with moustaches, threw up his studies and made 
love to her, continually following her about. His mother 
laid all the blame on Katusha, and gave her notice. 

It so happened that, after many fruitless attempts to find 
a situation, Katusha again went to the registry office, and 
there met a woman with bracelets on her bare, plump arms 
and rings on most of her fingers. Hearing that Katusha 
was badly in want of a place, the woman gave her her 

8 Resurrection 

address, and invited her to come to her house. Katusha 
went. The woman received her very kindly, set cake and 
sweet wine before her, then wrote a note and gave it to a 
servant to take to somebody. In the evening a tall man, 
with long, grey hair and a white beard, entered the room, 
and sat down at once near Katusha, smiling and gazing at 
her with glistening eyes. He began joking with her. The 
hostess called him away into the next room, and Katusha 
heard her say, " A fresh one from the country/* Then the 
hostess called Katusha aside and told her that ,he man was 
an author, and that he had a great deal of money, and that 
if he liked her he would not grudge her anything. He did 
like her, and gave her 25 roubles, promising to see her 
often. The 25 roubles soon went ; some she paid to her 
aunt for board and lodging; the rest was spent on a hat, 
ribbons, and such like. A few days later the author sent 
for her, and she went. He gave her another 25 roubles, 
and offered her a separate lodging. 

Next door to the lodging rented for her by the author 
there lived a jolly young shopman, with whom Katusha 
soon fell in love. She told the author, and moved to a little 
lodging of her own. The shopman, who promised to 
marry her, went to Nijni on business without mentioning 
it to her, having evidently thrown her up, and Katusha 
remained alone. She meant to continue living in the lodg- 
ing by herself, but was informed by the police that in this 
case she would have to get a license. She returned to her 
aunt. Seeing her fine dress, her hat, and mantle, her aunt 
no longer offered her laundry work. As she understood 
things, her niece had risen above that sort of thing. The 
question as to whether she was to become a laundress or 
not did not occur to Katusha, either. She looked with pity 
at the thin, hard-worked laundresses, some already in con- 
sumption, who stood washing or ironing with their thin 
arms in the fearfully hot front room, which was always full 
of soapy steam and draughts from the windows, and 
thought with horror that she might have shared the same 

Katusha had begun to smoke some time before, and 
since the young shopman had thrown her up she was get- 
ting more and more into the habit of drinking. It was not 
so much the flavour of wine that tempted her as the fact 
that it gave her a chance of forgetting the misery she 

Resurrection 9 

suffered, making her feel more unrestrained and more 
confident of her own worth, which she was not when quite 
sober; without wine she felt sad and ashamed. Just at 
this time a woman came along who offered to place her in 
one of the largest establishments in the city, explaining all 
the advantages and benefits of the situation. Katusha had the 
choice before her of either going into service or accepting this 
offer — and she chose the latter. Besides, it seemed to her 
as though, in this way, she could revenge herself on her 
betrayer and the shopman and all those who had injured 
her. One of the things that tempted her, and was the cause 
of her decision, was the woman telling her she might order 
her own dresses — velvet, silk, satin, low-necked ball dresses, 
anything she liked. A mental picture of herself in a bright 
yellow silk trimmed with black velvet with low neck and 
short sleeves conquered her, and she gave up her passport. 
On the same evening the procuress took an isvostchik and 
drove her to the notorious house kept by Carolina Alber- 
tovna Kitaeva. 

From that day a life of chronic sin against human and 
divine laws commenced for Katusha Maslova, a life which 
is led by hundreds of thousands of women, and which is 
not merely tolerated but sanctioned by the Government, 
anxious for the welfare of its subjects ; a life which for nine 
women out of ten ends in painful disease, premature de- 
crepitude, and death. 

Katusha Maslova lived this life for seven years. During 
these years she twice changed houses, and had once been 
to the hospital. In the seventh year of this life, when she 
was twenty-six years old, happened that for which she was 
put in prison and for which she was now being taken to be 
tried, after more than three months of confinement with 
thieves and murderers in the stifling air of a prison. 

io Resurrection 



When Maslova, wearied out by the long walk, reached 
the building, accompanied by two soldiers, Prince Dmitri 
Ivanovitch Nekhludoff, who had seduced her, was still 
lying on his high bedstead, with a feather bed on the top 
of the spring mattress, in a fine, clean, well-ironed linen 
night shirt, smoking a cigarette, and considering what he 
had to do to-day, and what had happened yesterday. 

Recalling the evening he had spent with the Korchagins^ 
a wealthy and aristocratic family, whose daughter every 
one expected he would marry, he sighed, and, throwing 
away the end of his cigarette, was going to take another 
out of the silver case; but, changing his mind, he reso- 
lutely raised his solid frame, and, putting down his smooth, 
white legs, stepped into his slippers, threw his silk dressing 
gown over his broad shoulders, and passed into his dress- 
ing-room, walking heavily and quickly. There he carefully 
cleaned his teeth, many of which were filled, with tooth 
powder, and rinsed his mouth with scented elixir. After 
that he washed his hands with perfumed soap, cleaned his 
long nails with particular care, then, from a tap fixed to his 
marble washstand, he let a spray of cold water run over his 
face and stout neck. Having finished this part of the 
business, he went into a third room, where a shower bath 
stood ready for him. Having refreshed his full, white, 
muscular body, and dried it with a rough bath sheet, he 
put on his fine undergarments and his boots, and sat down 
before the glass to brush his black beard and his curly hair, 
that had begun to get thin above the forehead. Everything 
he used, everything belonging to his toilet, his linen, his 
clothes, boots, necktie, pin, studs, was of the best quality, 
very quiet, simple, durable and costly. 

Nekhludoff dressed leisurely, and went into the dining- 

Resurrection 1 1 

room. A table, which looked very imposing with its four 
legs carved in the shape of lions' paws, and a huge side- 
board to match, stood in the oblong room, the floor of 
which had been polished by three men the day before. On 
the table, which was covered w T ith a fine, starched cloth, 
stood a silver coffeepot full of aromatic coffee, a sugar 
basin, a jug of fresh cream, and a bread basket filled with 
fresh rolls, rusks, and biscuits ; and beside the plate lay the 
last number of the Revue des Deux Mondes, a newspaper, 
and several letters. 

Nekhludoff was just going to open his letters, when a 
stout, middle-aged woman in mourning, a lace cap covering 
the widening parting of her hair, glided into the room. 
This was Agraphena Petrovna, formerly lady's maid to 
Nekhludoff's mother. Her mistress had died quite recently 
in this very house, and she remained with the son as his 
housekeeper. Agraphena Petrovna had spent nearly ten 
years, at different times, abroad with Nekhludoff's mother, 
and had the appearance and manners of a lady. She had 
lived with the Nekhludoffs from the time she was a child, 
and had known Dmitri Ivanovitch at the time when he was 
still little Mitinka. 

" Good-morning, Dmitri Ivanovitch." 

" Good-morning, Agraphena Petrovna. What is it you 
want ? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" A letter from the princess ; either from the mother or 
the daughter. The maid brought it some time ago, and is 
waiting in my room," answered Agraphena Petrovna, 
handing him the letter with a significant smile. 

" All right ! Directly ! " said Nekhludoff, taking the 
letter and frowning as he noticed Agraphena Petrovna's 

That smile meant that the letter was from the younger 
Princess Korchagin, whom Agraphena Petrovna expected 
him to marry. This supposition of hers annoyed Nekhlu- 

" Then I'll tell her to wait?" and Agraphena Petrovna 
took a crumb brush which was not in its place, put it away, 
and sailed out of the room. 

Nekhludoff opened the perfumed note, and began read- 
ing it. 

The note was written on a sheet of thick grey paper, 
with rough edges ; the writing looked English. It said : 

1 2 Resurrection 

Having assumed the task of acting as your memory, I take the 
liberty of reminding you that on this the 28th day of April you have 
to appear at the Law Courts, as juryman, and, in consequence, can 
on no account accompany us and Kolosoff to the picture gallery, as, 
with your habitual Mightiness, you promised yesterday ; a moins que 
vous ne soyez dispose a payer la cour d'assise les 300 roubles 
d'amende que vous vous refusez pour voire cheval, for not appear- 
ing in time. I remembered it last night after you were gone, so do 
not forget. 
* Princess M. Korchagin. 

On the other side was a postscript. 

Maman vous fait dire que votre couvert vous attendra jusqu'd la 
nuit. Venez absolument a quelle heure que cela soit. 

M. K. 

Nekhltidoff made a grimace. This note was a continua- 
tion of that skilful manoeuvring which the Princess Kor- 
chagin had already practised for two months in order to 
bind him closer and closer with invisible threads. And 
3 r et, beside the usual hesitation of men past their youth 
to marry unless they are very much in love, Nekhltidoff 
had very good reasons why, even if he did make up his 
mind to it, he could not propose at once. It was not that 
ten years previously he had betrayed and forsaken Mas- 
lova ; he had quite forgotten that, and he would not have 
considered it a reason for not marrying. No ! The reason 
was that he had a liaison with a married woman, and, 
though he considered it broken off, she did not. 

Nekhltidoff was rather shy with women, and his very 
shyness awakened in this married woman, the unprincipled 
wife of the marechal de noblesse of a district where Nekhlti- 
doff was present at an election, the desire of vanquishing 
him. This woman drew him into an intimacy which entan- 
gled him more and more, while it daily became more 
distasteful to him. Having succumbed to the temptation, 
Nekhludoff felt guilty, and had not the courage to break 
the tie without her consent. And this was the reason he 
did not feel at liberty to propose to Korchagin even if he 
had wished to do so. Among the letters on the table was one 
from this woman's husband. Seeing his writing and the 
postmark, Nekhltidoff flushed, and felt his energies awak- 
ening, as they always did when he was facing any kind 
of danger. 

But his excitement passed at once. The marechal de 

Resurrection 1 3 

noblesse, of the district in which his largest estate lay, wrote 
only to let Nekhludoff know that there was to be a special 
meeting towards the end of May, and that Nekhludoff was 
to be sure and come to " donner itn coup d'epaule," at the 
important debates concerning the schools and the roads, 
as a strong opposition by the reactionary party was 

The marechal was a liberal, and was quite engrossed in 
this fight, not even noticing the misfortune that had 
befallen him. 

Nekhludoff remembered the dreadful moments he had 
lived through; once when he thought that the husband 
had found him out and was going to challenge him, and he 
was making up his mind to fire into the air ; also the terri- 
ble scene he had with her when she ran out into the park, 
and in her excitement tried to drown herself in the pond. 

" Well, I cannot go now, and can do nothing until I 
get a reply from her," thought Nekhludoff. A week ago 
he had written her a decisive letter, in which he acknowl- 
edged his guilt, and his readiness to atone for it ; but at 
the same time he pronounced their relations to be at an 
end, for her own good, as he expressed it. To this letter 
he had as yet received no answer. This might prove a 
good sign, for if she did not agree to break off their rela- 
tions, she would have written at once, or even come herself, 
as she had done before. Nekhludoff had heard that there 
was some officer who was paying her marked attention, 
and this tormented him by awakening jealousy, and at 
the same time encouraged him with the hope of escape 
from the deception that was oppressing him. 

The other letter was from his steward. The steward 
wrote to tell him that a visit to his estates was necessary 
in order to enter into possession, and also to decide about 
the further management of his lands ; whether it was to 
continue in the same way as when his mother was alive, 
or whether, as he had represented to the late lamented 
princess, and now advised the young prince, they had not 
better increase their stock and farm all the land now 
rented by the peasants themselves. The steward wrote that 
this would be a far more profitable way of managing the 
property ; at the same time, he apologised for not having 
forwarded the 3,000 roubles income due on the 1st. This 
money would be sent on by the next mail. Th^ reason for 

1 4 Resurrection 

the delay was that he could not get the money out of th^ 
peasants, who had grown so untrustworthy that he had to 
appeal to the authorities. This letter was partly disagree- 
able, and partly pleasant. It was pleasant to feel that he 
had power over so large a property, and yet disagreeable, 
because Nekliludoff had been an enthusiastic admirer of 
Henry George and Herbert Spencer. Being himself heir 
to a large property, he was especially struck by the position 
taken up by Spencer in Social Statics , that justice for- 
bids private landholding, and with the straightforward res- 
oluteness of his age, had not merely spoken to prove that 
land could not be looked upon as private property, and writ- 
ten essays on that subject at the university, but had acted up 
to his convictions, and, considering it wrong to hold landed 
property, had given the small piece of land he had inherited 
from his father to the peasants. Inheriting his mothers 
large estates, and thus becoming a landed proprietor, he 
had to choose one of two things : either to give up his 
property, as he had given up his father's land ten years 
before,, or silently to confess that all his former ideas were 
mr-^ken and false. 

He could not choose the former because he had no 
means but the landed estates (he did not care to serve) ; 
moreover, he had formed luxurious habits which he could 
not easily give up. Besides, he had no longer the same 
inducements ; his strong convictions, the resoluteness of 
youth, and the ambitious desire to do something unusual 
were gone. As to the second course, that of denying those 
clear and unanswerable proofs of the injustice of land- 
holding, which he had drawn from Spencer's Social 
Statics, and the brilliant corroboration of which he had 
at a later period found in the works of Henry George, such 
a course was impossible to him. 

Resurrection 1 5 



When Nekhludoff had finished his coffee, he went to his 
study to look at the summons, and find out what time he was 
to appear at the court, before writing his answer to the 
princess. Passing through his studio, where a few studies 
hung on the walls and, facing the easel, stood an unfinished 
picture, a feeling of inability to advance in art, a sense of 
his incapacity, came over him. He had often had this 
feeling, of late, and explained it by his too finely-developed 
aesthetic taste; still, the feeling was a very unpleasant one. 
Seven years before this he had given up military service, 
feeling sure that he had a talent for art, and had looked 
down with some disdain at all other activity from the 
height of his artistic standpoint. And now it turned out 
that he had no right to do so, and therefore everything that 
reminded him of all this was unpleasant. He looked at the 
luxurious fittings of the studio with a heavy heart, and it 
was in no cheerful mood that he entered his study, a large, 
lofty room fitted up with a view to comfort, convenience, 
and elegant appearance. He found the summons at once 
in a pigeon hole, labelled " immediate/' of his large writing 
table. He had to appear at the court at 11 o'clock. 

Nekhludoff sat down to write a note in reply to the 
princess, thanking her for the invitation, and promising 
to try and come to dinner. Having written one note, he 
tore it up, as it seemed too intimate. He wrote another, 
but it was too cold ; he feared it might give offence, so he 
tore it up, too. He pressed the button of an electric bell, 
and his servant, an elderly, morose-looking man, with 
whiskers and shaved chin and lip, wearing a grey cotton 
apron, entered at the door. 

" Send to fetch an isvostchik, please." 

u Yes, sir." 

"And tell the person who is waiting that I send thanks 
for the invitation^ and shall try to come/' 

1 6 Resurrection 

" Yes, sir." 

" It is not very polite, but I can't write ; no matter, I 
shall see her to-day," thought Nekhludoff, and went to get 
his overcoat. 

When he came out of the house, an isvostchik he knew, 
with india-rubber tires to his trap, was at the door waiting 
for him. " You had hardly gone away from Prince Kor- 
ehagin's yesterday," he said, turning half round, " when 
I drove up, and the Swiss at the door says, ' just gone/ " 
The isvostchik knew that Nekhludoff visited at the Kor- 
chagins, and called there on the chance of being engaged 
by him. 

" Even the isvostchiks know of my relations with the 
Korchagins," thought Nekhludoff, and again the question 
whether he should not marry Princess Korchagin pre- 
sented itself to him, and he could not decide it either way, 
any more than most of the questions that arose in his mind 
at this time. 

It was in favour of marriage in general, that besides the 
comforts of hearth and home, it made a moral life possible, 
and chiefly that a family would, so Nekhludoff thought, give 
an aim to his now empty life. 

Against marriage in general was the fear, common to 
bachelors past their first youth, of losing freedom, and an 
unconscious awe before this mysterious creature, a woman. 

In this particular case, in favour of marrying Missy (her 
name was Mary, but, as is usual among a certain set, a 
nickname had been given her) was that she came of good 
family, and differed in everything, manner of speaking, 
walking, laughing, from the common people, not by any- 
thing exceptional, but by her " good breeding " — he could 
find no other term for this quality, though he prized it 
very highly — and, besides, she thought more of him than 
of anybody else, therefore evidently understood him. This 
understanding of him, i.e., the recognition of his superior 
merits, was to Nekhludoff a proof of her good sense and 
correct judgment. Against marrying Missy in particular, 
was, that in all likelihood, a girl with even higher qualities 
could be found, that she was already 27, and that he was 
hardly her first love. This last idea was painful to him. 
His pride would not reconcile itself with the thought that 
she had loved some one else, even in the past. Of course, she 
.could not have known that she should meet him, but the 

Resurrection r 7 

thought that she was capable of loving another offended him. 
So that he had as many reasons for marrying as against it ; 
at any rate, they weighed equally with Nekhludoff, who 
laughed at himself, and called himself the ass of the fable, 
remaining like that animal undecided which haycock to 
turn to. 

" At any rate, before I get an answer from Mary Vasi- 
lievna (the marechal's wife), and finish completely with her, 
I can do nothing," he said to himself. And the conviction 
that he might, and was even obliged, to delay his decision, 
was comforting. " Well, I shall consider all that later 
on," he said to himself, as the trap drove silently along the 
asphalt pavement up to the doors of the Court. 

" Now I must fulfil my public duties conscientiously, 
as I am in the habit of always doing, and as I consider it 
right to do. Besides, they are often interesting." And 
he entered the hall of the Law Courts, past the doorkeeper. 

1 8 Resurrection 



The corridors of the Court were already full of activity. 
The attendants hurried, out, of breath, dragging their feet 
along the ground without lifting them, backwards and for- 
wards, with all sorts of messages and papers. Ushers, 
advocates, and law officers passed hither and thither. 
Plaintiffs, and those of the accused who were not guarded, 
wandered sadly along the walls or sat waiting. 

" Where is the Law Court ? " Nekhludoff asked of an at- 

"Which? There is the Civil Court and the Criminal 

" I am on the jury/' 

" The Criminal Court you should have said. Here to the 
right, then to the left — the second door." 

Nekhludoff followed the direction. 

Meanwhile some of the Criminal Court jurymen who were 
late had hurriedly passed into a separate room. At the 
door mentioned two men stood waiting. 

One, a tall, fat merchant, a kind-hearted fellow, had evi- 
dently partaken of some refreshments and a glass of some- 
thing, and was in most pleasant spirits. The other was a 
shopman of Jewish extraction. They were talking about 
the price of wool when Nekhludoff came up and asked 
them if this was the jurymen's room. 

" Yes, my dear sir, this is it. One of us ? On the jury, are 
you ? " asked the merchant, with a merry wink. 

"Ah, well, we shall have a go at the work together," he 
continued, after Nekhludoff had answered in the affirma- 
tive. " My name is Baklasheff, merchant of the Second 
Guild," he said, putting out his broad, soft, flexible hand. 
" With whom have I the honour? " 

Nekhludoff gave his name and passed into the jurymen's 

Resurrection 1 9 

Inside the room were about ten persons of all sorts. 
They had come but a short while ago, and some were sit- 
ting, others walking up and down, looking at each other, 
and making each other's acquaintance. There was a re- 
tired colonel in uniform; some were in frock coats, others 
in morning coats, and only one wore a peasant's dress. 

Their faces all had a certain look of satisfaction at the 
prospect of fulfilling a public duty, although many of them 
had had to leave their businesses, and most were complain- 
ing of it. 

The jurymen talked among themselves about the 
weather, the early spring, and the business before them, 
some having been introduced, others just guessing who 
was who. Those who were not acquainted with Nekhlii- 
doff made haste to get introduced, evidently looking upon 
this as an honour, and he taking it as his due, as he always 
did when among strangers. Had he been asked why he 
considered himself above the majority of people, he could 
not have given an answer; the life he had been living of 
late was not particularly meritorious. The fact of his 
speaking English, French, and German with a good accent, 
and of his wearing the best linen, clothes, ties, and studs, 
bought from the most expensive dealers in these goods, he 
quite knew would not serve as a reason for claiming supe- 
riority. At the same time he did claim superiority, and ac- 
cepted the respect paid him as his due, and was hurt if 
he did not get it. In the jurymen's room his feelings were 
hurt by disrespectful treatment. Among the jury there 
happened to be a man whom he knew, a former teacher 
of his sister's children, Peter Gerasimovitch. Nekhludoff 
never knew his surname, and even bragged a bit about this. 
This man was now a master at a public school. Nekhludoff 
could not stand his familiarity, his self-satisfied laughter, 
his vulgarity, in short. 

" Ah ha ! You're also trapped." These were the words, 
accompanied with boisterous laughter, with which Peter 
Gerasimovitch greeted Nekhludoff. " Have you not man- 
aged to get out of it ? " 

" I never meant to get out of it," replied Nekhludoff, 
gloomily, and in a tone of severity. 

" Well, I call this being public spirited. But just wait 
until you get hungry or sleepy ; you'll sing to another tune 

20 Resurrection 

" This son of a priest will be saying ' thou '* to me next," 
thought Nekhludoff, and walked away, with such a look of 
sadness on his face, as might have been natural if he had just 
heard of the death of all his relations. He came up to a 
group that had formed itself round a clean-shaven, tall, 
dignified man, who was recounting something with great 
animation. This man was talking about the trial going on 
in the Civil Court as of a case well known to himself, men- 
tioning the judges and a celebrated advocate by name. He 
was saying that it seemed wonderful how the celebrated 
advocate had managed to give such a clever turn to the 
affair that an old lady, though she had the right on her side, 
would have to pay a large sum to her opponent. " The 
advocate is a genius," he said. 

The listeners heard it all with respectful attention, and 
several of them tried to put in a word, but the man inter- 
rupted them, as if he alone knew all about it. 

Though Nekhludoff had arrived late, he had to wait a 
long time. One of the members of the Court had not yet 
come, and everybody was kept waiting. 

*In Russian, as in many other languages, "thou" is used gener- 
ally among people very familiar with each other, or by superiors 
to inferiors. 

Resurrection 2 1 



The president, who had to take the chair, had arrived 
early. The president was a tall, stout man, with long grey 
whiskers. Though married, he led a very loose life, and his 
wife did the same, so they did not stand in each other's way. 
This morning he had received a note from a Swiss girl, who 
had formerly been a governess in his house, and who was 
now on her way from South Russia to St. Petersburg. She 
wrote that she would wait for him between five and six 
p.m. in the Hotel Italia. This made him wish to begin and 
get through the sitting as soon as possible, so as to have 
time to call before six p.m. on the little red-haired Clara 
Vasilievna, with whom he had begun a romance in the 
country last summer. He went into a private room, latched 
the door, took a pair of dumb-bells out of a cupboard, 
moved his arms 20 times upwards, downwards, forwards, 
and sideways, then holding the dumb-bells above his head, 
lightly bent his knees three times. 

" Nothing keeps one going like a cold bath and exer- 
cise," he said, feeling the biceps of his right arm with his 
left hand, on the third finger of which he wore a gold ring. 
He had still to do the moulinee movement (for he always 
went through those two exercises before a long sitting), 
when there was a pull at the door. The president quickly 
put away the dumb-bells and opened the door, saying, " I 
beg your pardon." 

One of the members, a high-shouldered, discontented- 
looking man, with gold spectacles, came into the room. 
" Matthew Nikitich has again not come," he said, in a dis- 
satisfied tone. 

"Not yet?" said the president, putting on his uniform. 
" He is always late." 

" It is extraordinary. He ought to be ashamed of him- 
self," said the member, angrily, and taking out a cigarette. 

This member, a very precise man, had had an unpleasant 

22 Resurrection 

encounter with his wife in the morning, because she had 
spent her allowance before the end of the month, and had 
asked him to give her some money in advance, but he 
would not give way to her, and they had a quarrel. The 
wife told him that if he were going to behave so, he need 
not expect any dinner ; there would be no dinner for him 
at home. At this point he left, fearing that she might carry 
out her threat, for anything might be expected from her. 
" This comes of living a good, moral life/ 5 he thought, 
looking at the beaming, healthy, cheerful, and kindly presi- 
dent, who, with elbows far apart, was smoothing his thick 
grey whiskers with his fine white hands over the embroid- 
ered collar of his uniform. " He is always contented and 
merry while I am suffering/ 1 

The secretary came in and brought some document. 

" Thanks, very much," said the president, lighting a 
cigarette. "Which case shall we take first, then?" 

" The poisoning case, I should say," answered the secre- 
tary, with indifference. 

" All right ; the poisoning case let it be," said the presi- 
dent, thinking that he could get this case over by four 
o'clock, and then go away. " And Matthew Nikitich ; has 
he come? " 

" Not yet." 

"And Breve?" 

" He is here," replied the secretary. 

" Then if you see him, please tell him that we begin with 
the poisoning case." 

Breve was the public prosecutor, who was to read the 
indictment in this case. 

In the corridor the secretary met Breve, who, with up- 
lifted shoulders, a portfolio under one arm, the other swing- 
ing with the palm turned to the front, was hurrying along 
the corridor, clattering with his heels. 

" Michael Petrovitch wants to know if you are ready ? " 
the secretary asked. 

" Of course ; I am always ready," said the public prose- 
cutor. " What are we taking first ? " 

" The poisoning case." 

" That's quite right," said the public prosecutor, but did 
not think it at all right. He had spent the night in a 
hotel playing cards with a friend who was giving a farewell 
party. Up to five in the morning they played and drank, 

Resurrection 23 

so he had no time to look at this poisoning case, and meant 
to run it through now. The secretary, happening to know 
this, advised the president to begin with the poisoning case. 
The secretary was a Liberal, even a Radical, in opinion. 

Breve was a Conservative; the secretary disliked him, 
and envied him his position. 

"Well, and how about the Skoptzy?"* asked the secre- 

" I have already said that I cannot do it without wit- 
nesses, and so I shall say to the Court/' 

" Dear me, what does it matter?" 

" I cannot do it," said Breve ; and, waving his arm, he 
ran into his private room. 

He was putting off the case of the Skoptzy on account 
of the absence of a very unimportant witness, his real 
reason being that if they were tried by an educated jury 
they might possibly be acquitted. 

By an agreement with the president this case was to be 
tried in the coming session at a provincial town, wdiere 
there would be more peasants, and, therefore, more chances 
of conviction. 

The movement in the corridor increased. The people 
crowded most at the doors of the Civil Court, in which the 
case that the dignified man talked about was being heard. 

An interval in the proceeding occurred, and the old 
woman came out of the court, whose property that genius 
of an advocate had found means of getting for his client, a 
person versed in law who had no right to it whatever. The 
judges knew all about the case, and the advocate and his 
client knew it better still, but the move they had invented 
was such that it was impossible not to take the old woman's 
property and not to band it over to the person versed in 

The old woman was stout, well dressed, and had enor- 
mous flowers on her bonnet ; she stopped as she came out 
of the door, and spreading out her short fat arms and turn- 
ing to her advocate, she kept repeating : " What does it all 
mean? Just fancy!" 

The advocate was looking at the flowers in her bonnet, 
and evidently not listening to her, but considering some 
question or other. 

Next to the old woman, out of the door of the Civil 
* A religious sect. 

24 Resurrection 

Court, h:s broad, starched shirt front glistening from under 
his low-cut waistcoat, with a self-satisfied look on his face, 
came the celebrated advocate who had managed to arrange 
matters so that the old woman lost all she had, and the 
person versed in the law received more than 100,000 
roubles. The advocate passed close to the old woman, and, 
feeling all eyes directed towards him, his whole bearing 
seemed to say : " No expressions of deference are re- 

Resurrection 25 



At last Matthew Nikitich also arrived, and the usher, a 
thin man, with a long neck and a kind of sideways walk, his 
nether lip protruding to one side, which made him resemble 
a turkey, came into the jurymen's room. 

This usher was an honest man, and had a university 
education, but could not keep a place for any length of time, 
as he was subject to fits of drunkenness. Three months be- 
fore a certain countess, who patronised his wife, had found 
him this place, and he was very pleased to have kept it so 

"Well, sirs, is everybody here?" he asked, putting his 
pince-nez on his nose, and looking round. 

" Everybody, I think," said the jolly merchant. 

" All right ; we'll soon see." And, taking a list from his 
pocket, he began calling out the names, looking at the men, 
sometimes through and sometimes over his pince-nez. 

" Councillor of State,* J. M. Nikiforoff ! " 

" I am he," said the dignified-looking man, well versed in 
the habits of the law court. 

" Ivan Semionovitch Ivanoff, retired colonel ! " 

" Here ! " replied a thin man, in the uniform of a retired 

" Merchant of the Second Guild, Peter Baklasheff ! " 

" Here we are, ready ! " said the good-humoured merchant, 
with a broad smile. 

" Lieutenant of the Guards, Prince Dmitri Nekhludoff ! " 

" I am he," answered Nekhludoff. 

The usher bowed to him, looking over his pince-nez, 
politely and pleasantly, as if wishing to distinguish him 
from the others. 

" Captain Youri Demitrtevitch-Dantchenko, merchant ; 
Grigori Euphimitch Kouleshoff," etc. All but two were 

* Grades such as this are common in Russia, and mean very little. 

26 Resurrection 

" Now please to come to the court, gentlemen, " said the 
usher, pointing to the door, with an amiable wave of his 

All moved towards the door, pausing to let each other 
pass. Then they went through the corridor into the court. 

The court was a large, long room. At one end there was 
a raised platform, with three steps leading up to it, on 
which stood a table, covered with a green cloth trimmed 
with a fringe of a darker shade. At the table were placed 
three arm-chairs, with high-carved oak backs ; on the wall 
behind them hung a full-length, brightly-coloured portrait 
of the Emperor in uniform and ribbon, with one foot in ad- 
vance, and holding a sword. In the right corner hung a 
case, with an image of Christ crowned with thorns, and 
beneath it stood a lectern, and on the same side the prose- 
cuting attorney's desk. On the left, opposite the desk, was 
the secretary's table, and in front of it, nearer the public, an 
oak grating, with the prisoners' bench, as yet unoccupied, 
behind it. Besides all this, there were on the right side of 
the platform high-backed ash wood chairs for the jury, and 
on the floor below tables for the advocates. All this was in 
the front part of the court, divided from the back by a grat- 
The back was all taken up by seats in tiers. Sitting on 
the front seats were four women, either servant or factory 
girls, and two working men, evidently overawed by the 
grandeur of the room, and not venturing to speak above a 

Soon after the jury had come in the usher entered, with 
his sideward gait, and stepping to the front, called out in a 
loud voice, as if he meant to frighten those present, "The 
Court is coming!" Every one got up as the members 
stepped on to the platform. Among them the president, 
with his muscles and fine whiskers. Next came the gloomy 
member of the Court, who was now more gloomy than ever, 
having met his brother-in-law, who informed him that he 
had just called in to see his sister (the member's wife), and 
that she had told him that there would be no dinner there. 

"So that, evidently, we shall have to call in at a cook 
shop," the brother-in-law added, laughing. 

"It is not at all funny," said the gloomy member, and be- 
came gloomier still. 

Then at last came the third member of the Court, the 

Resurrection 27 

same Matthew Nikitich, who was always late. He was a 
bearded man, with large, round, kindly eyes. He was suf- 
fering from a catarrh of the stomach, and, according to his 
doctor's advice, he had begun trying a new treatment, and 
this had kept him at home longer than usual. Now, as he 
was ascending the platform, he had a pensive air. He was 
in the habit of making guesses in answer to all sorts of self- 
put questions by different curious means. Just now he had 
asked whether the new treatment would be beneficial, and 
had decided that it would cure his catarrh if the number of 
steps from the door to his chair would divide by three. He 
made 26 steps, but managed to get in a 27th just by his 

The figures of the president and the members in their uni- 
forms, with gold-embroidered collars, looked very imposing. 
They seemed to feel this themselves, and, as if overpowered 
by their own grandeur, hurriedly sat down on the high- 
backed chairs behind the table with the green cloth, on 
which were a triangular article with an eagle at the top, two 
glass vases — something like those in which sweetmeats are 
kept in refreshment rooms — an inkstand, pens, clean paper, 
and good, newly-cut pencils of different kinds. 

The public prosecutor came in with the judges. With his 
portfolio under one arm, and swinging the other, he hur- 
riedly walked to his seat near the window, and was instantly 
absorbed in reading and looking through the papers, not 
wasting a single moment, in hope of being ready when the 
business commenced. He had been public prosecutor but 
a short time, and had only prosecuted four times before this. 
He was very ambitious, and had firmly made up his mind to 
get on, and therefore thought it necessary to get a conviction 
whenever he prosecuted. He knew the chief facts of the 
poisoning case, and had already formed a plan of action. 
He only wanted to copy out a few points which he required. 

The secretary sat on the opposite side of the platform, 
and, having got ready all the papers he might want, was 
looking through an article, prohibited by the censor, which 
he had procured and read the day before. He was anxious 
to have a talk about this article with the bearded member, 
who shared his views, but wanted to look through it once 
more before doing so. 

28 Resurrection 



The president, having looked through some papers and 
put a few questions to the usher and the secretary, gave the 
order for the prisoners to be brought in. 

The door behind the grating was instantly opened, and 
two gendarmes, with caps on their heads, and holding naked 
swords in their hands, came in, followed by the prisoners, a 
red-haired, freckled man, and two women. The man wore 
a prison cloak, which was too long and too wide for him. 
He stuck out his thumbs, and held his arms close to his sides, 
thus keeping the sleeves, which were also too long, from 
slipping over his hands. Without looking at the judges he 
gazed steadfastly at the form, and passing to the other side 
of it, he sat down carefully at the very edge, leaving plenty 
of room for the others. He fixed his eyes on the president, 
and began moving the muscles of his cheeks, as if whisper- 
ing something. The woman who came next was also dressed 
in a prison cloak, and had a prison kerchief round her head. 
She had a sallow complexion, no eyebrows or lashes, and 
very red eyes. This woman appeared perfectly calm. Hav- 
ing caught her cloak against something, she detached it 
carefully, without any haste, and sat down. 

The third prisoner was Maslova. 

As soon as she appeared, the eyes of all the men in the 
court turned her way, and remained fixed on her white face, 
her sparklingly-brilliant black eyes and the swelling bosom 
under the prison cloak. Even the gendarme whom she 
passed on her way to her seat looked at her fixedly till she 
sat down, and then, as if feeling guilty, hurriedly turned 
away, shook himself, and began staring at the window in 
front of him. 

The president paused until the prisoners had taken their 
seats, and when Maslova was seated, turned to the secretary. 

Then the usual procedure commenced ; the counting of 
the jury, remarks about those who had not come, the fixing 

Resurrection 29 

of the fines to be exacted from them, the decisions concern- 
ing those who claimed exemption, the appointing of reserve 

Having folded up some bits of paper and put them in one 
of the glass vases, the president turned up the gold-em- 
broidered cuffs of his uniform a little way, and began draw- 
ing the lots, one by one, and opening them. Nekhludoff w r as 
among the jurymen thus drawn. Then, having let down 
his sleeves, the president requested the priest to swear in 
the jury. 

The old priest, with his puffy, red face, his brown gown, 
and his gold cross and little order, laboriously moving his 
stiff legs, came up to the lectern beneath the icon. 

The jurymen got up, and crowded towards the lectern. 

" Come up, please," said the priest, pulling at the cross on 
his breast with his plump hand, and waiting till all the jury 
had ^rawn near. When they had all come up the steps of 
the platform, the priest passed his bald, grey head sideways 
through the greasy opening of the stole, and, having re- 
arranged his thin hair, he again turned to the jury. " Now, 
raise your right arms in this way, and put your fingers to- 
gether, thus," he said, with his tremulous old voice, lifting 
his fat, dimpled hand, and putting the thumb and two first 
fingers together, as if taking a pinch of something* " Now, 
repeat after me, ' I promise and swear, by the Almighty 
God, by His holy gospels, and by the life-giving cross of our 
Lord, that in this work which/ " he said, pausing between 
each sentence — " don't let your arm down ; hold it like this," 
he remarked to a young man who had lowered his arm — 
" * that in this work which . . 

The dignified man with the whiskers, the colonel, the 
merchant, and several more held their arms and fingers as 
the priest required of them, very high, very exactly, as if 
they liked doing it ; others did it unwillingly and carelessly. 
Some repeated the words too loudly, and with a defiant tone, 
as if they meant to say, " In spite of all, I will and shall 
speak." Others whispered very low, and not fast enough, 
and then, as if frightened, hurried to catch up the priest. 
Some kept their fingers tightly together, as if fearing to 
drop the pinch of invisible something they held ; others kept 
separating and folding theirs. Every one save the old priest 
felt awkward, but he was sure he was fulfilling a very use- 
ful and important duty. 

30 Resurrection 

After the swearing in, the president requested the jury to 
choose a foreman, and the jury, thronging to the door, 
passed out into the debating-room, where almost- all of them 
at once began to smoke cigarettes. Some one proposed the 
dignified man as foreman, and he was unanimously ac- 
cepted. Then the jurymen put out their cigarettes and threw 
them away and returned to the court. The dignified man in- 
formed the president that he was chosen foreman, and all sat 
down again on the high-backed chairs. 

Everything went smoothly, quickly, and not without a 
certain solemnity. And this exactitude, order, and solem- 
nity evidently pleased those who took part in it : it strength- 
ened the impression that they were fulfilling a serious and 
valuable public duty. Nekhludoff, too, felt this. 

As soon as the jurymen were seated, the president made a 
speech on their rights, obligations, and responsibilities. 
While speaking he kept changing his position ; now leaning 
on his right, now on his left hand, now against the back, 
then on the arms of his chair, now putting the papers 
straight, now handling his pencil and paper-knife. 

According to his words, they had the right of interrogat- 
ing the prisoners through the president, to use paper and 
pencils, and to examine the articles put in as evidence. Their 
duty was to judge not falsely, but justly. Their respon- 
sibility meant that if the secrecy of their discussion were 
violated, or communications were established with outsiders, 
they would be liable to punishment. Every one listened 
with an expression of respectful attention. The merchant, 
diffusing a smell of brandy around him, and restraining 
loud hiccups, approvingly nodded his head at every sen- 

Resurrection 3 1 



When he had finished his speech, the president turned to 
the male prisoner. 

" Simeon Kartinkin, rise." 

Simeon jumped up, his lips continuing to move nervously 
and inaudibly. 

" Your name ? " 

" Simon Petrov Kartinkin," he said, rapidly, with a 
cracked voice, having evidently prepared the answer. 

" What class do you belong to ? " 

" Peasant." 

" What government, district, and parish ? " 

" Toula Government, Krapivinskia district, Koupianovski 
parish, the village Borki." 

"Your age?" 

'■ Thirty-three ; born in the year one thousand eight — " 

"What religion?" 

" Of the Russian religion, orthodox." 


" Oh, no, sir." 

" Your occupation ? " 

" I had a place in the Hotel Mauritania." 

" Have you ever been tried before ? " 

" I never got tried before, because, as we used to live 
formerly — " 

" So you never were tried before ? " 

" God forbid, never." 

" Have you received a copy of the indictment ? " 

" I have." 

" Sit down." 

" Euphemia Ivanovna Botchkova," said the president, 
turning to the next prisoner. 

But Simon continued standing in front of Botchkova. 

" Kartinkin, sit down ! " Kartinkin continued standing. 

" Kartinkin, sit down ! " But Kartinkin sat down only 

32 Resurrection 

when the usher, with his head on one side, and with preter- 
naturally wide-open eyes, ran up, and said, in a tragic whis- 
per, " Sit down, sit down ! " 

Kartinkin sat down as hurriedly as he had risen, wrap- 
ping his cloak round him, and again began moving his lips 

"Your name?" asked the president, with a weary sigh 
at being obliged to repeat the same questions, without look- 
ing at the prisoner, but glancing over a paper that lay before 
him. The president was so used to his task that, in order to 
get quicker through it all, he did two things at a time. 

Botchkova was forty-three years old, and came from the 
town of Kalomna. She, too, had been in service at the 
Hotel Mauritania. 

" I have never been tried before, and have received a copy 
of the indictment." She gave her answers boldly, in a tone 
of voice as if she meant to add to each answer, " And I don't 
care who knows it, and I won't stand any nonsense." 

She did not wait to be told, but sat down as soon as she 
had replied to the last question. 

" Your name ? " turning abruptly to the third prisoner. 
" You will have to rise/' he added, softly and gently, seeing 
that Maslova kept her seat. 

Maslova got up and stood, with her chest expanded, 
looking at the president with that peculiar expression of 
readiness in her smiling black eyes. 

" What is your name ? " 

" Lubov," she said. 

Nekhludoff had put on his pince-nez, looking at the pris- 
oners while they were being questioned. 

" No, it is impossible," he thought, not taking his eyes off 
the prisoner. r< Lubov! How can it be?" he thought to 
himself, after hearing her answer. The president was going 
to continue his questions, but the member with the spec- 
tacles interrupted him, angrily whispering something. The 
president nodded, and turned again to the prisoner. 

" How is this," he said, " you are not put down here as 

The prisoner remained silent. 

" I want your real name." 

" What is your baptismal name? " asked the angry mem- 

u Formerly I used to be called JCaterina." 

Resurrection 33 

" No, it cannot be," said Nekhludoff to himself ; and yel 
he was now certain that this was she, that same girl, halt 
ward, half servant to his aunts ; that Katusha, with whom 
he had once been in love, really in love, but whom he had 
betrayed and then abandoned, and never again brought to 
mind, for the memory would have been too painful, would 
have convicted him too clearly, proving that he who was so 
proud of his integrity had treated this woman in a revolting, 
scandalous way. 

Yes, this was she. He now clearly saw in her face that 
strange, indescribable individuality which distinguishes 
every face from all others; something peculiar, all its own, 
not to be found anywhere else. In spite of the unhealthy 
pallor and the fulness of the face, it was there, this sweet, 
peculiar individuality; on those lips, in the slight squint of 
her eyes, in the voice, particularly in the naive smile, and in 
the expression of readiness on the face and figure. 

" You should have said so," remarked the president, again 
in a gentle tone. " Your patronymic ? " 

" I am illegitimate." 

" Well, were you not called by your godfather's name? " 

" Yes, Mikhaelovna." 

" And what is it she can be guilty of? " continued Nekh- 
ludoff, in his mind, unable to breathe freely. 

" Your family name — your surname, I mean? " the presi- 
dent went on. 

" They used to call me by my mother's surname, Mas- 

"What class?" 

" Meschanka."* 

" Religion — orthodox ? " 

M Orthodox." 

" Occupation. What was your occupation ? " 

Maslova remained silent. 

■• What was your employment? " 

" You know yourself," she said, and smiled. Then, cast- 
ing a hurried look round the room, again turned her eyes on 
the president. 

There was something so unusual in the expression of her 
face, so terrible and piteous in the meaning of the words she 
had uttered, in this smile, and in the furtive glance she had 
cast round the room, that the president was abashed, and for 

* The lowest town class or grade. 

34 Resurrection 

a few minutes silence reigned in the court. The silence was 
broken by some one among the public laughing, then some- 
body said " Ssh," and the president looked up and con- 
tinued : 

" Have you ever been tried before ? " 

" Never," answered Maslova, softly, and sighed. 

" Have you received a copy of the indictment ? " 

" I have," she answered. 

" Sit down." 

The prisoner leant back to pick up her skirt in the way 
a fine lady picks up her train, and sat down, folding her 
small white hands in the sleeves of her cloak, her eyes fixed 
on the president. Her face was calm again. 

The witnesses were called, and some sent away; the 
doctor who was to act as expert was chosen and called into 
the court. 

Then the secretary got up and began reading the indict- 
ment. He read distinctly, though he pronounced the " 1 " 
and " r " alike, with a loud voice, but so quickly that the 
words ran into one another and formed one uninterrupted, 
dreary drone. 

The judges bent now on one, now on the other arm of 
their chairs, then on the table, then back again, shut and 
opened their eyes, and whispered to each other. One of the 
gendarmes several times repressed a yawn. 

The prisoner Kartinkin never stopped moving his cheeks. 
Botchkova sat quite still and straight, only now and then 
scratching her head under the kerchief. 

Maslova sat immovable, gazing at the reader; only now 
and then she gave a slight start, as if wishing to reply, 
blushed, sighed heavily, and changed the position of her 
hands, looked round, and again fixed her eyes on the reader. 

Nekhludoff sat in the front row on his high-backed chair, 
without removing his pince-nez, and looked at Maslova, 
while a complicated and fierce struggle was going on in his 

Resurrection 35 



The indictment ran as follows : 

On the 17th of January, 18 — , in the lodging-house Mau- 
ritania, occurred the sudden death of the Second Guild mer- 
chant, Therapont Emilianovich Smelkoff, of Kourgan. 

The local police doctor of the fourth district certified that 
death was due to rupture of the heart, owing to the exces- 
sive use of alcoholic liquids. The body of the said Smelkoff 
was interred. After several days had elapsed, the merchant 
Timokhin, a fellow-townsman and companion of the said 
Smelkoff, returned from St. Petersburg, and hearing the 
circumstances that accompanied the death of the latter, no- 
tified his suspicions that the death was caused by poison, 
given with intent to rob the said Smelkoff of his money. 
This suspicion was corroborated on inquiry, which proved : 

1. That shortly before his death the said Smelkoff had re- 
ceived the sum of 3,800 roubles from the bank. When an 
inventory of the property of the deceased was made, only 
312 roubles and 16 copecks were found. 

2. The whole day and night preceding his death the said 
Smelkoff spent with Lubka (alias Katerina Maslova) at 
her home and in the lodging-house Mauritania, which she 
also visited at the said SmelkofFs request during his ab- 
sence, to get some money, which she took out of his port- 
manteau in the presence of the servants of the lodging-house 
Mauritania, Euphemia Botchkova and Simeon Kartinkin, 
with a key given her by the said Smelkoff. In the portman- 
teau opened by the said Maslova, the said Botchkova and 
Kartinkin saw packets of 100-rouble bank-notes. 

3. On the said SmelkofFs return to the lodging-house 
Mauritania, together with Liibka, the latter, in accordance 
with the attendant Kartinkin's advice, gave the said Smel- 
koff some white powder given to her by the said Kartinkin, 
dissolved in brandy. 

4. The next morning the said Liibka (alias Katerina 



Maslova) sold to her mistress, the witness Kitaeva, a 
brothel-keeper, a diamond ring given to her, as she alleged, 
by the said Smelkoff. 

5. The housemaid of the lodging-house Mauritania, 
Euphemia Botchkova, placed to her account in the local 
Commercial Bank 1,800 roubles. The post-mortem exam- 
ination of the body of the said Smelkoff and the chemical 
analysis of his intestines proved beyond doubt the presence 
of poison in the organism, so that there is reason to believe 
that the said SmelkofTs death was caused by poisoning. 

When cross-examined, the accused, Maslova, Botchkova, 
and Kartinkin, pleaded not guilty, deposing — Maslova, that 
she had really been sent by Smelkoff from the brothel, 
where she " works/' as she expresses it, to the lodging- 
house Mauritania to get the merchant some money, and that, 
having unlocked the portmanteau with a key given her by the 
merchant, she took out 40 roubles, as she was told to do, and 
that she had taken nothing more ; that Botchkova and Kar- 
tinkin, in whose presence she unlocked and locked the port- 
manteau, could testify to the truth of the statement. 

She gave this further evidence — that when she came to 
the lodging-house for the second time she did, at the insti- 
gation of Simeon Kartinkin, give Smelkoff some kind of 
powder, which she thought was a narcotic, in a glass of 
brandy, hoping he would fall asleep and that she would be 
able to get away from him ; and that Smelkoff, having 
beaten her, himself gave her the ring when she cned and 
threatened to go away. 

The accused, Euphemia Botchkova, stated that she knew 
nothing about the missing money, that she had not even 
gone into SmelkofTs room, but that Liibka had been brsy 
there all by herself ; that if anything had been stolen, it must 
have been done by Liibka when she came with the mer- 
chant's key to get his money. 

At this point Maslova gave a start, opened her mouth, 
and looked at Botchkova. " When," continued the secre- 
tary, ■" the receipt for 1,800 roubles from the bank was 
shown to Botchkova, and she was asked where she had ob- 
tained the money, she said that it was her own earnings for 
12 years, and those of Simeon, whom she was going to 
marry. The accused Simeon Kartinkin, when first exam- 
ined, confessed that he and Botchkova, at the instigation c*t 
Maslova, who had come with the key from the brothet had 

Resurrection 37 

stolen the money and divided it equally among themselves 
and Maslova. Here Maslova again started, half-rose from 
her seat, and, blushing scarlet, began to say something, but 
was stopped by the usher. " At last," the secretary con- 
tinued, reading, " Kartinkin confessed also that he had sup- 
plied the powders in order to get Smelkoff to sleep. When 
examined the second time he denied having had anything to 
do with the stealing of the money or giving Maslova the 
powders, accusing her of having done it alone." 

Concerning the money placed in the bank by Botchkova, 
he said the same as she, that is, that the money was given 
to them both by the lodgers in tips during 12 years' service. 

The indictment concluded as follows : 

In consequence of the foregoing, the peasant of the 
village Borki, Simeon Kartinkin, 33 years of age, the 
meschanka Euphemia Botchkova, 43 years of age, and the 
meschanka Katerina Maslova, 2J years of age, are accused 
of having on the 17th day of January, 188 — , jointly stolen 
from the said merchant, Smelkoff, a ring and money, to the 
value of 2,500 roubles, and of having given the said mer- 
chant, Smelkoff, poison to drink, with intent of depriving 
him of life, and thereby causing his death. This crime is 
provided for in clause 1,455 bf the Penal Code, §§ 4 and 5. 





When the reading of the indictment was over, the presi- 
dent, after having consulted the members, turned to Kar- 
tinkin, with an expression that plainly said : Now we shall 
find out the whole truth down to the minutest detail. 

" Peasant Simeon Kartinkin," he said, stooping to the 

Simeon Kartinkin got up, stretched his arms down his 
sides, and leaning forward with his whole body, continued 
moving his cheeks inaudibly. 

" You are accused of having on the 17th January, 188 — , 
together with Euphemia Botchkova and Katerina Maslova, 
stolen money from a portmanteau belonging to the merchant 
Smelkoff, and then, having procured some arsenic, per- 
suaded Katerina Maslova to give it to the merchant Smel- 
koff in a glass of brandy, which was the cause of Smelkoff's 
death. Do you plead guilty ? " said the president, stooping 
to the right. 

" Not nohow, because our business is to attend on the 
lodgers, and " 

" You'll tell us that afterwards. Do you plead guilty ? " 

" Oh, no, sir. I only " 

" You'll tell us that afterwards. Do you plead guilty ? " 
quietly and firmly asked the president. 

" Can't do such a thing, because that " 

The usher again rushed up to Simeon Kartinkin, and 
stopped him in a tragic whisper. 

The president moved the hand with which he held the 
paper and placed the elbow in a different position with an air 
that said : " This is finished, " and turned to Euphemia 

" Euphemia Botchkova, you are accused of having, on the 
17th of January, 188 — , in the lodging-house Mauritania, 
together with Simeon Kartinkin and Katerina Maslova, 
stolen some money and a ring out of the merchant Smel-^ 

Resurrection 39 

koff's portmanteau, and having shared the money among 
yourselves, given poison to the merchant Smelkoff, thereby 
causing his death. Do you plead guilty? " 

" I am not guilty of anything/' boldly and firmly replied 
the prisoner. " I never went near the room, but when this 
baggage went in she did the whole business." 

" You will say all this afterwards," the president again 
said, quietly and firmly. " So you do not plead guilty? " 

" I did not take the money nor give the drink, nor go into 
the room. Had I gone in I should have kicked her out." 

" So you do not plead guilty ? " 


" Very well." 

" Katerina Maslova," the president began, turning to the 
third prisoner, " you are accused of having come from the 
brothel with the key of the merchant SmelkofiPs portman- 
teau, money, and a ring." He said all this like a lesson 
learned by heart, leaning towards the member on his left, 
who was whispering into his ear that a bottle mentioned in 
the list of the material evidence was missing. " Of having 
stolen out of the portmanteau money and a ring," he re- 
peated, " and shared it. Then, returning to the lodging- 
house Mauritania with Smelkoff, of giving him poison in 
his drink, and thereby causing his death. Do you plead 

" I am not guilty of anything," she began rapidly. " As 
I said before I say again, I did not take it — I did not take it ; 
I did not take anything, and the ring he gave me himself." 

" You do not plead guilty of having stolen 2,500 
roubles ? " asked the president. 

" I've said I took nothing but the 40 roubles." 

" Well, and do you plead guilty of having given the mer- 
chant Smelkoff a powder in his drink ? " 

" Yes, that I did. Only I believed what they told me, that 
they were sleeping powders, and that no harm could come 
of them. I never thought, and never wished. . . . God 
is my witness ; I say, I never meant this," she said. 

" So you do not plead guilty of having stolen the money 
and the ring from the merchant Smelkoff, but confess that 
you gave him the powder ? " said the president. 

" Well, yes, I do confess this, but I thought they were 
sleeping powders. I only gave them to make him sleep; I 
never meant and never thought of worse." 

40 Resurrection 

" Very well/' said the president, evidently satisfied with 
the results gained. " Now tell us how it all happened/' and 
he leaned back in his chair and put his folded hands on the 
table. " Tell us all about it. A free and full confession will 
be to your advantage/' 

Maslova continued to look at the president in silence, and 

" Tell us how it happened." 

" How it happened ? " Maslova suddenly began, speaking 
quickly. " I came to the lodging-house, and was shown into 
the room. He was there, already very drunk." She pro- 
nounced the word he with a look of horror in her wide-open 
eyes. " I wished to go away, but he would not let me." She 
stopped, as if having lost the thread, or remembered some- 
thing else. 

"Well, and then?" 

"Well, what then? I remained a bit, and went home 

At this moment the public prosecutor raised himself a lit- 
tle, leaning on one elbow in an awkward manner. 

"You would like to put a question?" said the president, 
and having received an answer in the affirmative, he made 
a gesture inviting the public prosecutor to speak. 

" I want to ask, was the prisoner previously acquainted 
with Simeon Kartinkin?" said the public prosecutor, with- 
out looking at Maslova, and, having put the question, he 
compressed his lips and frowned. 

The president repeated the question. Maslova stared at 
the public prosecutor, with a frightened look. 

" With Simeon? Yes," she said. 

" I should like to know what the prisoner's acquaintance 
with Kartinkin consisted in. Did they meet often? " 

" Consisted in ? . . . He invited me for the lodgers ; 
it was not an acquaintance at all," answered Maslova, 
anxiously moving her eyes from the president to the public 
prosecutor and back to the president. 

" I should like to know why Kartinkin invited only Mas- 
lova, and none of the other girls, for the lodgers ? " said the 
public prosecutor, with half-closed eyes and a cunning, 
Mephistophelian smile. 

"I don't know. How should I know?" said Maslova, 
casting a frightened look round, and fixing her eyes for a 
moment on Nekhludoff. " He asked whom he liked." 

Resurrection 4 1 

" Is it possible that she has recognised me ? " thought 
Nekhhidoff, and the blood rushed to his face. But Maslova 
turned away without distinguishing him from the others, 
and again fixed her eyes anxiously on the public prosecutor. 

" So the prisoner denies having had any intimate relations 
with Kartinkin? Very well, I have no more questions to 

And the public prosecutor took his elbow off the desk, and 
began writing something. He was not really noting any- 
thing down, but only going over the letters of his notes with 
a pen, having seen the procureur and leading advocates, 
after putting a clever question, make a note, with which, 
later on, to annihilate their adversaries. 

The president did not continue at once, because he was 
consulting the member with the spectacles, whether he was 
agreed that the questions (which had all been prepared be- 
forehand and written out) should be put. 

" Well ! What happened next ? " he then went on. 

" I came home/' looking a little more boldly only at the 
president, " and went to bed. Hardly had I fallen asleep 
when one of our girls, Bertha, woke me. ' Go, your mer- 
chant has come again ! ' He " — she again uttered the word he 
with evident horror — " he kept treating our girls, and then 
wanted to send for more wine, but his money was all gone, 
and he sent me to his lodgings and told me where the money 
was, and how much to take. So I went." 

The president was whispering to the member on his left, 
but, in order to appear as if he had heard, he repeated her 
last words. 

" So you went. Well, what next? " 

" I went, and did all he told me ; went into his room. I 
did not go alone, but called Simeon Kartinkin and her," she 
said, pointing to Botchkova. 

"That's a lie; I never went in," Botchkova began, but 
was stopped. 

" In their presence I took out four notes," continued Mas- 
lova, frowning, without looking at Botchkova. 

" Yes, but did the prisoner notice," again asked the prose- 
cutor, " how much money there was when she was getting 
out the 40 roubles? " 

Maslova shuddered when the prosecutor addressed her; 
she did not know why it was, but she felt that he wished her 

42 Resurrection 

" I did not count it, but only saw some ioo-rouble notes. " 

" Ah! The prisoner saw ioo-rouble notes. That's all?" 

" Well, so you brought back the money/' continued the 
president, looking at the clock. 

" I did." 

"Well, and then?" 

" Then he took me back with him," said Maslova. 

"Well, and how did you give him the powder? In his 

" How did I give it? I put them in and gave it him." 

" Why did you give it him ? " 

She did not answer, but sighed deeply and heavily. 

" He would not let me go," she said, after a moment's 
silence, " and I was quite tired out, and so I went out into 
the passage and said to Simeon, ' If he would only let me 
go, I am so tired/ And he said, ' We are also sick of him ; 
we were thinking of giving him a sleeping draught ; he will 
fall asleep, and then you can go/ So I said all right. I 
thought they were harmless, and he gave me the packet. I 
went in. He was lying behind the partition, and at once 
called for brandy. I took a bottle of ' fine champagne ' from 
the table, poured out two glasses, one for him and one for 
myself, and put the powders into his glass, and gave it him. 
Had I known, how could I have given them to him ? " 

" Well, and how did the ring come into your possession? " 
asked the president. " When did he give it you? " 

" That was when we came back to his lodgings. I wanted 
to go away, and he gave me a knock on the head and broke 
my comb. I got angry and said I'd go away, and he took 
the ring off his finger and gave it to me so that I should 
not go," she said. 

Then the public prosecutor again slightly raised himself, 
and, putting on an air of simplicity, asked permission to put 
a few more questions, and, having received it, bending his 
head over his embroidered collar, he said : " I should like 
to know how long the prisoner remained in the merchant 
Smelkoff's room." 

Maslova again seemed frightened, and she again looked 
anxiously from the public prosecutor to the president, and 
said hurriedly : 

" I do not remember how long." 

" Yes, but does the prisoner remember if she went any- 
where else in the lodging-house after she left Smelkoff?" 

Resurrection 43 

Maslova considered for a moment. " Yes, I did go into 
an empty room next to his." 

" Yes, and why did you go in ? " asked the public prose- 
cutor, forgetting himself, and addressing her directly. 

" I went in to rest a bit, and to wait for an isvostchik." 

" And was Kartinkin in the room with the prisoner, or 

" He came in." 

" Why did he come in ? " 

"There was some of the merchant's brandy left, and we 
finished it together." 

" Oh, finished it together. Very well ! And did the pris- 
oner talk to Kartinkin, and, if so, what about? " 

Maslova suddenly frowned, blushed very red, and said, 
hurriedly, "What about? I did not talk about anything, 
and that's all I know. Do what you like with me ; I am not 
guilty, and that's all." 

" I have nothing more to ask," said the prosecutor, and, 
drawing up his shoulders in an unnatural manner, began 
writing down, as the prisoner's own evidence, in the notes 
for his speech, that she had been in the empty room with 

There was a short silence. 

" You have nothing more to say ? " 

" I have told everything," she said, with a sigh, and sat 

Then the president noted something down, and, having 
listened to something that the member on his left whispered 
to him, he announced a ten-minutes' interval, rose hurriedly, 
and left the court. The communication he had received 
from the tall, bearded member with the kindly eyes was that 
the member, having felt a slight stomach derangement, 
wished to do a little massage and to take some drops. And 
this was why an interval was made. 

When the judges had risen, the advocates, the jury, and 
the witnesses also rose, with the pleasant feeling that part of 
the business was finished, and began moving in different 

Nekhliidoff went into the jury's room, and sat down by 
the window. 

44 Resurrection 



" Yes, this was Katiisha." 

The relations between Nekhludoff and Kattisha had been 
the following: 

Nekhludoff first saw Kattisha when he was a student in 
his third year at the University, and was preparing an essay 
on land tenure during the summer vacation, which he 
passed with his aunts. Until then he had always lived, in 
summer, with his mother and sister on his mother's large 
estate near Moscow. But that year his sister had married, 
and his mother had gone abroad to a watering-place, and he, 
having his essay to write, resolved to spend the summer 
with his aunts. It was very quiet in their secluded estate 
and there was nothing to distract his mind ; his aunts loved 
their nephew and heir very tenderly, and he, too, was fond 
of them and of their simple, old-fashioned life. 

During that summer on his aunts' estate, Nekhludoff 
passed through that blissful state of existence when a young 
man for the first time, without guidance from any one out- 
side, realises all the beauty and significance of life, and the 
importance of the task allotted in it to man ; when he 
grasps the possibility of unlimited advance towards per- 
fection for one's self and for all the world, and gives him- 
self to this task, not only hopefully, but with full conviction 
of attaining to the perfection he imagines. In that year, 
while still at the University, he had read Spencer's Social 
Statics, and Spencer's views on landholding especially im- 
pressed him, as he himself was heir to large estates. His 
father had not been rich, but his mother had received 10,000 
acres of land for her dowry. At that time he fully realised 
all the cruelty and injustice of private property in land, and 
being one of those to whom a sacrifice to the demands of 
conscience gives the highest spiritual enjoyment, he decided 
not to retain property rights, but to give up to the peasant 

Resurrection 45 

labourers the land he had inherited from his father. It was 
on this land question he wrote his essay. 

He arranged his life on his aunts' estate in the following 
manner. He got up very early, sometimes at three o'clock, 
and before sunrise went through the morning mists to 
bathe in the river, under the hill. He returned while the 
dew still lay on the grass and the flowers. Sometimes, hav- 
ing finished his coffee, he sat down with his books of refer- 
ence and his papers to write his essay, but very often, in- 
stead of reading or writing, he left home again, and wan- 
dered through the fields and the woods. Before dinner he 
lay down and slept somewhere in the garden. At dinner he 
amused and entertained his aunts with his bright spirits, 
then he rode on horseback or went for a row on the river, 
and in the evening he again worked at his essay, or sat read- 
ing or playing patience with his aunts. 

His joy in life was so great that it agitated him, and kept 
him awake many a night, especially when it was moonlight, 
so that instead of sleeping he wandered about in the garden 
till dawn, alone with his dreams and fancies. 

And so, peacefully and happily, he lived through the first 
month of his stay with his aunts, taking no particular notice 
of their half-ward, half-servant, the black-eyed, quick-footed 
Katiisha. Then, at the age of nineteen, Nekhludoff, brought 
up under his mother's wing, was still quite pure. If a 
woman figured in his dreams at all it was only as a wife. 
All the other women, who, according to his ideas he could 
not marry, were not women for him, but human beings. 

But on Ascension Day that summer, a neighbour of his 
aunts', and her family, consisting of two young daughters, a 
schoolboy, and a young artist of peasant origin who was 
staying with them, came to spend the day. After tea they 
all went to play in the meadow in front of the house, where 
the grass had already been mown. They played at the game 
of gorelki, and Katiisha joined them. Running about and 
changing partners several times, Nekhludoff caught Ka- 
tiisha, and she became his partner. Up to this time he had 
liked Katiisha's looks, but the possibility of any nearer rela- 
tions with her had never entered his mind. 

" Impossible to catch those two," said the merry young 
artist, whose turn it was to catch, and who could run very 
fast with his short, muscular legs. 

" You! And not catch us? " said Katiisha. 

46 Resurrection 

" One, two, three," and the artist clapped his hands. Ka- 
tusha, hardly restraining her laughter, changed places with 
Nekhludoff, behind the artist's back, and pressing his large 
hand with her little rough one, and rustling with her 
starched petticoat, ran to the left. Nekhludoff ran fast to 
the right, trying to escape from the artist, but when he 
looked round he saw the artist running after Katusha, who 
kept well ahead, her firm young legs moving rapidly. There 
was a lilac bush in front of them, and Katusha made a sign 
with her head to Nekhludoff to join her behind it, for if they 
once clasped hands again they were safe from their pursuer, 
that being a rule of the game. He understood the sign, and 
ran behind the bush, but he did not know that there was a 
small ditch overgrown with nettles there. He stumbled and 
fell into the nettles, already wet with dew, stinging his 
hands, but rose immediately, laughing at his mishap. 

Katusha, with her eyes black as sloes, her face radiant 
with joy, was flying towards him, and they caught hold of 
each other's hands. 

" Got stung, I daresay ? " she said, arranging her hair 
with her free hand, breathing fast and looking straight up 
at him with a glad, pleasant smile. 

" I did not know there was a ditch here, ,, he answered, 
smiling also, and keeping her hand in his. She drew nearer 
to him, and he himself, not knowing how it happened, 
stooped towards her. She did not move away, and he 
pressed her hand tight and kissed her on the lips. 

" There ! You've done it ! " she said ; and, freeing her 
hand with a swift movement, ran away from him. Then, 
breaking two branches of white lilac from which the blos- 
soms were already falling, she began fanning her hot face 
with them ; then, with her head turned back to him, she 
walked away, swaying her arms briskly in front of her, and 
joined the other players. 

After this there grew up between Nekhludoff and Ka- 
tusha those peculiar relations which often exist between a 
pure young man and girl who are attracted to each other. 

When Katusha came into the room, or even when he saw 
her white apron from afar, everything brightened up in 
Nekhludoff's eyes, as when the sun appears everything be- 
comes more interesting, more joyful, more important. The 
whole of life seemed full of gladness. And she felt the 
same. But it was not only Katusha's presence that had this 

Resurrection 47 

effect on Nekhliidoff. The mere thought that Katiisha ex- 
isted (and for her that Nekhliidoff existed) had this effect. 

When he received an unpleasant letter from his mother, 
or could not get on with his essay, or felt the unreasoning 
sadness that young people are often subject to, he had only 
to remember Katusha and that he should see her, and it all 

Katusha had much work to do in the house, but she man- 
aged to get a little leisure for reading, and Nekhliidoff gave 
her Dostoievsky and Tourgeneff (whom he had just read 
himself) to read. She liked Tourgeneff's Lull best. They 
had talks at moments snatched when meeting in the passage, 
on the veranda, or the yard, and sometimes in the room of 
his aunts' old servant, Matrona Pavlovna, with whom he 
sometimes used to drink tea, and where Katiisha used to 

These talks in Matrona Pavlovna's presence were the 
pleasantest. When they were alone it was worse. Their 
eyes at once began to say something very different and far 
more important than what their mouths uttered. Their lips 
puckered, and they felt a kind of dread of something that 
made them part quickly. These relations continued between 
Nekhliidoff and Katiisha during the whole time of his first 
visit to his aunts'. They noticed it, and became frightened, 
and even wrote to Princess Elena Ivanovna, Nekhliidoff's 
mother. His aunt, Mary Ivanovna, was afraid Dmitri 
would form an intimacy with Katiisha; but her fears were 
groundless, for Nekhliidoff, himself hardly conscious of it, 
loved Katusha, loved her as the pure love, and therein lay 
his safety — his and hers. He not only did not feel any de- 
sire to possess her, but the very thought of it filled him with 
horror. The fears of the more poetical Sophia Ivanovna, 
that Dmitri, with his thoroughgoing, resolute character, 
having fallen in love with a girl, might make up his mind 
to marry her, without considering either her birth or her 
station, had more ground. 

Had Nekhliidoff at that time been conscious of his love 
for Katiisha, and especially if he had been told that he could 
on no account join his life with that of a girl in her position, 
it might have easily happened that, with his usual straight- 
forwardness, he would have come to the conclusion that 
there could be no possible reason for him not to marry any 
girl whatever, as long as he loved her. But his aunts did not 

48 Resurrection 

mention their fears to him ; and, when he left, he was still 
unconscious of his love for Katiisha. He was sure that 
what he felt for Katiisha was only one of the manifestations 
of the joy of life that filled his whole being, and that this 
sweet, merry little girl shared this joy with him. Yet, when 
he was going away, and Katiisha stood with his aunts in the 
porch, and looked after him, her dark, slightly-squinting 
eyes filled with tears, he felt, after all, that he was leaving 
something beautiful, precious, something which would 
never reoccur. And he grew very sad. 

" Good-bye, Katiisha/' he said, looking across Sophia 
Ivanovna's cap as he was getting into the trap. " Thank 
you for everything/' 

" Good-bye, Dmitri Ivanovitch," she said, with her pleas- 
ant, tender voice, keeping back the tears that filled her eyes 
■ — and ran away into the hall, where she could cry in peace. 

Resurrection 49 



After that Nekhludoff did not see Kattisha for more than 
three years. When he saw her again he had just been 
promoted to the rank of officer and was going to join his 
regiment. On the way he came to spend a few days with 
his aunts, being now a very different young man from the 
one who had spent the summer with them three years be- 
fore. He then had been an honest, unselfish lad, ready to 
sacrifice himself for any good cause ; now he was depraved 
and selfish, and thought only of his own enjoyment. Then 
God's world seemed a mystery which he tried enthusiasti- 
cally and joyfully to solve; now everything in life seemed 
clear and simple, defined by the conditions of the life he 
was leading. Then he had felt the importance of, and had 
need of intercourse with, nature, and with those who had 
lived and thought and felt before him — philosophers and 
poets. What he now considered necessary and important 
were human institutions and intercourse with his comrades. 
Then women seemed mysterious and charming — charming 
by the very mystery that enveloped them ; now the purpose 
of women, all women except those of his own family and 
the wives of his friends, was a very definite one : women 
were the best means towards an already experienced en- 
joyment. Then money was not needed, and he did not re- 
quire even one-third of what his mother allowed him ; but 
now this allowance of 1,500 roubles a month did not suffice, 
and he had already had some unpleasant talks about it with 
his moflier. 

Then he had looked on his spirit as the I; now it was his 
healthy strong animal / that he looked upon as himself. 

And all this terrible change had come about because he 
had ceased to believe himself and had taken to believing 
others. This he had done because it was too difficult to 
live believing one's self; believing one's self, one had to 
decide every question not in favour of one's own animal 

50 Resurrection 

life, which is always seeking for easy gratifications, but al- 
most in every case against it. Believing others there was 
nothing to decide; everything had been decided already, 
and decided always in favour of the animal / and against 
the spiritual. Nor was this all. Believing in his own self 
he was always exposing himself to the censure of those 
around him ; believing others he had their approval. So, 
when Nekhludoff had talked of the serious matters of life, 
of God, truth, riches, and poverty, all round him thought it 
out of place and even rather funny, and his mother and 
aunts called him, with kindly irony, notre cher philosophe. 
But when he read novels, told improper anecdotes, went to 
see funny vaudevilles in the French theatre and gaily re- 
peated the jokes, everybody admired and encouraged him. 
When he considered it right to limit his needs, wore an old 
overcoat, took no wine, everybody thought it strange and 
looked upon it as a kind of showing off ; but when he spent 
large sums on hunting, or on furnishing a peculiar and 
luxurious study for himself, everybody admired his taste 
and gave him expensive presents to encourage his hobby. 
While he kept pure and meant to remain so till he married 
his friends prayed for his health, and even his mother was 
not grieved but rather pleased when she found out that he 
had become a real man and had gained over some French 
woman from his friend. (As to the episode with Katiisha, 
the princess could not without horror think that he might 
possibly have married her.) In the same way, when Nekh- 
ludoff came of age, and gave the small estate he had in- 
herited from his father to the peasants because he consid- 
ered the holding of private property in land wrong, this 
step filled his mother and relations with dismay and served 
as an excuse for making fun of him to all his relatives. He 
was continually told that these peasants, after they had re- 
ceived the land, got no richer, but, on the contrary, poorer, 
having opened three public-houses and left off doing any 
work. But when Nekhludoff entered the Guards and spent 
and gambled away so much with his aristocratic compan- 
ions that Elena Ivanovna, his mother, had to draw on her 
capital, she was hardly pained, considering it quite natural 
and even good that wild oats should be sown at an early 
age and in good company, as her son was doing. At first 
Nekhludoff struggled, but all that he had considered good 
while he had faith in himself was considered bad by others, 

Resurrection 5 1 

and what he had considered evil was looked upon as good 
by those among whom he lived, and the struggle grew too 
hard. And at last Nekhludoff gave in, i.e., left off believing 
himself and began believing others. At first this giving 
up of faith in himself was unpleasant, but it did not long 
continue to be so. At that time he acquired the habit of 
smoking, and drinking wine, and soon got over this un- 
pleasant feeling and even felt great relief. 

Nekhludoff, with his passionate nature, gave himself 
thoroughly to the new way of life so approved of by all 
those around, and he entirely stifled the inner voice which 
demanded something different. This began after he 
moved to St. Petersburg, and reached its highest point 
when he entered the army. 

Military life in general depraves men. It places them 
in conditions of complete idleness, i.e., absence of all useful 
work ; frees them of their common human duties, which it 
replaces by merely conventional ones to the honour of the 
regiment, the uniform, the flag ; and, while giving them on 
the one hand absolute power over other men, also puts 
them into conditions of servile obedience to those of higher 
rank thaia themselves. 

But when, to the usual depraving influence of military 
service with its honours, uniforms, flags, its permitted vio- 
lence and murder, there is added the depraving influence 
of riches and nearness to and intercourse with members of 
the Imperial family, as is the case in the chosen regiment 
of the Guards in which all the officers are rich and of good 
family, then this depraving influence creates in the men 
who succumb to it a perfect mania of selfishness. And 
this mania of selfishness attacked Nekhludoff from the mo- 
ment he entered the army and began living in the way his 
companions lived. He had no occupation whatever except 
to dress in a uniform, splendidly made and well brushed by 
other people, and, with arms also made and cleaned and 
handed to him by others, ride to reviews on a fine horse 
which had been bred, broken in and fed by others. There, 
with other men like himself, he had to wave a sword, shoot 
off guns, and teach others to do the same. He had no 
other work, and the highly-placed persons, young and old, 
the Tsar and those near him, not only sanctioned his oc- 
cupation but praised and thanked him for it. 

After this was done, it was thought important to eat, and 

52 Resurrection 

particularly to drink, in officers' clubs or the salons of the 
best restaurants, squandering large sums of money, which 
came from some invisible source ; then theatres, ballets, 
women, then again riding on horseback, waving of swords 
and shooting, and again the squandering of money, the 
wine, cards, and women. This kind of life acts on military 
men even more depravingly than on others, because if any 
other than a military man lead such a life he cannot help 
being ashamed of it in the depth of his heart. A military 
man is, on the contrary, proud of a life of this kind, espe- 
cially at war time, and Nekhludoff had entered the army 
just after war with the Turks had been declared. " We are 
prepared to sacrifice our lives at the wars, and therefore a 
gay, reckless life is not only pardonable, but absolutely nec- 
essary for us, and so we lead it." 

Such were NekhludofFs confused thoughts at this period 
of his existence, and he felt all the time the delight of being 
free of the moral barriers he had formerly set himself. And 
the state he lived in was that of a chronic mania of selfish- 

He was in this state when, after three years' absence, he 
came again to visit his aunts. 

Resurrection 5 3 



Nekhludoft went to visit his aunts because their estate 
lay near the road he had to travel in order to join his regi- 
ment, which had gone forward, because they had very 
warmly asked him to come, and especially because he 
wanted to see Katusha. Perhaps in his heart he had al- 
ready formed those evil designs against Katusha which his 
now uncontrolled animal self suggested to him, but he did 
not acknowledge this as his intention, but only wished to 
go back to the spot where he had been so happy, to see 
his rather funny, but dear, kind-hearted old aunts, who 
always, without his noticing it, surrounded him with an 
atmosphere of love and admiration, and to see sweet Ka- 
tusha, of whom he had retained so pleasant a memory. 

He arrived at the end of March, on Good Friday, after 
the thaw had set in. It was pouring with rain so that he 
had not a dry thread on him and was feeling very cold, but 
yet vigorous and full of spirits, as always at that time. " Is 
she still with them?" he thought, as he drove into the fa- 
miliar, old-fashioned courtyard, surrounded by a low brick 
wall, and now filled with snow off the roofs. 

He expected she would come out when she heard the 
sledge bells but she did not. Two bare-footed women with 
pails and tucked-up skirts, who had evidently been scrub- 
bing the floors, came out of the side door. She was not at 
the front door either, and only Tikhon, the man-servant, 
with his apron on, evidently also busy cleaning, came out 
into the front porch. His aunt Sophia Ivanovna alone met 
him in the ante-room ; she had a silk dress on and a cap on 
her head. Both aunts had been to church and had re- 
ceived communion. 

" Well, this is nice of you to come," said Sophia Iva- 
novna, kissing him. " Mary is not well, got tired in church; 
we have been to communion," 

54 Resurrection 

" I congratulate you, Aunt Sophia,"* said Nekhhidoff, 
kissing Sophia Ivanovna's hand. " Oh, I beg your pardon, 
I have made you wet." 

" Go to your room — why you are soaking wet. Dear 
me, you have got moustaches ! Katusha ! 

Katusha ! Get him some coffee ; be quick." 

" Directly," came the sound of a well-known, pleasant 
voice from the passage, and Nekhhidoff's heart cried out 
"She's here !" and it was as if the sun had come out from 
behind the clouds. 

Nekhhidoff, followed by Tikhon, went gaily to his old 
room to change his things. He felt inclined to ask Tikhon 
about Katusha ; how she w r as, what she was doing, was she 
not going to be married? But Tikhon was so respectful 
and at the same time so severe, insisted so firmly on pour- 
ing the water out of the jug for him, that Nekhhidoff could 
not make up his mind to ask him about Katusha, but only 
inquired about Tikhon's grandsons, about the old so-called 
" brother's " horse, and about the dog Polkan. All were 
alive except Polkan, who had gone mad the summer before. 

When he had taken off all his wet things and just begun 
to dress again, Nekhliidoff heard quick, familiar footsteps 
and a knock at the door. Nekhliidoff knew the steps and 
also the knock. No one but she walked and knocked like 

Having thrown his wet greatcoat over his shoulders, he 
opened the door. 

" Come in." It was she, Katusha, the same, only sweeter 
than before. The slightly squinting naive black eyes looked 
up in the same old way. Now as then, she had on a white 
apron. She brought him from his aunts a piece of scented 
soap, with the wrapper just taken off, and two towels — one 
a long Russian embroidered one, the other a bath towel. 
The unused soap with the stamped inscription, the towels, 
and her own self, all were equally clean, fresh, undefiled and 
pleasant. The irrepressible smile of joy at the sight of him 
made the sweet, firm lips pucker up as of old. 

" How do you do, Dmitri Ivanovitch? " she uttered with 
difficulty, her face suffused with a rosy blush. 

" Good-morning ! How do you do ? " he said, also blush- 
ing. " Alive and well ? " 

* It is usual in Russia to congratulate those who have received 

Resurrection 55 

" Yes, the Lord be thanked. And here is your favourite 
pink soap and towels from your aunts/' she said, putting 
the soap on the table and hanging the towels over the back 
of a chair. 

" There is everything here," said Tikhon, defending the 
visitor's independence, and pointing to Nekhhidoff's open 
dressing case filled with brushes, perfume, fixatoire, a great 
many bottles with silver lids and all sorts of toilet ap- 

" Thank my aunts, please. Oh, how glad I am to be 
here," said Nekhliidoff, his heart filling with light and ten- 
derness as of old. 

She only smiled in answer to these words, and went out. 

The aunts, who had always loved Nekhliidoff, welcomed 
him this time more warmly than ever. Dmitri was going to 
the war, where he might be wounded or killed, and this 
touched 'the old aunts. 

Nekhliidoff had arranged to stay only a day and night 
with his aunts, but when he had seen Katiisha he agreed to 
stay over Easter with tfrem and telegraphed to his friend 
Schonbock, whom he was to have joined in Odessa, that he 
should come and meet him at his aunts' instead. 

As soon as he had seen Katiisha Nekhliidoff's old feel- 
ings toward her awoke again. Now,justasthen,he could not 
see her white apron without getting excited ; he could not 
listen to her steps, her voice, her laugh, without a feeling 
of joy ; he could not look at her eyes, black as sloes, without 
a feeling of tenderness, especially when she smiled ; and, 
above all, he could not notice without agitation how she 
blushed when they met. He felt he was in love, but not 
as before, when this love was a kind of mystery to him and 
he would not own, even to himself, that he loved, and when 
he was persuaded that one could love only once ; now he 
knew he was in love and was glad of it, and knew dimly 
what this love consisted of and what it might lead to, 
though he sought to conceal it even from himself. In 
Nekhliidoff, as in every man, there were two beings : one 
the spiritual, seeking only that kind of happiness for him- 
self which should tend towards the happiness of all; the 
other, the animal man, seeking only his own happiness, 
and ready to sacrifice to it the happiness of the rest of the 
world. At this period of his mania of self-love brought 
on by life in Petersburg and in the army, this animal man 

56 Resurrection 

ruled supreme and completely crushed the spiritual man in 

But when he saw Katusha and experienced the same feel- 
ings as he had had three years before, the spiritual man in 
him raised its head once more and began to assert its 
rights. And up to Easter, during two whole days, an un- 
conscious, ceaseless inner struggle went on in him. 

He knew in the depths of his soul that he ought to go 
away, that there was no real reason for staying on with his 
aunts, knew that no good could come of it ; and yet it was 
so pleasant, so delightful, that he did not honestly acknowl- 
edge the facts to himself and stayed on. On Easter eve, 
the priest and the deacon who came to the house to say 
mass had had (so they said) the greatest difficulty in get- 
ting over the three miles that lay between the church and 
the old ladies' house, coming across the puddles and the 
bare earth in a sledge. 

Nekhludoff attended the mass with his aunts and the ser- 
vants, and kept looking at Katiisha, who was near the door 
and brought in the censers for the priests. Then having 
given the priests and his aunts the Easter kiss, though it 
was not midnight and therefore not Easter yet, he was al- 
ready going to bed when he heard the old servant Matrona 
Pavlovna preparing to go to the church to get the koulitch 
and pdski* blest after the midnight service. " I shall go 
too," he thought. 

The road to the church was impassable either in a sledge 
or on wheels, so Nekhludoff, who behaved in his aunts' 
house just as he did at home, ordered the old horse, " the 
brother's horse," to be saddled, and instead of going to bed 
he put on his gay uniform, a pair of tight-fitting riding 
breeches and his overcoat, and got on the old over-fed and 
heavy horse, which neighed continually all the way as he 
rode in the dark through the puddles and snow to the 

* Easter cakes. 

Resurrection §J 



For Nekhliidoff this early mass remained for ever after 
one of the brightest and most vivid memories of his life. 
When he rode out of the darkness, broken only here and 
there by patches of white snow, into the churchyard il- 
luminated by a row of lamps around the church, the ser- 
vice had already begun. 

The peasants, recognising Mary Ivanovna's nephew, led 
his horse, which was pricking up its ears at the sight of the 
lights, to a dry place where he could get off, put it up for 
him, and showed him into the church, which was full of 
people. On the right stood the peasants ; the old men in 
home-spun coats, and clean white linen bands* wrapped 
round their legs, the young men in new cloth coats, bright- 
coloured belts round their waists, and top-boots. 

On the left stood the women, with red silk kerchiefs on 
their heads, black velveteen sleeveless jackets, bright red 
shirt-sleeves, gay-coloured green, blue, and red skirts, and 
thick leather boots. The old women, dressed more quietly, 
stood behind them, with white kerchiefs, home-spun coats, 
old-fashioned skirts of dark home-spun material, and shoes 
on their feet. Gaily-dressed children, their hair well oiled, 
went in and out among them. 

The men, making the sign of the cross, bowed down and 
raised their heads again, shaking back their hair. 

The women, especially the old ones, fixed their eyes on 
an icon surrounded with candles and made the sign of the 
cross, firmly pressing their folded fingers to the kerchief on 
their foreheads, to their shoulders, and their stomachs, and, 
whispering something, stooped or knelt down. The chil- 
dren, imitating the grown-up people, prayed earnestly when 
they knew that they were being observed. The gilt case 
containing the icon glittered, illuminated on all sides by tall 

* Long strips of linen are worn by the peasants instead of stock- 

^8 Resurrection 

candles ornamented with golden spirals. The candelabra 
was filled with tapers, and from the choir sounded most 
merry tunes sung by amateur choristers, with bellowing 
bass and shrill boys' voices among them. 

Nekhludoff passed up to the front. In the middle of the 
church stood the aristocracy of the place : a landed proprie- 
tor, with his wife and son (the latter dressed in a sailor's 
suit), the police officer, the telegraph clerk, a tradesman in 
top-boots, and the village elder, with a medal on his breast ; 
and to the right of the ambo, just behind the landed pro- 
prietor's wife, stood Matrona Pavlovna in a lilac dress and 
fringed shawl and Katusha in a white dress with a tucked 
bodice, blue sash, and red bow in her black hair. 

Everything seemed festive, solemn, bright, and beauti- 
ful : the priest in his silver cloth vestments with gold 
crosses ; the deacon, the clerk and chanter in their silver 
and gold surplices; the amateur choristers in their best 
clothes, with their well-oiled hair; the merry tunes of the 
holiday hymns that sounded like dance music ; and the 
continual blessing of the people by the priests, who held 
candles decorated with flowers, and repeated the cry of 
" Christ is risen ! " " Christ is risen ! " All was beautiful ; 
but, above all, Katusha, in her white dress, blue sash, and 
the red bow on her black head, her eyes beaming with rap- 

Nekhludoff knew that she felt his presence without look- 
ing at him. He noticed this as he passed her, walking up 
to the altar. He had nothing to tell her, but he invented 
something to say and whispered as he passed her : " Aunt 
told me that she would break her fast after the late mass." 

The young blood rushed up to Katusha's sweet face, as it 
always did when she looked at him. The black eyes, laugh- 
ing and full of joy, gazed naively up and remained fixed on 

" I know," she said, with a smile. 

At this moment the clerk was going out with a copper 
coffee-pot* of holy water in his hand, and, not noticing 
Katusha, brushed her with his surplice. Evidently he 
brushed against Katusha through wishing to pass Nekhlu- 
doff at a respectful distance, and Nekhludoff was surprised 
that he, the clerk, did not understand that everything here, 
yes. and in all the world, only existed for Katusha, and that 

* Coffee-pots are often used for holding holy water in Russia, 

Resurrection 59 

everything else might remain unheeded, only not she, be- 
cause she was the centre of all. For her the g®ld glittered 
round the icons ; for her all these candles in candelabra and 
candlesticks were alight; for her were sung these joyful 
hymns, " Behold the Passover of the Lord/' " Rejoice, O 
ye people ! " All — all that was good in the world was for 
her. And it seemed to him that Katusha was aware that it 
was all for her when he looked at her well-shaped figure, 
the tucked white dress, the wrapt, joyous expression of her 
face, by which he knew that just exactly the same that was 
singing in his own soul was also singing in hers. 

In the interval between the early and the late mass 
Nekhludoff left the church. The people stood aside to let 
him pass, and bowed. Some knew him ; others asked who 
he was. 

He stopped on the steps. The beggars standing there 
came clamouring round him, and he gave them all the 
change he had in his purse and went down. It was dawn- 
ing, but the sun had not yet risen. The people grouped 
round the graves in the churchyard. Katusha had re- 
mained inside. Nekhludoff stood waiting for her. 

The people continued coming out, clattering with their 
nailed boots on the stone steps and dispersing over the 
churchyard. A very old man with shaking head, his aunts' 
cook, stopped Nekhludoff in order to give him the Easter 
kiss, his old wife took an egg, dyed yellow, out of her hand- 
kerchief and gave it to Nekhludoff, and a smiling young 
peasant in a newxoat and green belt also came up. 

" Christ is risen/' he said, with laughing eyes, and com- 
ing close to Nekhludoff he enveloped him in his peculiar 
but pleasant peasant smell, and, tickling him with his curly 
beard, kissed him three times straight on the mouth with 
his firm, fresh lips. 

While the peasant was kissing Nekhludoff and giving 
him a dark brown egg f the lilac dress of Matrona Pavlovna 
and the dear black head with the red bow appeared. 

Katusha caught sight of him over the heads of those in 
front of her, and he saw how her face brightened up. 

She had come out with Matrona Pavlovna on to the 
porch, and stopped there distributing alms to the beggars. 
A beggar with a red scab in place of a nose came up to 
Katusha. She gave him something, drew nearer him, and, 
evincing no sign of disgust, but her eyes still shining with 

60 Resurrection 

joy, kissed him three times. And while she was doing this 
her eyes met Nekhliidoff's with a look as if she wire asking, 
" Is this that I am doing right?" u Yes, dear, yes, it is 
right ; everything is right, everything is beautiful. I love !" 

They came down the steps of the porch, and he came up 
to them. 

He did not mean to give them the Easter kiss, but only 
to be nearer to her. Matrona Pavlovna bowed her head, 
and said with a smile, " Christ is risen ! " and her tone im- 
plied, " To-day we are all equal." She wiped her mouth 
with her handkerchief rolled into a ball and stretched her 
lips towards him. 

" He is, indeed," answered Nekhludoff, kissing her. 
Then he looked at Katusha ; she blushed, and drew nearer. 
" Christ is risen, Dmitri Ivanovitch." He is risen, in- 
deed," answered Nekhludoff, and they kissed twice, 
then paused as if considering whether a third kiss were 
necessary, and, having decided that it was, kissed a third 
time and smiled. 

" You are going to the priests?" asked Nekhludoff. 

" No, we shall sit out here a bit, Dmitri Ivanovitch," said 
Katusha with effort, as if she had accomplished some joy- 
ous task, and, her whole chest heaving with a deep sigh, 
she looked straight in his face with a look of devotion, vir- 
gin purity, and love, in her very slightly squinting eyes. 

In the love between a man and a woman there always 
comes a moment when this love has reached its zenith — a 
moment when it is unconscious, unreasoning, and with 
nothing sensual about it. Such a moment had come for 
Nekhludoff on that Easter eve. When he brought Ka- 
tusha back to his mind, now, this moment veiled all else ; 
the smooth glossy black head, the white tucked dress 
closely fitting her graceful maidenly form, her, as yet, un- 
developed bosom, the blushing cheeks, the tender shining 
black eyes with their slight squint heightened by the sleep- 
less night, and her whole being stamped with those two 
marked features, purity and chaste love, love not only for 
him (he knew that), but for everybody and everything, not 
for the good alone, but for all that is in the world, even 
for that beggar whom she had kissed. 

He knew she had that love in her because on that night 
and morning he was conscious of it in himself, and con- 
scious that in this love he became one with her. Ah ! if it 

Resurrection 6 1 

had all stopped there, at the point it had reached that night. 
" Yes, all that horrible business had not yet happened on 
that Easter eve ! " he thought, as he sat by the window of 
the jurymen's room. 

6 2 Resurrection 



When he returned from church Nekhludoff broke the 
fast with his aunts and took a glass of spirits and some wine, 
having got into that habit while with his regiment, and 
when he reached his room fell asleep at once, dressed as he 
was. He was awakened by a knock at the door. He knew 
it was her knock, and got up, rubbing his eyes and stretch- 
ing himself. 

" Katusha, is it you? Come in," said he. 

She opened the door. 

" Dinner is ready," she said. She still had on the same 
white dress, but not the bow in her hair. She looked at 
him with a smile, as if she had communicated some very 
good news to him. 

" I am coming," he answered, as he rose, taking his 
comb to arrange his hair. 

She stood still for a minute, and he, noticing it, threw 
down his comb and made a step towards her, but at that 
very moment she turned suddenly and went with quick 
light steps along the strip of carpet in the middle of the 

" Dear me, what a fool I am," thought Nekhludoff. 
" Why did I not stop her?" What he wanted her for he did 
not know himself, but he felt that when she came into his 
room something should have been done, something that is 
generally done on such occasions, and that he had left it 

" Katusha, wait," he said. 

"What do you want? " she said, stopping. 

" Nothing, only " and, with an effort, remembering 

how men in his position generally behave, he put his arm 
round her waist. 

She stood still and looked into his eyes. 

" Don't, Dmitri Ivanovitch, you must not," she said, 
blushing to tears and pushing away his arm with her strong 

Resurrection 63 

hard hand. Nekhltidoff let her go, and for a moment he 
felt not only confused and ashamed but disgusted with him- 
self. He should now have believed himself, and then he 
would have known that this confusion and shame were 
caused by the best feelings of his soul demanding to be set 
free ; but he thought it was only his stupidity and that he 
ought to behave as every one else did. He caught her up 
and kissed her on the neck. 

This kiss was very different from that first thoughtless kiss 
behind the lilac bush, and very different to the kiss this 
morning in the churchyard. This was a dreadful kiss, and 
she felt it. 

" Oh, what are you doing ?" she cried, in a tone as if he 
had irreparably broken something of priceless value, and 
ran quickly away. 

He came into the dining-room. His aunts, elegantly 
dressed, their family doctor, and a neighbour were already 
there. Everything seemed so very ordinary, but in Nekh- 
ludoff a storm was raging. He understood nothing of what 
was being said and gave wrong answers, thinking only of 
Katiisha. The sound of her steps in the passage brought 
back the thrill of that last kiss and he could think of noth- 
ing else. When she came into the room he, without look- 
ing round, felt her presence with his whole being and had 
to force himself not to look at her. 

After dinner he at once went into his bedroom and for a 
long time walked up and down in great excitement, listening 
to every sound in the house and expecting to hear her steps. 
The animal man inside him had now not only lifted its head, 
but had succeeded in trampling under foot the spiritual man 
of the days of his first visit, and even of that every morning. 
That dreadful animal man alone now ruled over him. 

Though he was watching for her all day he could not 
manage to meet her alone. She was probably trying to 
evade him. In the evening, however, she was obliged to go 
into the room next to his. The doctor had been asked to 
stay the night, and she had to make his bed. When he heard 
her go in Nekhludoff followed her, treading softly and hold- 
ing his breath as if he were going to commit a crime. 

She was putting a clean pillow-case on the pillow, holding 
it by two of its corners with her arms inside the pillow-case. 
She turned round and smiled, not a happy, joyful smile as 
before, but in a frightened, piteous way. The smile seemed 

64 Resurrection 

to tell him that what he was doing was wrong. He stopped 
for a moment. There was still the possibility of a struggle. 
The voice of his real love for her, though feebly, was still 
speaking of her, her feelings, her life. Another voice was 
saying, " Take care ! don't let the opportunity for your own 
happiness, your own enjoyment, slip by! " And this second 
voice completely stifled the first. He went up to her with 
determination, and a terrible, ungovernable animal passion 
took possession of him. 

With his arm round he made her sit down on the bed ; 
and feeling that there was something more to be done he 
sat down beside her. 

'"Dmitri Ivanovitch, dear! please let me go," she said, 
with a piteous voice. " Matrona Pavlovna is coming," she 
cried, tearing herself away. Some one was really coming 
to the door. 

" Well, then, I'll come to you in the night," he whispered. 
"You'll be alone?" 

" What are you thinking of? On no account. No, no! " 
she said, but only with her lips ; the tremulous confusion of 
her whole being said something very different. 

It was Matrona Pavlovna who had come to the door. She 
came in with a blanket over her arm, looked reproachfully 
at Nekhltidoff, and began scolding Katusha for having 
taken the wrong blanket. 

Nekhliidoff went out in silence, but he did not even feel 
ashamed. He could see by Matrona Pavlovna's face that 
she was blaming him, he knew that she was blaming him 
with reason and felt that he was doing wrong, but this 
novel, low animal excitement, having freed itself of all the 
old feelings of real love for Katusha, ruled supreme, leaving 
room for nothing else. 

He went about as if demented all the evening, now into 
his aunts', then back into his own room, then out into the 
porch, thinking all the time how he could meet her alone ; 
but she avoided him, and Matrona Pavlovna watched her 

Resurrection 65 



And so the evening passed and night came. The doctor 
went to bed. Nekhludoff's aunts had also retired, and he 
knew that Matrona Pavlovna was now with them in their 
bedroom so that Katusha was sure to be alone in the maids' 
sitting-room. He again went out into the porch. It was 
dark, damp and warm out of doors, and that white spring 
mist which drives away the last snow, or is diffused by the 
thawing of the last snow, rilled the air. From the river 
under the hill, about a hundred steps from the front door, 
came a strange sound. It was the ice breaking. Nekhludofr 
came down the steps and went up to the window of the 
maids' room, stepping over the puddles on the bits of glazed 
snow. His heart was beating so fiercely in his breast that he 
seemed to hear it, his laboured breath came and went in a 
burst of long-drawn sighs. In the maids' room a small 
lamp was burning, and Katusha sat alone by the table, look- 
ing thoughtfully in front of her. Nekhludoff stood a long 
time without moving and waited to see what she, not know- 
ing that she was observed, would do. For a minute or two 
wShe did not move ; then she lifted her eyes, smiled and shook 
her head as if chiding herself, then changed her pose and 
dropped both her arms on the table and again began gazing 
down in front of her. He stood and looked at her, involun- 
tarily listening to the beating of his own heart and the 
strange sounds from the river. There on the river, beneath 
the white mist, the unceasing labour went on, and sounds 
as of something sobbing, cracking, dropping, being shat- 
tered to pieces mixed with the tinkling of the thin bits of 
ice as they broke against each other like glass. 

There he stood, looking at Katusha's serious, suffering 
face, which betrayed the inner struggle of her soul, and he 
felt pity for her ; but, strange though it may seem, this pity 
only confirmed him in his evil intention. 

He knocked at the window. She started as if she had re* 

66 Resurrection 

ceived an electric shock, her whole body trembled, and a look 
of horror came into her face. Then she jumped up, ap- 
proached the window and brought her face up to the pane. 
The look of terror did not leave her face even when, holding 
her hands up to her eyes like blinkers and peering through 
the glass, she recognised him. Her face was unusually 
grave; he had never seen it so before. She returned his 
smile, but only in submission to him ; there was no smile in 
her soul, only fear. He beckoned her with his hand to come 
out into the yard to him. But she shook her head and re- 
mained by the window. He brought his face close to the 
pane and was going to call out to her, but at that moment 
she turned to the door ; evidently some one inside had called 
her. Nekhludoff moved away from the window. The fog 
was so dense that five steps from the house the windows 
could not be seen, but the light from the lamp shone red and 
huge out of a shapeless black mass. And on the river the 
same strange sounds went on, sobbing and rustling and 
cracking and tinkling. Somewhere in the fog, not far off, 
a cock crowed ; another answered, and then others, far in the 
village, took up the cry till the sound of the crowing blended 
into one, while all around was silent excepting the river. It 
was the second time the cocks crowed that night. 

Nekhludoff walked up and down behind the corner of 
the house, and once or twice got into a puddle. Then he 
again came up to the window. The lamp was still burning, 
and she was again sitting alone by the table as if uncertain 
what to do. He had hardly approached the window when 
she looked up. He knocked. Without looking who it was 
she at once ran out of the room, and he heard the outside 
door open with a snap. He waited for her near the side 
porch and put his arms round her without saying a word. 
She clung to him, put up her face, and met his kiss with her 
lips. Then the door again gave the same sort of snap and 
opened, and the voice of Matrona Pavlovna called out 
angrily, " Katusha ! " 

She tore herself away from him and returned into the 
maids' room. He heard the latch click, and then all was 
quiet. The red light disappeared and only the mist remained, 
and the bustle on the river went on. Nekhludoff went up to 
the window, nobody was to be seen ; he knocked, but got no 
answer. He went back into the house by the front door, but 
could not sleep. He got up and went with bare feet along 

Resurrection 67 

the passage to her door, next Matrona Pavlovna's room. He 
heard Matrona Pavlovna snoring quietly, and was about to 
go on when she coughed and turned on her creaking bed, 
and his heart fell, and he stood immovable for about five 
minutes. When all was quiet and she began to snore peace- 
fully again, he went on, trying to step on the boards that 
did not creak, and came to Katusha's door. There was no 
sound to be heard. She was probably awake, or else he 
would have heard her breathing. But as soon as he had whis- 
pered " Katusha " she jumped up and began to persuade him, 
as if angrily, to go away. 

" Open ! Let me in just for a moment ! I implore you ! " 
He hardly knew what he was saying. 

When she left him, trembling and silent, giving no answer 
to his words, he again went out into the porch and stood try- 
ing to understand the meaning of what had happened. 

It was getting lighter. From the river below the creaking 
and tinkling and sobbing of the breaking ice came still louder 
and a gurgling sound could now also be heard. The mist 
had begun to sink, and from above it the waning moon 
dimly lighted up something black and weird. 

" What was the meaning of it all ? Was it a great joy or a 
great misfortune that had befallen him? " he asked himself. 

68 Resurrection 



The next day the gay, handsome, and brilliant SchSnbock 
joined Nekhludoff at his aunts' house, and quite won their 
hearts by his refined and amiable manner, his high spirits, 
his generosity, and his affection for Dmitri. 

But though the old ladies admired his generosity it rather 
perplexed them, for it seemed exaggerated. He gave a 
rouble to some blind beggars who came to the gate, gave 15 
roubles in tips to the servants, and when Sophia Ivanovna's 
pet dog hurt his paw and it bled, he tore his hemstitched 
cambric handkerchief into strips (Sophia Ivanovna knew 
that such handkerchiefs cost at least 15 roubles a dozen) and 
bandaged the dog's foot. The old ladies had never met 
people of this kind, and did not know that Schonbock owed 
200,000 roubles which he was never going to pay, and that 
therefore 25 roubles more or less did not matter a bit to him. 
Schonbock stayed only one day, and he and Nekhludoff both 
left at night. They could not stay away from their regiment 
any longer, for their leave was fully up. 

At the stage which Nekhludoff's selfish mania had now 
reached he could think of nothing but himself. He was won- 
dering whether his conduct, if found out, would be blamed 
much or at all, but he did not consider what Katusha was 
now going through, and what was going to happen to her. 

He saw that Schonbock guessed his relations to her and 
this flattered his vanity. 

" Ah, I see how it is you have taken such a sudden fancy 
to your aunts that you have been living nearly a week with 
them," Schonbock remarked when he had seen Katusha. 
"Well, I don't wonder — should have done the same. She's 
charming." Nekhludoff was also thinking that though it 
was a pity to go away before having fully gratified the crav- 
ings of his love for her, yet the absolute necessity of parting 
had its advantages because it put a sudden stop to relations 
it would have been very difficult for him to continue. Then 

Resurrection 69 

he thought that he ought to give her some money, not for 
her, not because she might need it, but because it was the 
thing to do. 

So he gave her what seemed to him a liberal amount, con- 
sidering his and her station. On the day of his departure, 
after dinner, he went out and waited for her at the side en- 
trance. She flushed up when she saw him and wished to 
pass by, directing his attention to the open door of the maids' 
room by a look, but he stopped her. 

" I have come to say good-bye, " he said, crumpling in his 
hand an envelope with a 100-rouble note inside. " There, 
I" . . . 

She guessed what he meant, knit her brows, and shaking 
her head pushed his hand away. 

" Take it ; oh, you must ! " he stammered, and thrust the 
envelope into the bib of her apron and ran back to his room, 
groaning and frowning as if he had hurt himself. And for 
a long time he went up and down writhing as in pain, and 
even stamping and groaning aloud as he thought of this 
last scene. " But what else could I have done? Is it not 
what happens to every one? And if every one does the 
same . . . well I suppose it can't be helped." In this 
way he tried to get peace of mind, but in vain. The recollec- 
tion of what had passed burned his conscience. In his soul — ■ 
in the very depths of his soul — he knew that he had acted in 
a base, cruel, cowardly manner, and that the knowledge of 
this act of his must prevent him, not only from finding fault 
with any one else, but even from looking straight into other 
people's eyes ; not to mention the impossibility of considering 
himself a splendid, noble, high-minded fellow, as he did and 
had to do to go on living his life boldly and merrily. There 
was only one solution of the problem — i.e, not to think 
about it. He succeeded in doing so. The life he was now 
entering upon, the new surroundings, new friends, the war, 
all helped him to forget. And the longer he lived, the less he 
thought about it, until at last he forgot it completely. 

Once only, when, after the war, he went to see his aunts 
in hopes of meeting Katusha, and heard that soon after his 
last visit she had left, and that his aunts had heard she had 
been confined somewhere or other and had gone quite to the 
bad, his heart ached. According to the time of her confine- 
ment, the child might or might not have been his. His aunts 
said she had gone wrong, that she had inherited her mother's 

jo Resurrection 

depraved nature, and he was pleased to hear this opinion of 
his aunts'. It seemed to acquit him. At first he thought of 
trying to find her and her child, but then, just because in the 
depths of his soul he felt so ashamed and pained when think- 
ing about her, he did not make the necessary effort to find 
her, but tried to forget his sin again and ceased to think 
about it. And now this strange coincidence brought it all 
back to his memory, and demanded from him the acknowl- 
edgment of the heartless, cruel cowardice which had made it 
possible for him to live these nine years with such a sin on 
his conscience. But he was still far from such an acknowl- 
edgment, and his only fear was that everything might now 
be found out, and that she or her advocate might recount it 
all and put him to shame before every one present. 

Resurrection 71 



In this state of mind Nekhludoff left the Court and went 
into the jurymen's room. He sat by the window smoking 
all the while, and hearing what was being said around him. 

The merry merchant seemed with all his heart to sympa- 
thise with SmelkofFs way of spending his time. 

" There, old fellow, that was something like ! Real Si- 
berian fashion! He knew what he was about, no fear! 
That's the sort of wench for me." 

The foreman was stating his conviction, that in some 
way or other the expert's conclusions were the important 
thing. Peter Gerasimovitch was joking about something 
with the Jewish clerk, and they burst out laughing. Nekh- 
ludoff answered all the questions addressed to him in 
monosyllables and longed only to be left in peace. 

When the usher, with his sideways gait, called the jury 
back to the Court, Nekhludoff was seized with fear, as if 
he were not going to judge, but to be judged. In the depth 
of his soul he felt that he was a scoundrel, who ought to be 
ashamed to look people in the face, yet, by sheer force of 
habit, he stepped on to the platform in his usual self-pos- 
sessed manner, and sat down, crossing his legs and playing 
with his pince-nez. 

The prisoners had also been led out, and were now 
brought in again. There were some new faces in the Court 
- — witnesses, and Nekhludoff noticed that Maslova could 
not take her eyes off a very fat woman who sat in the row 
:n front of the grating, very showily dressed in silk and 
velvet, a high hat with a krge bow on her head, and an ele- 
gant little reticule on her arm, which was bare to the elbow. 
This was, as he subsequently found out, one of the wit- 
nesses, the mistress of the establishment to which Maslova 
had belonged. 

The examination of the witnesses commenced : they were 
asked their names, religion, etc. Then, after some con- 

J2 Resurrection 

sultation as to whether the witnesses were to be sworn in 
or not, the old priest came in again, dragging his legs with 
difficulty, and, again arranging the golden cross on his 
breast, swore the witnesses and the expert in the same quiet 
manner, and with the same assurance that he was doing 
something useful and important. 

The witnesses having been sworn, all but Kitaeva, the 
keeper of the house, were led out again. She was asked 
what she knew about this affair. Kitaeva nodded her head 
and the big hat at every sentence and smiled affectedly. She 
gave a very full and intelligent account, speaking with a 
strong German accent. First of all, the hotel servant 
Simeon, whom she knew, came to her establishment on be- 
half of a rich Siberian merchant, and she sent Lubov back 
with him. After a time Lubov returned with the merchant. 
The merchant was already somewhat intoxicated — she 
smiled as she s-aid this — and went on drinking and treating 
the girls. He was short of money. He sent this same 
Lubov to his lodgings. He had taken a " predilection " to 
her. She looked at the prisoner as she said this. 

Nekhludoff thought he saw Maslova smile here, and this 
seemed disgusting to him. A strange, indefinite feeling 
of loathing, mingled with suffering, arose in him. 

"And what was your opinion of Maslova?" asked the 
blushing and confused applicant for a judicial post, ap- 
pointed to act as Maslova's advocate. 

" Zee ferry pesht," answered Kitaeva. " Zee yoong 
voman is etucated and elecant. She was prought up in a 
coot family and can reat French. She tid have a trop too 
moch sometimes, put nefer forcot herself. A ferry coot 

Katusha looked at the woman, then suddenly turned her 
eyes on the jury and fixed them on Nekhludoff, and her 
face grew serious and even severe. One of her serious eyes 
squinted, and those two strange eyes for some time gazed 
at Nekhludoff, who, in spite of the terrors that seized him, 
could not take his look off these squinting eyes, with their 
bright, clear whites. 

He thought of that dreadful night, with its mist,- the ice 
breaking on the river below, and when the waning moon, 
with horns turned upwards, that had risen towards morn- 
ing, lit up something black and weird. These two black 
eyes now looking at him reminded him of this weird, black 

Resurrection 73 

something. " She has recognised me," he thought, and 
Nekhltidoff shrank as if expecting a blow. But she had 
not recognised him. She sighed quietly and again looked 
at the president. Nekhludoff also sighed. " Oh, if it would 
only get on quicker/' he thought. 

He now felt the same loathing and pity and vexation as 
when, out shooting, he was obliged to kill a wounded bird. 
The wounded bird struggles in the game bag. One is dis- 
gusted and yet feels pity, and one is in a hurry to kill the 
bird and forget it. 

Such mixed feelings filled NekhludofFs breast as he sat 
listening to the examination of the witnesses. 

74 Resurrection 



But, as if to spite him, the case dragged out to a great 
length. After each witness had been examined separately 
and the expert last of all, and a great number of useless 
questions had been put, with the usual air of importance, by 
the public prosecutor and by both advocates, the president 
invited the jury to examine the objects offered as material 
evidence. They consisted of an enormous diamond ring, 
which had evidently been worn on the first finger, and a 
test tube in which the poison had been analysed. These 
things had seals and labels attached to them. 

Just as the witnesses were about to look at these things, 
the public prosecutor rose and demanded that before they 
did this the results of the doctor's examination of the body 
should be read. The president, who was hurrying the busi- 
ness through as fast as he could in order to visit his Swiss 
friend, though he knew that the reading of this paper could 
have no other effect than that of producing weariness and 
putting off the dinner hour, and that the public prosecutor 
wanted it read simply because he knew he had a right to 
demand it, had no option but to express his consent. 

The secretary got out the doctor's report and again 
began to read in his weary lisping voice, making no dis- 
tinction between the " r's " and " IV 

The external examination proved that : * 

" i. Theropont Smelkoff's height was six feet five inches. 

" Not so bad, that. A very good size," whispered the 
merchant, with interest, into Nekhludoff's ear. 

2. He looked about 40 years of age. 

3. The body was of a swollen appearance. 

4. The flesh was of a greenish colour, with dark spots in 
several places. 

5. The skin was raised in blisters of different sizes and in 
places had come off in large pieces, 

Resurrection 75 

6. The hair was chestnut; it was thick, and separated 
easily from the skin when touched. 

7. The eye-balls protruded from their sockets and the 
cornea had grown dim. 

8. Out of the nostrils, both ears, and the mouth oozed 
serous liquid ; the mouth was half open. 

9. The neck had almost disappeared, owing to the swell- 
ing of the face and chest." 

And so on and so on. 

Four pages were covered with the 27 paragraphs describ- 
ing all the details of the external examination of the enor- 
mous, fat, swollen, and decomposing body of the merchant 
who had been making merry in the town. The indefinite 
loathing that Nekhhidoff felt was increased by the descrip- 
tion of the corpse. Katusha's life, and the serum oozing 
irom the nostrils of the corpse, and the eyes that protruded 
out of their sockets, and his own treatment of her — all 
seemed to belong to the same order of things, and he felt 
surrounded and wholly absorbed by things of the same 

When the reading of the report of the external examina- 
tion was ended, the president heaved a sigh and raised his 
hand, hoping it was finished ; but the secretary at once went 
on to the description of the internal examination. The 
president's head again dropped into his hand and he shut 
his eyes. The merchant next to Nekhludoff could hardly 
keep awake, and now and then his body swayed to and fro. 
The prisoners and the gendarmes sat perfectly quiet. 

The internal examination showed that: 

" 1. The skin was easily detachable from the bones of the 
skull, and there was no coagulated blood. 

" 2. The bones of the skull were of average thickness and 
in sound condition. 

" 3. On the membrane of the brain there were two dis- 
coloured spots about four inches long, the membrane itself 
being of a dull w r hite." And so on for 13 paragraphs more, 
Then followed the names and signatures of the assistants, 
and the doctor's conclusion showing that the changes ob- 
served in the stomach, and to a lesser degree in the bowels 
and kidneys, at the post-mortem examination, and 
described in the official report, gave great probability to the 
conclusion that SmelkofFs death was caused by poison 
which had entered his stomach mixed with alcohol. To de- 

j6 Resurrection 

cide from the state of the stomach what poison had been 
introduced was difficult; but it was necessary to suppose 
that the poison entered the stomach mixed with alcohol, 
since a great quantity of the latter was found in Smelkoff's 

" He could drink, and no mistake/' again whispered the 
merchant, who had just waked up. 

The reading of this report had taken a full hour, but it 
had not satisfied the public prosecutor, for, when it had 
been read through and the president turned to him, saying, 
" I suppose it is superfluous to read the report of the exam- 
ination of the internal organs?" he answered in a severe 
tone, without looking at the president, u I shall ask to have 
it read." 

He raised himself a little, and showed by his manner that 
he had a right to have this report read, and would claim 
this right, and that if that were not granted it would serve 
as a cause of appeal. 

The member of the Court with the big beard, who suf- 
fered from catarrh of the stomach, feeling quite done up, 
turned to the president : 

" What is the use of reading all this ? It is only dragging 
it out. These new brooms do not sweep clean; they only 
take a long while doing it." 

The member with the gold spectacles said nothing, but 
only looked gloomily in front of him, expecting nothing 
good, either from his wife or life in general. The reading 
of the report commenced. 

"In the year 188 — , on February 15th, I, the under- 
signed, commissioned by the medical department, made an 
examination, No. 638," the secretary began again with 
firmness and raising the pitch of his voice as if to dispel the 
sleepiness that had overtaken all present, " in the presence 
of the assistant medical inspector, of the internal organs : 

" 1. The right lung and the heart (contained in a 6-lb. 
glass jar). 

H 2. The contents of the stomach (in a 6-lb. glass jar). 

" 3, The stomach itself (in a 6-lb. glass jar). 

"4. The liver, the spleen and the kidneys (in a 9-lb. 
glass jar). 

" 5. The intestines (in a 9-lb. earthenware jar)." 

The president here whispered to one of the members, 
then stooped to the other, and having received their con- 

Resurrection jj 

sent, he said : " The Court considers the reading of this re- 
port superfluous." The secretary stopped reading and 
folded the paper, and the public prosecutor angrily began 
to write down something. " The gentlemen of the jury 
may now examine the articles of material evidence/' said 
the president. The foreman and several of the others rose 
and went to the table, not quite knowing what to do with 
their hands. They looked in turn at the glass, the test tube, 
and the ring. The merchant even tried on the ring. 

" Ah ! that was a finger/' he said, returning to his place-; 
" like a cucumber," he added. Evidently the image he had 
formed in his mind of the gigantic merchant amused him. 





When the examination of the articles of material evi- 
dence was finished, the president announced that the inves- 
tigation was now concluded and immediately called on the 
prosecutor to proceed, hoping that as the latter was also a 
man, he, too, might feel inclined to smoke or dine, and 
show some mercy on the rest. But the public prosecutor 
showed mercy neither to himself nor to any one else. He 
was very stupid by nature, but, besides this, he had had the 
misfortune of finishing school with a gold medal and of 
receiving a reward for his essay on " Servitude " when 
studying Roman Law at the University, and was therefore 
self-confident and self-satisfied in the highest degree (his 
success with the ladies also conducing to this) and his stu- 
pidity had become extraordinary. 

When the word was given to him, he got up slowly, 
showing the whole of his graceful figure in his embroidered 
uniform. Putting his hand on the desk he looked round 
the room, slightly bowing his head, and, avoiding the eyes 
of the prisoners, began to read the speech he had pre- 
pared while the reports were being read. 

" Gentlemen of the jury ! The business that now lies be- 
fore you is, if I may so express myself, very characteristic." 

The speech of a public prosecutor, according to his 
views, should always have a social importance, like the 
celebrated speeches made by the advocates who have be- 
come distinguished. True, the audience consisted of three 
women — a semptress, a cook, and Simeon's sister — and a 
coachman; but this did not matter. The celebrities had 
begun in the same way. To be always at the height of his 
position, i.e., to penetrate into the depths of the psycholog- 
ical significance of crime and to discover the wounds of 
society, was one of the prosecutor's principles. 

" You see before you, gentlemen of the jury, a crime 
characteristic, if I may so express myself, of the end of our 

Resurrection 79 

century; bearing, so to say, the specific features of that 
very painful phenomenon, the corruption to which those 
elements of our present-day society, which are, so to say, 
particularly exposed to the burning rays of this process, are 

The public prosecutor spoke at great length, frying not 
to forget any of the notions he had formed in his mind, and, 
on the other hand, never to hesitate, and let his speech flow 
on for an hour and a quarter without a break.*' 

Only once he stopped and for some time stood swallow- 
ing his saliva, but he soon mastered himself and made up 
for the interruption by heightened eloquence. He spoke, 
now with a tender, insinuating accent, stepping from foot 
to foot and looking at the jury, now in quiet, business-like 
tones, glancing into his notebook, then with a loud, ac- 
cusing voice, looking from the audience to the advocates. 
But he avoided looking at the prisoners, who were all three 
fixedly gazing at him. Every new craze then in vogue 
among his set was alluded to in his speech ; everything that 
then was, and some things that still are, considered to be 
the last words of scientific wisdom : the laws of heredity and 
inborn criminality, evolution and the struggle for existence, 
hypnotism and hypnotic influence. 

According to his definition, the merchant Smelkoff was 
of the genuine Russian type, and had perished in conse- 
quence of his generous, trusting nature, having fallen into 
the hands of deeply degraded individuals. 

Simeon Kartinkin was the atavistic production of serf- 
dom, a stupefied, ignorant, unprincipled man, who had not 
even any religion. Euphernia was his mistress, and a victim 
of heredity ; all the signs of degeneration were noticeable in 
her. The chief wire-puller in this affair was Maslova, pre- 
senting the phenomenon of decadence in its lowest form. 
" This woman," he said, looking at her, " has, as we have 
to-day heard from her mistress in this court, received an 
education ; she cannot only read and write, but she knows 
French ; she is illegitimate, and probably carries in her the 
germs of criminality. She was educated in an enlightened, 
noble family and might have lived by honest work, but she 
deserts her benefactress, gives herself up to a life of shame 
in which she is distinguished from her companions by her 
education, and chiefly, gentlemen of the jury, as you have 
heard from her mistress, by her power of acting on the vis- 

80 Resurrection 

itors by means of that mysterious capacity lately investi- 
gated by science, especially by the school of Charcot, 
known by the name of hypnotic influence. By these means 
she gets hold of this Russian, this kind-hearted Sadko,* 
the rich guest, and uses his trust in order first to rob and 
then pitilessly to murder him/' 

" Well, he is piling it on now, isn't he?" said the presi- 
dent with a smile, bending towards the serious member. 

" A fearful blockhead ! " said the serious member. 

Meanwhile the public prosecutor went on with his 
speech. " Gentlemen of the jury," gracefully swaying his 
body, " the fate of society is to a certain extent in your 
power. Your verdict will influence it. Grasp the full 
meaning of this crime, the danger that awaits society from 
those whom I may perhaps be permitted to call pathologi- 
cal individuals, such as Maslova. Guard it from infection ; 
guard the innocent and strong elements of society from 
contagion or even destruction." 

And as if himself overcome by the significance of the ex- 
pected verdict, the public prosecutor sank into his chair, 
highly delighted with his speech. 

The sense of the speech, when divested of all its flowers 
of rhetoric, was that Maslova, having gained the mer- 
chant's confidence, hypnotised him and went to his lodg- 
ings with his key meaning to take all the money herself, 
but having been caught in the act by Simeon and Eu- 
phemia had to share it with them. Then, in order to hide 
the traces of the crime, she had returned to the lodgings 
with the merchant and there poisoned him. 

After the prosecutor had spoken, a middle-aged man in 
swallow-tail coat and low-cut waistcoat showing a large 
half-circle of starched white shirt, rose from the advocates' 
bench and made a speech in defence of Kartinkin and 
Botchkova ; this was an advocate engaged by them for 300 
roubles. He acquitted them both and put all the blame on 
Maslova. He denied the truth of Maslova's statements 
that Botchkova and Kartinkin were with her when she 
took the money, laying great stress on the point that her 
evidence could not be accepted, she being charged with 
poisoning. " The 2,500 roubles," the advocate said, " could 
have been easily earned by two honest people getting from 
three to five roubles per day in tips from the lodgers. The 

*Sadko, the hero of a legend, 

Resurrection 8 1 

merchant's money was stolen by Maslova and given away* 
or even lost, as she was not in a normal state." 

The poisoning was committed by Maslova alone; there- 
fore he begged the jury to acquit Kartinkin and Botchkova 
of stealing the money; or if they could not acquit them of 
the theft, at least to admit that it was done without any par- 
ticipation in the poisoning. 

In conclusion the advocate remarked, with a thrust at 
the public prosecutor, that " the brilliant observations of 
that gentleman on heredity, while explaining scientific facts 
concerning heredity, were inapplicable in this case, as 
Botchkova was of unknown parentage." The public prose- 
cutor put something down on paper with an angry look, 
and shrugged his shoulders in contemptuous surprise. 

Then Maslova's advocate rose, and timidly and hesitat- 
ingly began his speech in her defence. 

Without denying that she had taken part in the stealing 
of the money, he insisted on the fact that she had no inten- 
tion of poisoning Smelkoff, but had given him the powder 
only to make him fall asleep. He tried to go in for a little 
eloquence in giving a description of how Maslova was led 1 
into a life of debauchery by a man who had remained un- 
punished while she had to bear all the weight of her fall ; 
but this excursion into the domain of psychology was so 
unsuccessful that it made everybody feel uncomfortable. 
When he muttered something about men's cruelty and 
women's helplessness, the president tried to help him by 
asking him to keep closer to the facts of the case. When 
he had finished the public prosecutor got up to reply. He 
defended his position against the first advocate, saying that 
even if Botchkova was of unknown parentage the truth of 
the doctrine of heredity was thereby in no way invalidated, 
since the laws of heredity were so far proved by science that 
we can not only deduce the crime from heredity, but hered- 
ity from the crime. As to the statement made in defence 
of Maslova, that she was the victim of an imaginary (he laid 
a particularly venomous stress on the word imaginary) be- 
trayer, he could only say that from the evidence before 
them it was much more likely that she had played the part 
of temptress to many and many a victim who had fallen 
into her hands. Having said this he sat down in triumph. 
Then the prisoners were offered permission to speak in 
their own defence. 

82 Resurrection 

Euphemia Botchkova repeated once more that she knew 
nothing about it and had taken part in nothing, and firmly 
laid the whole blame on Maslova. Simeon Kartinkin only 
repeated several times : " It is your business, but I am in- 
nocent; it's unjust/' Maslova said nothing in her defence. 
Told she might do so by the president, she only lifted her 
eyes to him, cast a look round the room like a hunted ani- 
mal, and, dropping her head, began to cry, sobbing aloud. 

"What is the matter?" the merchant asked Nekhludoff, 
hearing him utter a strange sound. This was the sound of 
weeping fiercely kept back. Nekhludoff had not yet under- 
stood the significance of his present position, and attributed 
the sobs he could hardly keep back and the tears that filled 
his eyes to the weakness of his nerves. He put on his 
pince-nez in order to hide the tears, then got out his hand- 
kerchief and began blowing his nose. 

Fear of the disgrace that would befall him if every one 
in the court knew of his conduct stifled the inner working 
of his soul. This fear was, during this first period, stronger 
than all else. 

Resurrection 83 



After the last words of the prisoners had been heard, the 
form in which the questions were to be put to the jury was 
settled, which also took some time. At last the questions 
were formulated, and the president began the summing up. 

Before putting the case to the jury, he spoke to them for 
some time in a pleasant, homely manner, explaining that 
burglary was burglary and theft was theft, and that steal- 
ing from a place which was under lock and key was 
stealing from a place under lock and key. While he 
was explaining this, he looked several times at Nekhludoff 
as if wishing to impress upon him these important facts, in 
hopes that, having understood it, Nekhludoff would make 
his fellow-jurymen also understand it. When he considered 
that the jury were sufficiently imbued with these facts, he 
proceeded to enunciate another truth — namely, that a mur- 
der is an action which has the death of a human being as 
its consequence, and that poisoning could therefore also 
be termed murder. When, according to his opinion, this 
truth had also been received by the jury, he went on to ex- 
plain that if theft and murder had been committed at the 
same time, the combination of the crimes was theft with 

Although he was himself anxious to finish as soon as 
possible, although he knew that his Swiss friend would be 
waiting for him, he had grown so used to his occupation 
that, having begun to speak, he could not stop himself, and 
therefore he went on to impress on the jury with much de- 
tail that if they found the prisoners guilty, they would have 
the right to give a verdict of guilty ; and if they found them 
not guilty, to give a verdict of not guilty ; and if they found 
them guilty of one of the crimes and not of the other, they 
might give a verdict of guilty on the one count and of not 
guilty on the other. Then he explained that though this 
right was given them they should use it with reason. He 

84 Resurrection 

was going to add that if they gave an affirmative answer to 
any question that was put to them they would thereby af- 
firm everything included in the question, so that if they 
did not wish to affirm the whole of the question they should 
mention the part of the question they wished to be ex- 
cepted. But, glancing at the clock, and seeing it was al- 
ready five minutes to three, he resolved to trust to their 
being intelligent enough to understand this without further 

" The facts of this case are the following/' began the 
president, and repeated all that had already been said sev- 
eral times by the advocates, the public prosecutor and the 

The president spoke, and the members on each side of 
him listened with deeply-attentive expressions, but looked 
from time to time at the clock, for they considered the 
speech too long though very good — i.e., such as it ought to 
be. The public prosecutor, the lawyers, and, in fact, every- 
one in the court, shared the same impression. The presi- 
dentfinishedthe summing up. Then he found it necessary to 
tell the jury what they all knew, or might have found out by 
reading it up — i.e., how they were to consider the case, 
count the votes, in case of a tie to acquit the prisoners, 
and so on. 

Everything seemed to have been told ; but no, the presi- 
dent could not forego his right of speaking as yet. It was 
so pleasant to hear the impressive tones of his own voice, 
and therefore he found it necessary to say a few words more 
about the importance of the rights given to the jury, how 
carefully they should use the rights and how they ought 
not to abuse them, about their being on their oath, that 
they were the conscience of society, that the secrecy of the 
debating-room should be considered sacred, etc. 

From the time the president commenced his speech, 
Maslova watched him without moving her eyes as if afraid 
of losing a single word ; so that Nekhludoff was not afraid 
of meeting her eyes and kept looking at her all the time. 
And his mind passed through those phases in which a face 
which we have not seen for many years first strikes us with 
the outward changes brought about during the time of 
separation, and then gradually becomes more and more 
like its old self, when the changes made by time seem to 
disappear, and before our spiritual eyes rises only the prin- 

Resurrection 85 

cipal expression of one exceptional,, unique individuality. 
Yes, though dressed in a prison cloak, and in spite of the 
developed figure, the fulness of the bosom and lower part of 
the face, in spite of a few wrinkles on the forehead and 
temples and the swollen eyes, this was certainly the same 
Katusha who, on that Easter eve, had so innocently looked 
up to him whom she loved, with her fond, laughing eyes 
full of joy and life. 

" What a strange coincidence that after ten years, during 
which I never saw her, this case should have come up to- 
day when I am on the jury, and that it is in the prisoners' 
dock that I see her again! And how will it end? Oh, dear, 
if they would only get on quicker/' 

Still he would not give in to the feelings of repentance 
which began to arise within him. He tried to consider it all 
as a coincidence, which would pass without infringing his 
manner of life. He felt himself in the position of a puppy, 
when its master, taking it by the scruff of its neck, rubs its 
nose in the mess it has made. The puppy whines, draws 
back and wants to get away as far as possible from the ef- 
fects of its misdeed, but the pitiless master does not let go. 

And so, Nekhhidoff, feeling all the repulsiveness of what 
he had done, felt also the powerful hand of the Master, but 
he did not feel the whole significance of his action yet and 
would not recognize the Master's hand. He did not wish 
to believe that it was the effect of his deed that lay before 
him, but the pitiless hand of the Master held him and he felt 
he could not get away. He was still keeping up his cour- 
age and sat on his chair in the first row in his usual self- 
possessed pose, one leg carelessly thrown over the other, 
and playing with his pince-nez. Yet all the while, in the 
depths of his soul, he felt the cruelty, cowardice and base- 
ness, not only of this particular action of his but of his 
whole self-willed, depraved, cruel, idle life ; and that dread- 
ful veil which had in some unaccountable manner hidden 
from him this sin of his and the whole of his subsequent 
life was beginning to shake, and he caught glimpses of wha* 
was covered by that veil. 

86 Resurrection 



At last the president finished his speech, and lifting the 
list of questions with a graceful movement of his arm he 
handed it to the foreman, who came up to take it. The 
jury, glad to be able to get into the debating-court, got up 
one after the other and left the room, looking as if a bit 
ashamed of themselves and again not knowing what to do 
with their hands. As soon as the door was closed behind 
them a gendarme came up to it, pulled his sword out of the 
scabbard, and, holding it up against his shoulder, stood at 
the door. The judges got up and went away. The pris- 
oners were also led out. When the jury came into the de- 
bating-room the first thing they did was to take out their 
cigarettes, as before, and begin smoking. The sense of the 
unnaturalness and falseness of their position, which all of 
them had experienced while sitting in their places in the 
court, passed when they entered the debating-room and 
started smoking, and they settled down with a feeling of 
relief and at once began an animated conversation. 

" Tis n't the girl's fault. She's got mixed up in it," said 
the kindly merchant. " We must recommend her to 

" That's just what we are going to consider," said the 
foreman. " We must not give way to our personal impres- 

" The president's summing up was good," remarked the 

" Good? Why, it nearly sent me to sleep!" 

" The chief point is that the servants could have known 
nothing about the money if Maslova had not been in ac- 
cord with them," said the clerk of Jewish extraction. 

" Well, do you think that it was she who stole the 
money? " asked one of the jury. 

" I will never believe it," cried the kindly merchant,; " it 
was all that red-eyed hag's doing." 

Resurrection 87 

" They are a nice lot, all of them," said the colonel. 

" But she says she never went into the room." 

" Oh, believe her by all means." 

" I should not believe that jade, not for the world." 

" Whether you believe her or not does not settle the 
question," said the clerk. 

" The girl had the key," said the colonel. 

" What if she had ? " retorted the merchant. 

" And the ring?" 

" But didn't she say all about it ? " again cried the mer- 
chant. " The fellow had a temper of his own, and had had a 
drop too much besides, and gave the girl a licking; what 
could be simpler? Well, then he's sorry — quite naturally. 
* There, never mind,' says he ; * take this.' Why, I heard 
them say he was six foot five high ; I should think he must 
have weighed about 20 stones." 

" That's not the point," said Peter Gerasimovitch. " The 
question is, whether she was the instigator and inciter in 
this affair, or the servants?" 

" It was not possible for the servants to do it alone; she 
had the key." 

This kind of random talk went on for a considerable 
time. At last the foreman said : " I beg your pardon, gen- 
tlemen, but had we not better take our places at the table 
and discuss the matter? Come, please." And he took the 

The questions were expressed in the following manner : — 

1. Is the peasant of the village Borki, Krapivinskia dis- 
trict, Simeon Petrov Kartinkin, 33 years of age, guilty of 
having, in agreement with other persons, given the mer- 
chant Smelkoff, on the 17th January, 188 — , in the town of 

N , with intent to deprive him of life, for the purpose of 

robbing him, poisoned brandy, which caused Smelkoff's 
death, and of having stolen from him about 2,500 roubles in 
money and a diamond ring? 

2. Is the meschanka Euphemia Ivanovna Botchkova, 43 
years of age, guilty of the crimes described above ? 

3. Is the meschanka Katerina Michaelovna Maslova, 27 
years of age, guilty of the crimes described in the first 
question ? 

4. If the prisoner Euphemia Botchkova is not guilty ac- 
cording to the first question, is she not guilty of having, on 
the 17th January, 188 — , in the town of N , while in ser- 

88 Resurrection 

vice at the Hotel Mauritania, stolen from a locked port- 
manteau, belonging to the merchant Smelkoff, a lodger in 
that hotel, and which was in the room occupied by him, 
2,500 roubles, for which object she unlocked the portman- 
teau with a key she brought and fitted to the lock ? 

The foreman read the first question. 

"Well, gentlemen, what do you think ?" 

This question was quickly answered. All agreed to say 
" Guilty/' as if convinced that Kartinkin had taken part 
both in the poisoning and the robbery. An old artelshik* 
whose answers were all in favour of acquittal, was the only 

The foreman thought he did not understand, and began 
to point out to him that everything tended to prove Kartin- 
kin's guilt. The old man answered that he did understand, 
but still thought it better to have pity on him. " We are 
not saints ourselves/' and he kept to his opinion. 

The answer to the second question concerning Botch- 
kova was, after much dispute and many exclamations, 
answered by the words, " Not guilty/' there being no clear 
proofs of her having taken part in the poisoning — a fact her 
advocate had strongly insisted on. The merchant, anxious to 
acquit Maslova, insisted that Botchkova was the chief in- 
stigator of it all. Many of the jury shared this view, but 
the foreman, wishing to be in strict accord with the law, 
declared they had no grounds to consider her as an accom- 
plice in the poisoning. After much disputing the foreman's 
opinion triumphed. 

To the fourth question concerning Botchkova the answer 
was " Guilty." But on the artelshik' s insistence she was 
recommended to mercy. 

The third question, concerning Maslova, raised a fierce 
dispute. The foreman maintained she was guilty both of 
the poisoning and the theft, to which the merchant would 
not agree. The colonel, the clerk and the old artelshik 
sided with the merchant, the rest seemed shaky, and the 
opinion of the foreman began to gain ground, chiefly be- 
cause all the jurymen were getting tired, and preferred to 
take up the view that would bring them sooner to a deci- 
sion and thus liberate them. 

From all that had passed, and from his former knowledge 

* Member of an artel, an association of workmen, in which the 
members share profits and liabilities. 

Resurrection 89 

of Maslova, Nekhludoff was certain that she was innocent 
of both the theft and the poisoning. And he felt sure that 
all the others would come to the same conclusion. When 
he saw that the merchant's awkward defence (evidently 
based on his physical admiration for her, which he did not 
even try to hide) and the foreman's insistence, and espe- 
cially everybody's weariness, were all tending to her con- 
demnation, he longed to state his objections, yet dared not, 
lest his relations with Maslova should be discovered. H'e 
felt he could not allow things to go on without stating his 
objection ; and, blushing and growing pale again, was 
about to speak when Peter Gerasimovitch, irritated by the 
authoritative manner of the foreman, began to raise his ob- 
jections and said the very things Nekhludoff was about to 

" Allow me one moment," he said. " You seem to think 
that her having the key proves she is guilty of the theft; 
but what could be easier than for the servants to open the 
portmanteau with a false key after she was gone ? " 

" Of course, of course," said the merchant. 

" She could not have taken the money, because in her 
position she would hardly know what to do with it." 

" That's just what I say," remarked the merchant. 

" But it is very likely that her coming put the idea into 
the servants' heads and that they grasped the opportunity 
and shoved all the blame on her." 

Peter Gerasimovitch spoke so irritably that the foreman 
became irritated too, and went on obstinately defending 
the opposite views ; but Peter Gerasimovitch spoke so con- 
vincingly that the majority agreed with him, and decided 
that Maslova was not guilty of stealing the money and that 
the ring was given her. 

But when the question of her having taken part in the 
poisoning was raised, her zealous defender, the merchant, 
declared that she must be acquitted, because she could have 
no reason for the poisoning. The foreman, however, said 
that it was impossible to acquit her, because she herself had 
pleaded guilty to having given the powder. 

" Yes, but thinking it was opium," said the merchant. 

" Opium can also deprive one of life," said the colonel, 
who was fond of wandering from the subject, and he began 
telling how his brother-in-law's wife would have died of an 
overdose of opium if there had not been a doctor near at 

90 Resurrection 

hand to take the necessary measures. The colonel told his 
story so impressively, with such self-possession and dignity, 
that no one had the courage to interrupt him. Only the 
clerk, infected by his example, decided to break in with a 
story of his own : " There are some who get so used to it 

that they can take 40 drops. I have a relative ," but 

the colonel would not stand the interruption, and went on 
to relate what effects the opium had on his brother-in-law's 

" But, gentlemen, do you know it is getting on towards 
five o'clock? " said one of the jury. 

" Well, gentlemen, what are we to say, then?" inquired 
the foreman. " Shall we say she is guilty, but without in- 
tent to rob? And without stealing any property? Will 
that do?" 

Peter Gerasimovitch, pleased with his victory, agreed. 

" But she must be recommended to mercy," said the 

All agreed ; only the old artelshik insisted that they should 
say " Not guilty." 

" It comes to the same thing," explained the foreman ; 
" without intent to rob, and without stealing any property. 
Therefore, ' Not guilty/ that's evident." 

" All right ; that'll do. And we recommend her to 
mercy," said the merchant, gaily. 

They were all so tired, so confused by the discussions, 
that nobody thought of saying that she was guilty of giv- 
ing the powder but without the intent of taking life. Nekh- 
iudoff was so excited that he did not notice this omission, 
and so the answers were written down in the form agreed 
upon and taken to the court. 

Rabelais says that a lawyer who was trying a case quoted 
all sorts of laws, read 20 pages of judicial senseless Latin, 
and then proposed to the judges to throw dice, and if the 
numbers proved odd the defendant would be right, if not, 
the plaintiff. 

It was much the same in this case. The resolution was 
taken, not because everybody agreed upon it, but because 
the president, who had been summing up at such length, 
omitted to say what he always said on such occasions, that 
the answer might be, u Yes, guilty, but without the intent 
of taking life ;" because the colonel had related the story of 
his brother-in-law's wife at such great length ; because 

Resurrection 91 

Nekhhidoff was too excited to notice that the proviso 
" without intent to take life " had been omitted, and 
thought that the words " without intent " nullified the con- 
viction; because Peter Gerasimovitch had retired from the 
room while the questions and answers were being read, and 
chiefly because, being tired, and wishing to get away as 
soon as possible, all were ready to agree with the decision 
which would bring matters to an end soonest. 

The jurymen rang the bell. The gendarme who had 
stood outside the door with his sword drawn put the sword 
back into the scabbard and stepped aside. The judges took 
their seats and the jury came out one by one. 

The foreman brought in the paper with an air of solem- 
nity and handed it to the president, who looked at it, and, 
spreading out his hands in astonishment, turned to consult 
his companions. The president was surprised that the jury, 
having put in a proviso — without intent to rob — did not put 
in a second proviso — without intent to take life. From the 
decision of the jury it followed that Maslova had not stolen, 
nor robbed, and yet poisoned a man without any apparent 

" Just see what an absurd decision they have come to," 
he whispered to the member on his left. " This means 
penal servitude in Siberia, and she is innocent." 

" Surely you do not mean to say she is innocent ? " 
answered the serious member. 

" Yes, she is positively innocent. I think this is a case 
for putting Article 817 into practice (Article 817 states that 
if the Court considers the decision of the jury unjust it may 
set it aside)." 

" What do you think ? " said the president, turning to the 
other member. The kindly member did not answer at 
once. He looked at the number on a paper before him and 
added up the figures ; the sum would not divide by three. 
He had settled in his mind that if it did divide by three he 
would agree to the president's proposal, but though the 
sum would not so divide his kindness made him agree all 
the same. 

" I, too, think it should be done," he said. 

" And you ? " asked the president, turning to the serious 

" On no account," he answered, firmly. " As it is, the 
papers accuse the jury of acquitting prisoners. What will 

92 Resurrection 

they say if the Court does it? I shall not agree to that on 
any account. " 

The president looked at his watch. " It is a pity, but 
what's to be done ? " and handed the questions to the fore- 
man to read out. All got up, and the foreman, stepping 
from foot to foot, coughed, and read the questions and the 
answers. All the Court, secretary, advocates, and even the 
public prosecutor, expressed surprise. The prisoners sat 
impassive, evidently not understanding the meaning of the 
answers. Everybody sat down again, and the president 
asked the prosecutor what punishments the prisoners were 
to be subjected to. 

The prosecutor, glad of his unexpected success in getting 
Maslova convicted, and attributing the success entirely to 
his own eloquence, looked up the necessary information, 
rose and said : 

" With Simeon Kartinkin I should deal according to 
Statute 1,452 paragraph 93. Euphemia Botchkova accord- 
ing to Statute . . ., etc. Katerina Maslova according 
to Statute . . ., etc/' 

All three punishments were the heaviest that could be 

" The Court will adjourn to consider the sentence, " said 
the president, rising. Everybody rose after him, and with 
the pleasant feeling of a task well done began to leave the 
room or move about in it. 

" D'you know, sirs, we have made a shameful hash of 
it ? " said Peter Gerasimovitch, approaching Nekhludoff , to 
whom the foreman was relating something. "Why, We've 
got her to Siberia/' 

"What are you saying?" exclaimed Nekhludoff. This 
time he did not notice the teacher's familiarity. 

" Why, we did not put in our answer ' Guilty, but with- 
out intent of causing death.' The secretary just told me the 
public prosecutor is for condemning her to 15 years' penal 

" Well, but it was decided so," said the foreman. 

Peter Gerasimovitch began to dispute this, saying that 
since she did not take the money it followed naturally that 
she could not have had any intention of committing murder. 

" But I read the answer before going out," said the fore- 
man, defending himself, " and nobody objected." 

" I had just then gone out of the room," said Peter 

Resurrection 93 

Gerasimovitch, turning to Nekhludoff, " and your thoughts 
must have been wool-gathering to let the thing pass." 

" I never imagined this/' Nekhludoff replied. 

"Oh, you didn't?" 

" Oh, well, we can get it put right," said Nekhludoff . 

" Oh, dear no ; it's finished." 

Nekhludoff looked at the prisoners. They whose fate 
was being decided still sat motionless behind the grating in 
front of the soldiers. Maslova was smiling. Another feel- 
ing stirred in Nekhludoff's soul. Up to now, expecting her 
acquittal and thinking she would remain in the town, he 
was uncertain how to act towards her. Any kind of re- 
lations with her would be so very difficult. But Siberia and 
penal servitude at once cut off every possibility of any kind 
of relations with her. The wounded bird would stop strug- 
gling in the game-bag, and no longer remind him of its 

94 Resurrection 



Peter Gerasimovitch's assumption was correct. The 
president came back from the debating room with a paper, 
and read as follows : — " April 28th, 188 — . By His Imperial 

Majesty's ukase No. The Criminal Court, on the 

strength of the decision of the jury, in accordance with Sec- 
tion 3 of Statute 771, Section 3 of Statutes 776 and 77 J y de- 
crees that the peasant, Simeon Kartinkin, 33 years of age, 
and the meschanka Katerina Maslova, 27 years of age, are 
to be deprived of all property rights and to be sent to penal 
servitude in Siberia, Kartinkin for eight, Maslova for four 
years, with the consequences stated in Statute 25 of the 
code. The meschanka Botchkova, 43 years of age, to be 
deprived of all special personal and acquired rights, and to 
be imprisoned for three years with consequences in accord 
with Statute 48 of the code. The costs of the case to be 
borne equally by the prisoners ; and, in the case of their 
being without sufficient property, the costs to be trans^ 
ferred to the Treasury. Articles of material evidence to be 
sold, the ring to be returned, the phials destroyed/' Botch- 
kova was condemned to prison, Simeon Kartinken and 
Katerina Maslova to the loss of all special rights and 
privileges and to penal servitude in Siberia, he for eight and 
she for four years. 

Kartinkin stood holding his arms close to his sides and 
moving his lips. Botchkova seemed perfectly calm. 
Maslova, when she heard the sentence, blushed scarlet. 
" I'm not guilty, not guilty ! " she suddenly cried, so that it 
resounded through the room. " It is a sin ! I am not 
guilty ! I never wished — I never thought ! It is the truth I 
am saying — the truth ! " and sinking on the bench she burst 
into tears and sobbed aloud. When Kartinkin and Botch- 
Kova went out she still sat crying, so that a gendarme had 
to touch the sleeve of her cloak. 

" No ; it is impossible to leave it as it is," said Nekhludofr 

Resurrection 95 

to himself, utterly forgetting his bad thoughts. He did 
not know why he wished to look at her once more, but 
hurried out into the corridor. There was quite a crowd at 
the door. The advocates and jury were going out, pleased 
to have finished the business, and he was obliged to wait 
a few seconds, and when he at last got out into the corridor 
she was far in front. He hurried along the corridor after 
her, regardless of the attention he was arousing, caught 
her up, passed her, and stopped. She had ceased crying 
and only sobbed, wiping her red, discoloured face with the 
end of the kerchief on her head. She passed without notic- 
ing him. Then he hurried back to see the president. The 
latter had already left the court, and Nekhludoff followed 
him into the lobby and went up to him just as he had put 
on his light grey overcoat and was taking the silver- 
mounted walking-stick which an attendant was handing 

" Sir, may I have a few words with you concerning some 
business I have just decided upon?" said Nekhludoff. "I 
am one of the jury/' 

" Oh, certainly, Prince Nekhludoff. I shall be delighted. 
I think we have met before," said the president, pressing 
NekhludofFs hand and recalling with pleasure the evening 
when he first met Nekhludoff, and when he had danced so 
gaily, better than all the young people. " What can I do for 
you ? " 

" There is a mistake in the answer concerning Maslova. 
She is not guilty of the poisoning and yet she is condemned 
to penal servitude," said Nekhludoff, with a preoccupied 
and gloomy air. 

" The Court passed the sentence in accordance with the 
answers you yourselves gave," said the president, moving 
towards the front door ; " though they did not seem to be 
quite in accord." And he remembered that he had been 
going to explain to the jury that a verdict of " guilty " 
meant guilty of intentional murder unless the words " with- 
out intent to take life " were added, but had, in his hurry to 
get the business over, omitted to do so. 

" Yes, but could not the mistake be rectified ? " 

" A reason for an appeal can always be found. You will 
have to speak to an advocate," said the president, putting 
on his hat a little to one side and continuing to move 
towards the door. 

96 Resurrection 

" But this is terrible." 

" Well, you see, there were two possibilities before Mas- 
lova," said the president, evidently wishing to be as polite 
and pleasant to Nekhludoff as he could. Then, having ar- 
ranged his whiskers over his coat collar, he put his hand 
lightly under Nekhludoff's elbow, and, still directing his 
steps towards the front door, he said, " You are going, 

" Yes," said Nekhludoff, quickly getting his coat, and 
following him. 

They went out into the bright, merry sunlight, and had 
to raise their voices because of the rattling of the wheels on 
the pavement. 

" The situation is a curious one, you see," said the presi- 
dent ; " what lay before this Maslova was one of two things : 
either to be almost acquitted and only imprisoned for a 
short time, or, taking the preliminary confinement into 
consideration, perhaps not at all — or Siberia. There is 
nothing between. Had you but added the words, ' without 
intent to cause death/ she would have been acquitted." 

" Yes, it was inexcusable of me to omit that," said Nekh- 

" That's where the whole matter lies," said the president, 
with a smile, and looked at his watch. He had only three- 
quarters of an hour left before the time appointed by his 
Clara would elapse. 

" Now, if you like to speak to the advocates you'll have 
to find a reason for an appeal ; that can be easily done." 
Then, turning to an isvostchik, he called out, " To the 
Dvoryanskaya 30 copecks ; I never give more." 

" All right, your honour ; here you are." 

" Good-afternoon. If I can be of any use, my address is 
House Dvornikoff, on the Dvoryanskaya; it's easy to re- 
member." And he bowed in a friendly manner as he got 
into the trap and drove off. 

Resurrection 97 



His conversation with the president and the fresh air 
quieted Nekhludoff a little. He now thought that the feel- 
ings experienced by him had been exaggerated by the un- 
usual surroundings in which he had spent the whole of 
the morning, and by that wonderful and startling coinci- 
dence. Still, it was absolutely necessary to take some steps 
to lighten Maslova's fate, and to take them quickly. * Yes, 
at once ! It will be best to find out here in the court where 
the advocate Fanarin or Mikishin lives." These were two 
well-known advocates whom Nekhludoff called to mind. 
He returned to the court, took off his overcoat, and went 
upstairs. In the first corridor he met Fanarin himself. He 
stopped him, and told him that he was just going to look 
him up on a matter of business. 

Fanarin knew Nekhludoff by sight and name, and said 
he would be very glad to be of service to him. 

" Though I am rather tired, still, if your business will not 
take very long, perhaps you might tell me what it is now. 
Will you step in here ? " And he led Nekhludoff into a 
room, probably some judge's cabinet. They sat down by 
the table. 

" Well, and what is your business? " 

" First of all, I must ask you to keep the business private. 
I do not want it known that I take an interest in the affair." 

" Oh, that of course. Well?" 

" I was on the jury to-day, and we have condemned a 
woman to Siberia, an innocent woman. This bothers me 
very much." Nekhludoff, to his own surprise, blushed and 
became confused. Fanarin glanced at him rapidly, and 
looked down again, listening. 


" We have condemned a woman, and I should like to 
appeal to a higher court." 

g 8 Resurrection 

" To the Senate, you mean/' said Fanarin, correcting 

" Yes, and I should like to ask you to take the case in 
hand." Nekhludoff wanted to get the most difficult part 
over, and added, " I shall take the costs of the case on my- 
self, whatever they may be/' 

" Oh, we shall settle all that," said the advocate, smiling 
with condescension at Nekhludoff's inexperience in these 
matters. " What is the case? " 

Nekhludoff stated what had happened. 

" All right. I shall look the case through to-morrow or 
the day after — no — better on Thursday. If you will come 
to me at six o'clock I will give you an answer. Well, and 
now let us go ; I have to make a few inquiries here." 

Nekhludoff took leave of him and went out. This talk 
with the advocate, and the fact that he had taken measures 
for Maslova's defence, quieted him still further. He went 
out into the street. The weather was beautiful, and he joy- 
fully drew in a long breath of spring air. He was at once 
surrounded by isvostchiks offering their services, but he 
went on foot. A whole swarm of pictures and memories 
of Katusha and his conduct to her began whirling in his 
brain, and he felt depressed and everything appeared 
gloomy. " No, I shall consider all this later on ; I must 
now get rid of all these disagreeable impressions," he 
thought to himself. 

He remembered the Korchagin's dinner and looked at 
his watch. It was not yet too late to get there in time. 
He heard the ring of a passing tramcar, ran to catch it, and 
jumped on. He jumped off again when they got to the 
market-place, took a good isvostchik, and ten minutes later 
was at the entrance of the Korchagins' big house. 

Resurrection 99 



" Please to walk in, your excellency," said the friendly, 
fat doorkeeper of the Korchagins' big house, opening the 
door, which moved noiselessly on its patent English hinges ; 
" you are expected. They are at dinner. My orders were 
to admit only you." The doorkeeper went as far as the 
staircase and rang. 

"Are there any strangers?" asked Nekhludoff, taking 
off his overcoat. 

" Mr. Kolosoff and Michael Sergeivitch only, besides the 

A very handsome footman with whiskers, in a swallow- 
tail coat and white gloves, looked down from the landing. 

" Please to walk up, your excellency," he said. " You 
are expected." 

Nekhludoff went up and passed through the splendid 
large dancing-room, which he knew so well, into the din- 
ing-room. There the whole Korchagin family — except the 
mother, Sophia Vasilievna, who never left her cabinet — 
were sitting round the table. At the head of the table sat 
old Korchagin ; on his left the doctor, and on his right, a 
visitor, Ivan Ivanovitch Kolosoff, a former Marechal de 
Noblesse, now a bank director, Korchagin's friend and a 
Liberal. Next on the left side sat Miss Rayner, the gover- 
ness of Missy's little sister, and the four-year-old girl her- 
self. Opposite them, Missy's brother, Petia, the only son of 
the Korchagins, a public-school boy of the Sixth Class. 
It was because of his examinations that the whole family 
were still in town. Next to him sat a University student 
who was coaching him, and Missy's cousin, Michael Ser- 
geivitch Telegin, generally called Misha; opposite him, 
Katerina Alexeevna, a 40-year-old maiden lady, a Slavo- 
phil ; and at the foot of the table sat Missy herself, with an 
empty place by her side. 

1 00 Resurrection 

" Ah ! that's right ! Sit down. We are still at the fish," 
said old Korchagin with difficulty, chewing carefully with 
his false teeth, and lifting his bloodshot eyes (which had no 
visible lids to them) to Nekhludoff. 

" Stephen ! " he said, with his mouth full, addressing the 
stout, dignified butler, and pointing with his eyes to the 
.empty place. Though Nekhludoff knew Korchagin very 
well, and had often seen him at dinner, to-day this red face 
with the sensual smacking lips, the fat neck above the 
napkin stuck into his waistcoat, and the whole over-fed 
military figure, struck him very disagreeably. Then Nekh- 
ludoff remembered, without wishing to, what he knew of the 
cruelty of this man, who, when in command, used to have 
men flogged, and even hanged, without rhyme or reason, 
simply because he was rich and had no need to curry 

" Immediately, your excellency/' said Stephen, getting 
a large soup ladle out of the sideboard, which was decorated 
with a number of silver vases. He made a sign with his head 
to the handsome footman, who began at once to arrange 
the untouched knives and forks and the napkin, elaborately 
folded with the embroidered family crest uppermost, in 
front of the empty place next to Missy. Nekhludoff went 
round shaking hands with every one, and all, except old 
Korchagin and the ladies, rose when he approached. And 
this walk round the table, this shaking the hands of people, 
with many of whom he never talked, seemed unpleasant 
and odd. He excused himself for being late, and was about 
to sit down between Missy and Katerina Alexeevna, but old 
Korchagin insisted that if he would not take a glass of 
vodka he should at least take a bit of something to whet his 
appetite, at the side table, on which stood small dishes of 
lobster, caviare, cheese, and salt herrings. Nekhludoff did 
not know how hungry he was until he began to eat, and 
then, having taken some bread and cheese, he went on eat- 
ing eagerly. 

" Well, have you succeeded in undermining the basis of 
society ?" asked Kolosoff, ironically quoting an expression 
used by a retrogade newspaper in attacking trial by jury. 
" Acquitted the culprits and condemned the innocent, have 
you? " 

" Undermining the basis — undermining the basis," re- 
peated Prince Korchagin, laughing. He had a firm faith 

Resurrection 101 

in the wisdom and learning of his chosen friend and com- 

At the risk of seeming rude, Nekhludoff left KolosofFs 
question unanswered, and sitting down to his steaming 
soup, went on eating. 

" Do let him eat," said Missy, with a smile. The pro- 
noun him she used as a reminder of her intimacy with 
Nekhludoff. Kolosoff went on in a loud voice and lively 
manner to give the contents of the article against trial by 
jury which had aroused his indignation. Missy's cousin, 
Michael Sergeivitch, endorsed all his statements, and re- 
lated the contents of another article in the same paper. 
Missy was, as usual, very distinguee, and well, unobtru- 
sively well, dressed. 

" You must be terribly tired," she said, after waiting until 
Nekhludoff had swallowed what was in his mouth. 

"Not particularly. And you? Have you been to look 
at the pictures?" he asked. 

" No, we put that off. We have been playing tennis at 
the Salamatoffs'. It is quite true, Mr. Crooks plays re- 
markably well." 

Nekhludoff had come here in order to distract his 
thoughts, for he used to like being in this house, both be- 
cause its refined luxury had a pleasant effect on him and 
because of the atmosphere of tender flattery that unobtru- 
sively surrounded him. But to-day everything in the house 
was repulsive to him — everything: beginning with the 
doorkeeper, the broad staircase, the flowers, the footman, the 
table decorations, up to Missy herself, who to-day seemed 
unattractive and affected. Kolosoff's self-assured, trivial 
tone of liberalism was unpleasant, as was also the sensual, 
self-satisfied, bull-like appearance of old Korchagin, and the 
French phrases of Katerina Alexeevna, the Slavophil. The 
constrained looks of the governess and the student were un- 
pleasant, too, but most unpleasant of all was the pronoun 
him that Missy had used. Nekhludoff had long been wavering 
between two ways of regarding Missy ; sometimes he 
looked at her as if by moonlight, and could see in her noth- 
ing but what was beautiful, fresh, pretty, clever and natural ; 
then suddenly, as if the bright sun shone on her, he saw 
her defects and could not help seeing them. This was 
such a day for him. To-day he saw all the wrinkles of her 
face, knew which of her teeth were false, saw the wav her 

102 Resurrection 

hair was crimped, the sharpness of her elbows, and, above 
all, how large her thumb-nail was and how like her father's. 

" Tennis is a dull game," said Kolosoff ; " we used to play 
laptd when we were children. That was much more amus- 

" Oh, no, you never tried it ; it's awfully interesting/' said 
Missy, laying, it seemed to Nekhludoff, a very affected 
stress on the word " awfully." Then a dispute arose in 
which Michael Sergeivitch, Katerina Alexeevna and all the 
others took part, except the governess, the student and the 
children, who sat silent and wearied. 

" Oh, these everlasting disputes ! " said old Korchagin? 
laughing, and he pulled the napkin out of his waistcoat, 
noisily pushed back his chair, which the footman instantly 
caught hold of, and left the table. 

Everybody rose after him, and went up to another table 
on which stood glasses of scented water. They rinsed their 
mouths, then resumed the conversation, interesting to no 

"Don't you think so?" said Missy to Nekhludoff, call- 
ing for a confirmation of the statement that nothing shows 
up a man's character like a game. She noticed that preoc- 
cupied and, as it seemed to her, dissatisfied look which she 
feared, and she wanted to find out what had caused it. 

" Really, I can't tell ; I have never thought about it," 
Nekhludoff answered. 

" Will you come to mamma? " asked Missy. 

" Yes, yes," he said, in a tone which plainly proved that 
he did not want to go, and took out a cigarette. 

She looked at him in silence, with a questioning look, 
and he felt ashamed. " To come into a house and give the 
people the dumps," he thought about himself; then, trying 
to be amiable, said that he would go with pleasure if the 
princess would admit him. 

" Oh, yes ! Mamma will be pleased. You may smoke 
there ; and Ivan Ivanovitch is also there." 

The mistress of the house, Princess Sophia Vasilievna, 
was a recumbent lady. It was the eighth year that, when 
visitors were present, she lay in lace and ribbons, sur- 
rounded with velvet, gilding, ivory, bronze, lacquer and 
flowers, never going out, and only, as she put it, receiving 
intimate friends, i.e., those who according to her idea stood 
out from the common herd. 

Resurrection 103 

Nekhludoff was admitted into the number of these 
friends because he was considered clever, because his 
mother had been an intimate friend of the family, and be- 
cause it was desirable that Missy should marry him. 

Sophia Vasilievna's room lay beyond the large and the 
small drawing-rooms. In the large drawing-room, Missy, 
who was in front of Nekhludoff, stopped resolutely, and 
taking hold of the back of a small green chair, faced him. 

Missy was very anxious to get married, and as he was a 
suitable match and she also liked him, she had accustomed 
herself to the thought that he should be hers (not she his). 
To lose him would be very mortifying. She now began 
talking to him in order to get him to explain his intentions. 

" I see something has happened/' she said. " Tell me, 
what is the matter with you ? " 

He remembered the meeting in the law court, and 
frowned and blushed. 

" Yes, something has happened," he said, wishing to be 
truthful ; " a very unusual and serious event." 

" What is it, then? Can you not tell me what it is? " 

She was pursuing her aim with that unconscious yet ob- 
stinate cunning often observable in the mentally diseased. 

" Not now. Please do not ask me to tell you. I have 
not yet had time fully to consider it," and he blushed still 

" And so you will not tell me? " A muscle twitched in her 
face and she pushed back the chair she was holding. " Well 
then, come ! " She shook her head as if to expel useless 
thoughts, and, faster than usual, went on in front of him. 

He fancied that her mouth was unnaturally compressed 
in order to keep back the teaio. He was ashamed of having 
hurt her, and yet he knew that the least weakness on his 
part would mean disaster, i.e., would bind him to her. And 
to-day he feared this more than anything, and silentl}/ 
followed her to the princess's cabinet. 

1 04 Resurrection 



Princess Sophia Vasilievna, Missy's mother, had fin- 
ished her very elaborate and nourishing dinner. (She had it 
always alone, that no one should see her performing this un- 
poetical function.) By her couch stood a small table with 
her coffee, and she was smoking a pachitos. Princess 
Sophia Vasilievna was a long, thin woman, with dark hair, 
large black eyes and long teeth, and still pretended to be 

Her intimacy with the doctor was being talked about. 
Nekhludoff had known that for some time ; but when he saw 
the doctor sitting by her couch, his oily, glistening beard 
parted in the middle, he not only remembered the rumours 
about them, but felt greatly disgusted. By the table, on a 
low, soft, easy chair, next to Sophia Vasilievna, sat Kolo- 
soff, stirring his coffee. A glass of liqueur stood on the 
table. Missy came in with Nekhludoff, but did not remain 
in the room. 

" When mamma gets tired of you and drives you away, 
then come to me," she said, turning to Kolosoff and Nekh- 
ludoff, speaking as if nothing had occurred ; then she went 
away, smiling merrily and stepping noiselessly on the thick 

" How do you do, dear friend? Sit down and talk," said 
Princess Sophia Vasilievna, with her affected but very 
naturally-acted smile, showing her fine, long teeth — a 
splendid imitation of what her own had once been. " I 
hear that you have come from the Law Courts very much 
depressed. I think it must be very trying to a person with 
a heart," she added in French. 

" Yes, that is so," said Nekhludoff. " One often feels 
one's own de one feels one has no right to judge." 

" Comme, c'est vrai" she cried, as if struck by the truth 

Resurrection 105 

of this remark. She was in the habit of artfully flattering 
all those with whom she conversed. " Well, and what of 
your picture ? It does interest me so. If I were not such a 
sad invalid I should have been to see it long ago/' she said. 

" I have quite given it up," Nekhludoff replied drily. The 
falseness of her flattery seemed as evident to him to-day as 
her age, which she was trying to conceal, and he could not 
put himself into the right state to behave politely. 

" Oh, that is a pity ! Why, he has a real talent for art ; I 
have it from Repin's own lips," she added, turning to K61o j 

" Why is it she is not ashamed of lying so? " Nekhludoff 
thought, and frowned. 

When she had convinced herself that Nekhludoff was in 
a bad temper and that one could not get him into an agree- 
able and clever conversation, Sophia Vasilievna turned to 
Kolosoff, asking his opinion of a new play. She asked it in 
a tone as if Kolosoff's opinion would decide all doubts, and 
each word of this opinion be worthy of being immortalised. 
Kolosoff found fault both with the play and its author, and 
that led him to express his views on art. Princess Sophia 
Vasilievna, while trying at the same time to defend the play, 
seemed impressed by the truth of his arguments, either 
giving in at once, or at least modifying her opinion. Nekh- 
ludoff looked and listened, but neither saw nor heard what 
was going on before him. 

Listening now to Sophia Vasilievna, now to Kolosoff, 
Nekhludoff noticed that neither he nor she cared anything 
about the play or each other, and that if they talked it was 
only to gratify the physical desire to move the muscles of 
the throat and tongue after having eaten ; and that Kolosoff, 
having drunk vodka, wine and liqueur, was a little tipsy. 
Not tipsy like the peasants who drink seldom, but like peo- 
ple to whom drinking wine has become a habit. He did 
not reel about or talk nonsense, but he was in a state that 
was not normal ; excited and self-satisfied. Nekhludoff also 
noticed that during the conversation Princess Sophia 
Vasilievna kept glancing uneasily at the window, through 
which a slanting ray of sunshine, which might vividly light 
up her aged face, was beginning to creep up. 

" How true," she said in reference to some remark of 
Kolosoff's, touching the button of an electric bell by the 
side of her couch. The doctor rose, and, like one who is at 

1 06 Resurrection 

home, left the room without saying anything. Sophia 
Vasilievna followed him with her eyes and continued the 

" Please, Philip, draw these curtains/' she said, pointing 
to the window, when the handsome footman came in answer 
to the bell. " No ; whatever you may say, there is some 
mysticism in him ; without mysticism there can be no 
poetry/' she said, with one of her black eyes angrily follow- 
ing the footman's movements as he was drawing the cur- 
tains. " Without poetry, mysticism is superstition ; with- 
out mysticism, poetry is — prose," she continued, with a 
sorrowful smile, still not losing sight of the footman and 
the curtains. " Philip, not that curtain ; the one on the large 
window/' she exclaimed, in a suffering tone. Sophia 
Vasilievna was evidently pitying herself for having to make 
the effort of saying these words ; and, to soothe her feel- 
ings, she raised to her lips a scented, smoking cigarette with 
her jewel-bedecked fingers. 

The broad-chested, muscular, handsome Philip bowed 
slightly, as if begging pardon ; and stepping lightly across 
the carpet with his broad-calved, strong legs, obediently 
and silently went to the other window, and, looking at the 
princess, carefully began to arrange the curtain so that not 
a single ray dared fall on her. But again he did not satisfy 
her, and again she had to interrupt the conversation about 
mysticism, and correct in a martyred tone the unintelligent 
Philip, who was tormenting her so pitilessly. For a mo- 
ment a light flashed in Philip's eyes. 

" ' The devil take you ! What do you want? ' was probably 
what he said to himself," thought Nekhludoff, who had been 
observing all this scene. But the strong, handsome Philip 
at once managed to conceal the signs of his impatience, and 
went on quietly carrying out the orders of the worn, weak, 
false Sophia Vasilievna. 

" Of course, there is a good deal of truth in Lombroso's 
teaching," said Kolosoff, lolling back in the low chair and 
looking at Sophia Vasilievna with sleepy eyes ; " but he over- 
stepped the mark. Oh, yes." 

And you? Do you believe in heredity? " asked Sophia 
Vasilievna, turning to Nekhludoff, whose silence annoyed 

" In heredity?" he asked. " No, I don't." At this mo- 
ment his whole mind was taken up by strange images that in 

Resurrection 1 07 

some unaccountable way rose up in his imagination. By the 
side of this strong and handsome Philip he seemed at this 
minute to see the nude figure of Kolosoff as an artist's 
model ; with his stomach like a melon, his bald head, and his 
arms without muscle, like pestles. In the same dim way the 
limbs of Sophia Vasilievna, now covered with silks and vel- 
vets, rose up in his mind as they must be in reality ; but this 
mental picture was too horrid and he tried to drive it away. 

" Well, you know Missy is waiting for you," she said. 
" Go and find her. She wants to play a new piece by Grieg 
to you ; it is most interesting." 

" She did not mean to play anything ; the woman is simply 
lying, for some reason or other," thought Nekhludoff , rising 
and pressing Sophia Vasilievna's transparent and bony, 
ringed hand. 

Katerina Alexeevna met him in the drawing-room, and at 
once began, in French, as usual : 

" I see the duties of a juryman act depressingly upon 

" Yes ; pardon me, I am in low spirits to-day, and have no 
right to weary others by my presence," said Nekhludoff. 

" Why are you in low spirits? " 

" Allow me not to speak about that," he said, looking 
round for his hat. 

" Don't you remember how you used to say that we must 
always tell the truth ? And what cruel truths you used to tell 
us all ! Why do you not wish to speak out now ? Don't you 
remember, Missy ? " she said, turning to Missy, who had 
just come in. 

" We were playing a game then," said Nekhludoff, seri- 
ously ; " one may tell the truth in a game, but in reality we 
are so bad — I mean I am so bad — that I, at least, cannot 
tell the truth." 

" Oh, do not correct yourself, but rather tell us why we are 
so bad," said Katerina Alexeevna, playing with her words 
and pretending not to notice how serious Nekhludoff was. 

" Nothing is worse than to confess to being in low spirits," 
said Missy. " I never do it, and therefore am always in 
good spirits." 

Nekhludoff felt as a horse must feel when it is being 
caressed to make it submit to having the bit put in its mouth 
and be harnessed, and to-day he felt less than ever inclined 
to draw. 

108 Resurrection 

"Well, are you coming into my room? We will try to 
cheer you up." 

He excused himself, saying he had to be at home, and 
began taking leave. Missy kept his hand longer than usual. 

" Remember that what is important to you is important 
to your friends," she said. " Are you coming to-morrow? " 

" I hardly expect to," said Nekhludoff ; and feeling 
ashamed, without knowing whether for her or for himself, 
he blushed and went away. 

" What is it ? Comme cela m'intrigue" said Katerina 
Alexeevna. " I must find it out. I suppose it is some affaire 
d' amour propre; il est tres susceptible, notre cher Mitia." 

" Plutot une affaire d } 'amour sale/' Missy was going to say, 
but stopped and looked down with a face from which all the 
light had gone — a very different face from the one with 
which she had looked at him. She would not mention to 
Katerina Alexeevna even, so vulgar a pun, but only said, 
" We all have our good and our bad days." 

"Is it possible that he, too, will deceive?" she thought; 
" after all that has happened it would be very bad of him." 

If Missy had had to explain what she meant by " after all 
that has happened," she could have said nothing definite, and 
yet she knew that he had not only excited her hopes but had 
almost given her a promise. No definite words had passed 
between them — only looks and smiles and hints ; and yet she 
considered him as her own, and to lose him would be very 

Resurrection 1 09 



" Shameful and stupid, horrid and shameful ! " Nekhlu- 
doff kept saying to himself, as he walked home along the 
familiar streets. The depression he had felt whilst speaking 
to Missy would not leave him. He felt that, looking at it 
externally, as it were, he was in the right, for he had never 
said anything to her that could be considered binding, never 
made her an offer ; but he knew that in reality he had bound 
himself to her, had promised to be hers. And yet to-day he 
felt with his whole being that he could not marry her. 

" Shameful and horrid, horrid and shameful ! " he re- 
peated to himself, with reference not only to his relations 
with Missy but also to the rest. " Everything is horrid and 
shameful/' he muttered, as he stepped into the porch of his 
house. " I am not going to have any supper," he said to his 
manservant Corney, who followed him into the dining-room, 
where the cloth was laid for supper and tea. " You may go." 

" Yes, sir," said Corney, yet he did not go, but began 
clearing the supper off the table. Nekhludoff looked at Cor- 
ney with a feeling of ill-will. He wished to be left alone, 
and it seemed to him that everybody was bothering him in 
order to spite him. When Corney had gone away with the 
supper things, Nekhludoff moved to the tea urn and was 
about to make himself some tea, but hearing Agraphena 
Petrovna's footsteps, he went hurriedly into the drawing- 
room, to avoid being seen by her, and shut the door after him. 
In this drawing-room his mother had died three months be- 
fore. On entering the room, in which two lamps with reflect- 
ors were burning, one lighting up his father's and the other 
his mother's portrait, he remembered what his last relations 
with his mother had been. And they also seemed shameful 
and horrid. He remembered how, during the latter period 
of her illness, he had simply wished her to die. He had said 
to himself that he wished it for her sake, that she might be 

no Resurrection 

released from her suffering, but in reality he wished to be 
released from the sight of her sufferings for his own sake. 

Trying to recall a pleasant image of her, he went up to 
look at her portrait, painted by a celebrated artist for 800 
roubles. She was depicted in a very low-necked black vel- 
vet dress. There was something very revolting and blas- 
phemous in this representation of his mother as a half-nude 
beauty. It was all the more disgusting because three months 
ago, in this very room, lay this same woman, dried up to a 
mummy. And he remembered how a few days before her 
death she clasped his hand with her bony, discoloured fingers, 
looked into his eyes, and said : " Do not judge me, Mitia, if I 
have not done what I should/' and how the tears came into 
her eyes, grown pale with suffering. 

" Ah, how horrid ! " he said to himself, looking up once 
more at the half-naked woman, with the splendid marble 
shoulders and arms, and the triumphant smile on her lips. 
" Oh, how horrid ! " The bared shoulders of the portrait re- 
minded him of another, a young woman, whom he had seen 
exposed in the same way a few days before. It was Missy, 
who had devised an excuse for calling him into her room just 
as she was ready to go to a ball, so that he should see her in 
her ball dress. It was with disgust that he remembered her 
fine shoulders and arms. " And that father of hers, with his 
doubtful past and his cruelties, and the bel-esprit her mother, 
with her doubtful reputation. " All this disgusted him, and 
also made him feel ashamed. " Shameful and horrid ; hor- 
rid and shameful ! " 

" No, no," he thought ; " freedom from all these false re- 
lations with the Korchagins and Mary Vasilievna and the in- 
heritance and from all the rest must be got. Oh, to breathe 
freely, to go abroad, to Rome and work at my picture ! He 
remembered the doubts he had about his talent for art. 
" Well, never mind; only just to breathe freely. First Con- 
stantinople, then Rome. Only just to get through with this 
jury business, and arrange with the advocate first." 

Then suddenly there arose in his mind an extremely vivid 
picture of a prisoner with black, slightly-squinting eyes, and 
how she began to cry when the last words of the prisoners 
had been heard ; and he hurriedly put out his cigarette, 
pressing it into the ash-pan, lit another, and began pacing up 
and down the room. One after another the scenes he had 
lived through with her rose in his mind. He recalled that 

Resurrection 1 1 1 

last interview with her. He remembered the white dress 
and blue sash, the early mass. " Why, I loved her, really 
loved her with a good, pure love, that night ; I loved her even 
before : yes, I loved her when I lived with my aunts the first 
time and was writing my composition. " And he remem- 
bered himself as he had been then. A breath of that fresh- 
ness, youth and fulness of life seemed to touch him, and he 
grew painfully sad. The difference between what he had been 
then and what he was now, was enormous — just as great, if 
not greater than the difference between Katiisha in church that 
night, and the prostitute who had been carousing with the 
merchant and whom they judged this morning. Then he was 
free and fearless, and innumerable possibilities lay ready to 
open before him ; now he felt himself caught in the meshes of 
a stupid, empty, valueless frivolous life, out of which he saw 
no means of extricating himself even if he wished to, which 
he hardly did. He remembered how proud he was at one 
time of his straightforwardness, how he had made a rule of 
always speaking the truth, and really had been truthful ; 
.and how he was now sunk deep in lies : in the most dreadful 
of lies — lies considered as the truth by all who surrounded 
him. And, as far as he could see, there was no way out of 
these lies. He had sunk in the mire, got used to it, in- 
dulged himself in it. 

How was he to break off his relations with Mary Vasi- 
lievna and her husband in such a way as to be able to look 
him and his children in the eyes ? How disentangle himself 
from Missy? How choose between the two opposites — the 
recognition that holding land was unjust and the heritage 
from his mother ? How atone for his sin against Katiisha ? 
This last, at any rate, could net be left as it was. He could 
not abandon a woman he had loved, and satisfy himself by 
paying money to an advocate to save her from hard labour 
in Siberia. She had not even deserved hard labour. Atone 
for a fault by paying money? Had he not then, when he 
gave her the money, thought he was atoning for his fault ? 

And he clearly recalled to mind that moment when, having 
caught her up in the passage, he thrust the money into her 
bib and ran away. " Oh, that money ! " he thought with the 
same horror and disgust he had then felt. " Oh, dear ! oh, 
dear ! how disgusting," he cried aloud as he had done then. 
" Only a scoundrel, a knave, could do such a thing. And I — 
I am that knave, that seovmdrel ! " He went on aloud : 

1 1 2 "Resurrection 

" But is it possible ? " — he stopped and stood still — " is it pos- 
sible that I am really a scoundrel? "..'," Well, who but 
I ? " he answered himself. " And then, is this the only 
thing? " he went on, convicting himself. " Was not my con- 
duct towards Mary Vasilievna and her husband base and dis- 
gusting? And my position with regard to money? To use 
riches considered by me unlawful on the plea that they are 
inherited from my mother? And the whole of my idle, de- 
testable life? And my conduct towards Katusha to crown 
all? Knave and scoundrel! Let men judge me as they like, 
I can deceive them ; but myself I cannot deceive." 

And, suddenly, he understood that the aversion he had 
lately, and particularly to-day, felt for everybody — the 
Prince and Sophia Vasilievna and Corney and Missy — was 
an aversion for himself. And, strange to say, in this ac- 
knowledgment of hir baseness there was something painful 
yet joyful and quieting. 

More than once in Nekhludoff's life there had been what he 
called a " cleansing of the soul." By " cleansing of the soul " 
he meant a state of mind in which, after a long period of slug- 
gish inner life, a total cessation of its activity, he began to 
clear out all the rubbish that had accumulated in his soul, 
and was the cause of the cessation of the true life. His soul 
needed cleansing as a watch does. After such an awakening 
Nekhludoff always made some rules for himself which he 
meant to follow forever after, wrote his diary, and began 
afresh a life which he hoped never to change again. " Turn- 
ing over a new leaf," he called it to himself in English. But 
each time the temptations of the world entrapped him, and 
without noticing it he fell again, often lower than before. 

Thus he had several times in his life raised and cleansed 
himself. The first time this happened was during the sum- 
mer he spent with his aunts ; that was his most vital and rap- 
turous awakening, and its effects had lasted some time. 
Another awakening was when he gave up civil service and 
joined the army at war time, ready to sacrifice his life. But 
here the choking-up process was soon accomplished. Then 
an awakening came when he left the army and went abroad, 
devoting himself to art. 

From that time until this day a long period had elapsed 
without any cleansing, and therefore the discord between the 
demands of his conscience and the life he was leading was 
greater than it had ever been before. He was horror-struck 

Resurrection 113 

when he saw how great the divergence was. It was so great 
and the defilement so complete that he despaired of the possi- 
bility of getting cleansed. " Have you not tried before to per- 
fect yourself and become better, and nothing has come of it?" 
whispered the voice of the tempter within. " What is the use 
of trying any more? Are you the only one? — All are alike, such 
is life," whispered the voice. But the free spiritual being, 
which alone is true, alone powerful, alone eternal, had al- 
ready awakened in Nekhludoff, and he could not but believe 
it. Enormous though the distance was between what he 
wished to be and what he was, nothing appeared insur- 
mountable to the newly-awakened spiritual being. 

" At any cost I will break this lie which binds me and 
confess everything, and will tell everybody the truth, and act 
the truth, " he said resolutely, aloud. " I shall tell Missy 
the truth, tell her I am a profligate and cannot marry her, 
and have only uselessly upset her. I shall tell Mary Vasi- 
lievna. . . . Oh, there is nothing to tell her. I shall tell her 
husband that I, scoundrel that I am, have been deceiving 
him. I shall dispose of the inheritance in such a way as to 
acknowledge the truth. I shall tell her, Katusha, that I am a 
scoundrel and have sinned towards her, and will do all I 
can to ease her lot. Yes, I will see her, and will ask her to 
forgive me. 

" Yes, I will beg her pardon, as children do." . . . He 
stopped — " will marry her if necessary." He stopped again, 
folded his hands in front of his breast as he used to do when 
a little child, lifted his eyes, and said, addressing some one : 
" Lord, help me, teach me, come enter within me and purify 
me of all this abomination." 

He prayed, asking God to help him, to enter into him and 
cleanse him ; and what he was praying for had happened al- 
ready : the God within him had awakened his consciousness. 
He felt himself one with Him, and therefore felt not only 
the freedom, fulness and joy of life, but all the power of 
righteousness. All, all the best that a man could do he felt 
capable of doing. 

His eyes filled with tears as he was saying all this to him- 
self, good and bad tears : good because they were tears of 
joy at the awakening of the spiritual being within him, the 
being which had been asleep all these years ; and bad tears 
because they were tears of tenderness to himself at his own 

114 Resurrection 

He felt hot, and went to the window and opened it. The 
window opened into a garden. It was a moonlit, quiet, 
fresh night; a vehicle rattled past, and then all was still. 
The shadow of a tall poplar fell on the ground just opposite 
the window, and all the intricate pattern of its bare branches 
was clearly defined on the clean swept gravel. To the left 
the roof of a coach-house shone white in the moonlight, in 
front the black shadow of the garden wall was visible 
through the tangled branches of the trees. 

Nekhludoff gazed at the roof, the moonlit garden, and 
the shadows of the poplar, and drank in the fresh, invig- 
orating air. 

" How delightful, how delightful ; oh, God, how delight- 
ful ! " he said, meaning that which was going on in his soul. 

Resurrection 1 1 5 



Maslova reached her cell only at six in the evening, tired 
and footsore, having, unaccustomed as she was to walking, 
gone 10 miles on the stony road that day. She was crushed 
by the unexpectedly severe sentence and tormented by 
hunger. During the first interval of her trial, when the 
soldiers were eating bread and hard-boiled eggs in her 
presence, her mouth watered and she realised she was 
hungry, but considered it beneath her dignity to beg of 
them. Three hours later the desire to eat had passed, and 
she felt only weak. It was then she received the unexpected 
sentence. At first she thought she had made a mistake; 
she could not imagine herself as a convict in Siberia, and 
could not believe what she heard. But seeing the quiet, 
business-like faces of judges and jury, who heard this news 
as if it were perfectly natural and expected, she grew in- 
dignant, and proclaimed loudly to the whole Court that she 
was not guilty. Finding that her cry was also taken as 
something natural and expected, and feeling incapable of 
altering matters, she was horror-struck and began to weep 
in despair, knowing that she must submit to the cruel and 
surprising injustice that had been done her. What 
astonished her most was that young men — or, at any rate, 
not old men — the same men who always looked so approv- 
ingly at her (one of them, the public prosecutor, she had 
seen in quite a different humour) had condemned her. 
While she was sitting in the prisoners' room before the trial 
and during the intervals, she saw these men looking in at 
the open door pretending they had to pass there on some 
business, or enter the room and gaze on her with approval. 
And then, for some unknown reason, these same men had 
condemned her to hard labour, though she was innocent 
of the charge laid against her. At first she cried, but then 
quieted down and sat perfectly stunned in the prisoners' 
room, waiting to be led back. She wanted only two things 
now — tobacco and strong- drink. In this state Botchko^a 

1 1 6 Resurrection 

and Kartinkin found her when they were led into the same 
room after being sentenced. Botchkova began at once to 
scold her, and call her a " convict." 

" Well ! What have you gained? Justified yourself, have 
you? What you have deserved, that you've got. Out in 
Siberia you'll give up your finery, no fear ! " 

Maslova sat with her hands inside her sleeves, hanging 
her head and looking in front of her at the. dirty floor with- 
out moving, only saying: "I don't bother you, so don't 
you bother me. I don't bother you, do I ? " she repeated this 
several times, and was silent again. She did brighten up a 
little when Botchkova and Kartinkin were led away and an 
attendant brought her three roubles. 

" Are you Maslova? " he asked. " Here you are ; a lady 
sent it you," he said, giving her the money. 

* A lady— what lady ? " 

" You just take it. I'm not going to talk to you." 

This money was sent by Kitaeva, the keeper of the house 
in which she used to live. As she was leaving the court she 
turned to the usher with the question whether she might 
give Maslova a little money. The usher said she might. 
Having got permission, she removed the three-buttoned 
Swedish kid glove from her plump, white hand, and from 
an elegant purse brought from the back folds of her silk 
skirt took a pile of coupons,* just cut off from the interest- 
bearing papers which she had earned in her establishment, 
chose one worth 2 roubles and 50 copecks, added two 20- 
and one 10-copeck coins, and gave all this to the usher. The 
usher called an attendant, and in his presence gave the 

" Blease to giff it accurately," said Carolina Albertovna 

The attendant was hurt by her want of confidence, and 
that was why he treated Maslova so brusquely. Maslova 
was glad of the money, because it could give her the only 
thing she now desired. " If I could but got cigarettes and 
take a whiff ! " she said to herself, and all her thoughts 
centred on the one desire to smoke and drink. She longed 
for spirits so that she tasted them and felt the strength they 
would give her ; and she greedily breathed in the air when 
the fumes of tobacco reached her from the door of a room 

* In Russia coupons cut off interest-bearing papers are often used 
as money. 

Resurrection 1 1 7 

that opened into the corridor. But she had to wait long, 
for the secretary, who should have given the order for her 
to go, forgot about the prisoners while talking and even 
disputing with one of the advocates about the article for- 
bidden by the censor. 

At last, about five o'clock, she was allowed to go, and was 
led away through the back door by her escort, the Nijni 
man and the Tchoovash. Then, still within the entrance to 
the Law Courts, she gave them 50 copecks, asking them to 
get her two rolls and some cigarettes. The Tchoovash 
laughed, took the money, and said, " All right ; I'll get 
'em," and really got her the rolls and the cigarettes and 
honestly returned the change. She was not allowed to 
smoke on the way, and, with her craving unsatisfied, she 
continued her way to the prison. When she was brought 
to the gate of the prison, a hundred convicts who 
had arrived by rail were being led in. The convicts, 
bearded, clean-shaven, old, young, Russians, foreigners, 
some with their heads shaved and rattling with the chains 
on their feet, filled the anteroom with dust, noise and an 
acid smell of perspiration. Passing Maslova, all the con- 
victs looked at her, and some came up to her and brushed 
her as they passed. 

" Ay, here's a wench — a fine one/' said one. 

" My respects to you, miss," said another, winking at 
her. One dark man with a moustache, the rest of his face 
and the back of his head clean shaved, rattling with his 
chains and catching her feet in them, sprang near and em- 
braced her. 

" What ! don't you know your chum ? Come, come ; 
don't give yourself airs," showing his teeth and his eyes 
glittering when she pushed him away. 

" You rascal ! what are you up to ? " shouted the in- 
spector's assistant, coming in from behind. The convict 
shrank back and jumped away. The assistant assailed 

'• What are you here for ? " 

Maslova was going to say she had been brought back 
from the Law Courts, but she was so tired that she did 
not care to speak. 

" She has returned from the Law Courts, sir," said one 
of the soldiers, coming forward with his fingers lifted to 
his cap. 

1 1 8 Resurrection 

" Well, hand her over to the chief warder. I won't have 
this sort of thing/' 

" Yes, sir." 

" Sokoloff, take her in ! " shouted the assistant inspector. 

The chief warder came up, gave Maslova a slap on the 
shoulder, and making a sign with his head for her to follow 
led her into the corridor of the women's ward. There she 
was searched, and as nothing prohibited was found on her 
(she had hidden her box of cigarettes inside a roll) she w r as 
led to the cell she had left in the morning. 

Resurrection 119 



The cell in which Maslova was imprisoned was a larger 
room 21 feet long and 16 feet broad; it had two windows 
and a large stove. Two-thirds of the space were taken up 
by shelves used as beds. The planks they were made of had 
warped and shrunk. Opposite the door hung a dark-col- 
oured icon with a wax candle sticking to it and a bunch of 
everlastings hanging down from it. By the door to the 
right there was a dark spot on the floor on which stood a 
stinking tub. The inspection had taken place and the 
women were locked up for the night. 

The occupants of this room were 15 persons, including 
three children. It was still quite light. Only two of the 
women were lying down : a consumptive woman imprisoned 
for theft, and an idiot who spent most of her time in sleep 
and who was arrested because she had no passport. The 
consumptive woman was not asleep, but lay with wide open 
eyes, her cloak folded under her head, trying to keep back 
the phlegm that irritated her throat, and not to cough. 

Some of the other women, most of whom had nothing 
on but coarse brown holland chemises, stood looking out 
of the window at the convicts down in the yard, and some 
sat sewing. Among the latter was the old woman, Kora- 
bleva, who had seen Maslova off in the morning. She was 
a tall, strong, gloomy-looking woman; her fair hair, which 
had begun to turn grey on the temples, hung down in a 
short plait. She was sentenced to hard labour in Siberia 
because she had killed her husband with an axe for making 
up to their daughter. She was at the head of the women in 
the cell, and found means of carrying on a trade in spirits 
with them. Beside her sat another woman sewing a coarse 
canvas sack. This was the wife of a railway watchman,* im- 

* There are small watchmen's cottages at distances of about one 
mile from each other along the Russian railways, and the watch- 
men or their wives have to meet every train. 

120 Resurrection 

prisoned for three months because she did not come out 
with the flags to meet a train that was passing, and an ac- 
cident had occurred. She was a short, snub-nosed woman, 
with small, black eyes ; kind and talkative. The third of the 
women who were sewing was Theodosia, a quiet young 
girl, white and rosy, very pretty, with bright child's eyes, 
and long fair plaits which she wore twisted round her head. 
She was in prison for attempting to poison her husband. 
She had done this immediately after her wedding (she had 
been given in marriage without her consent at the age of 
1 6) because her husband would give her no peace. But in 
the eight months during which she had been let out on bail, 
she had not only made it up with her husband, but come 
to love him, so that when her trial came they were heart 
and soul to one another. Although her husband, her 
father-in-law, but especially her mother-in-law, who had 
grown very fond of her, did all they could to get her ac- 
quitted, she was sentenced to hard labour in Siberia. The 
kind, merry, ever-smiling Theodosia had a place next Mas- 
lova's on the shelf bed, and had grown so fond of her that 
she took it upon herself as a duty to attend and wait on her. 
Two other women were sitting without any work at the 
other end of the shelf bedstead. One was a woman of about 
40, with a pale, thin face, who once probably had been very 
handsome. She sat with her baby at her thin, white breast. 
The crime she had committed was that when a recruit was, 
according to the peasants' view, unlawfully taken from their 
village, and the people stopped the police officer and took 
the recruit away from him, she (an aunt of the lad unlaw- 
fully taken) was the first to catch hold of the bridle of the 
horse on which he was being carried off. The other, who 
sat doing nothing, was a kindly, grey-haired old woman, 
hunchbacked and with a flat bosom. She sat behind the 
stove on the bedshelf, and pretended to catch a fat four- 
year-old boy, who ran backwards and forwards in front of 
her, laughing gaily. This boy had only a little shirt on and 
his hair was cut short. As he ran past the old woman he 
kept repeating, " There, haven't caught me ! " This old 
woman and her son were accused of incendiarism. She 
bore her imprisonment with perfect cheerfulness, but was 
concerned about her son, and chiefly about her " old man," 
who she feared would get into a terrible state with no one 
to wash for him. Besides these seven women, there were 

Resurrection 1 2 i 

four standing at one of the open windows, holding on to 
the iron bars. They were making signs and shouting to the 
convicts whom Maslova had met when returning to prison, 
and who were now passing through the yard. One of these 
women was big and heavy, with a flabby body, red hair, and 
freckled on her pale yellow face, her hands, and her fat 
neck. She shouted something in a loud, raucous voice, and 
laughed hoarsely. This woman was serving her term for 
theft. Beside her stood an awkward, dark little woman, no 
bigger than a child of ten, with a long waist and very short 
legs, a red, blotchy face, thick lips which did not hide her 
long £eeth, and eyes too far apart. She broke by fits and 
starts into screeching laughter at what was going on in the 
yard She was to be tried for stealing and incendiarism. 
They called her Khoroshavka. Behind her, in a very dirty 
grey chemise, stood a thin, miserable-looking pregnant 
woman, who was to be tried for concealment of theft. This 
woman stood silent, but kept smiling with pleasure and ap- 
proval at what was going on below. With these stood a 
peasant woman of medium height, the mother of the boy 
who was playing with the old woman and of a seven-year- 
old girl. These were in prison with her because she had no 
one to leave them with. She was serving her term of im- 
prisonment for illicit sale of spirits. She stood a little fur- 
ther from the window knitting a stocking, and though she 
listened to the other prisoners' words she shook her head 
disapprovingly, frowned, and closed her eyes. But her 
seven-year-old daughter stood in her little chemise, her 
flaxen hair done up in a little pigtail, her blue eyes fixed, 
and, holding the red-haired woman by tl^e skirt, attentively 
listened to the words of abuse that the wbmen and the con- 
victs flung at each other, and repeated them solftly, as if 
learning them by heart. The twelfth prisoner, who paid no 
attention to what w r as going on, was a very tall, stately girl, 
the daughter of a deacon, who had drowned her baby in a 
well. She went about with bare feet, wearing only a dirty 
chemise. The thick, short plait of her fair hair had come 
undone and hung down dishevelled, and she paced up and 
down the free space of the cell, not looking at any one, turn- 
ing abruptly every time she came up to the wall. 

122 Resurrection 



When the padlock rattled and the door opened to let 
Maslova into the cell, all turned towards her. Even the 
deacon's daughter stopped for a moment and looked at her 
with lifted brows before resuming her steady striding up 
and down. 

Korableva stuck her needle into the brown sacking and 
looked questioningly at Maslova through her spectacles. 
" Eh, eh, deary me, so you have come back. And I felt 
sure they'd acquit you. So you've got it?" She took off 
her spectacles and put her work down beside her on the 
shelf bed. 

" And here have I and the old lady been saying, ' Why, 
it may well be they'll let her go free at once/ Why, it hap- 
pens, ducky, they'll even give you a heap of money some- 
times, that's sure," the watchman's wife began, in her sing- 
ing voice : " Yes, we were wondering, ' Why's she so 
long?' And now just see what it is. Well, our guessing 
was no use. The Lord willed otherwise," she went on in 
musical tones. 

"Is it possible? Have they sentenced you?" asked 
Theodosia, with concern, looking at Maslova with her 
bright blue, child-like eyes ; and her merry young face 
changed as if she were going to cry. 

Maslova did not answer, but went on to her place, the 
second from the end, and sat down beside Korableva. 

" Have you eaten anything? " said Theodosia, rising and 
coming up to Maslova. 

Maslova gave no reply, but putting the rolls on the bed- 
stead, took off her dusty cloak, the kerchief off her curly 
black head, and began pulling off her shoes. The old woman 
who had been playing with the boy came up and stood in 
front of Maslova. " Tz, tz, tz," she clicked with her tongue, 
shaking her head pityingly. The boy also came up with her, 
and, putting out his upper lip, stared with wide open eyes 

Resurrection 123 

at the roll Maslova had brought. When Maslova saw the 
sympathetic faces of her fellow-prisoners, her lips trembled 
and she felt inclined to cry, but she succeeded in restraining 
herself until the old woman and the boy came up. When 
she heard the kind, pitying clicking of the old woman's 
tongue, and met the boy's serious eyes turned from the roll 
to her face, she could bear it no longer; her face quivered 
and she burst into sobs. 

" Didn't I tell you to insist on having a proper advocate ? " 
said Korableva. " Well, what is it ? Exile ? " 

Maslova could not answer, but took from inside the roll 
a box of cigarettes, on which was a picture of a lady with 
hair done up very high and dress cut low in front, and 
passed the box to Korableva. Korableva looked at it and 
shook her head, chiefly because she did not approve of 
Maslova's putting her money to such bad use ; but still she 
took out a cigarette, lit it at the lamp, took a puff, and almost 
forced it into Maslova's hand. Maslova, still crying, began 
greedily to inhale the tobacco smoke. " Penal servitude," 
she muttered, blowing out the smoke and sobbing. 

" Don't they fear the Lord, the cursed soul-slayers ? " 
muttered Korableva, " sentencing the lass for nothing." At 
this moment the sound of loud, coarse laughter came from 
the women who were still at the window. The little girl 
also laughed, and her childish treble mixed with the hoarse 
and screeching laughter of the others. One of the convicts 
outside had done something that produced this effect on the 

" Lawks ! see the shaved hound, what he's doing," said the 
red-haired woman, her whole fat body shaking with laugh- 
ter ; and leaning against the grating she shouted meaning- 
less obscene w 7 ords. 

" Ugh, the fat fright's cackling," said Korableva, who 
disliked the red-haired woman. Then, turning to Maslova 
again, she asked : " How many years ? " 

" Four," said Maslova, and the tears ran down her cheeks 
in such profusion that one fell on the cigarette. Maslova 
crumpled it up angrily and took another. 

Though the watchman's wife did not smoke she picked 
up the cigarette Maslova had thrown away and began 
straightening it out, talking unceasingly. 

" There, now, ducky, so it's true," she said. " Truth's 
gone to the dogs and they do what they please, and here we 

1 24 Resurrection 

were guessing that you'd go free. Korableva says, € She'll 
go free.' I say, ' No/ say I. ' No, dear, my heart tells me 
they'll give it her.' And so it's turned out," she went on, 
evidently listening with pleasure to her own voice. 

The women who had been standing by the window now also 
came up to Maslova, the convicts who had amused them 
having gone away. The first to come up were the woman 
imprisoned for illicit trade in spirits, and her little girl. 
" Why such a hard sentence ? " asked the woman, sitting 
down by Maslova and knitting fast. 

" Why so hard? Because there's no money. That's why! 
Had there been money, and had a good lawyer that's up to 
their tricks been hired, they'd have acquitted her, no fear," 
said Korableva. " There's what's-his-name — that hairy one 
with the long nose. He'd bring you out clean from pitch, 
mum, he would. Ah, if we'd only had him ! " 

" Him, indeed," said Khoroshavka. " Why, he won't spit 
at you for less than a thousand roubles." 

" Seems you've been born under an unlucky star," inter- 
rupted the old woman who was imprisoned for incendiarism. 
" Only think, to entice the lad's wife and lock him himself 

up to feed vermin, and me, too, in my old days " she 

began to retell her story for the hundredth time. " If it 
isn't the beggar's staff it's the prison. Yes, the beggar's 
staff and the prison don't wait for an invitation." 

" Ah, it seems that's the way with all of them," said the 
spirit trader; and after looking at her little girl she put 
down her knitting, and, drawing the child between her 
knees, began to search her head with deft fingers. 4t Why do 
you sell spirits?" she went on. " Why? but what's one to 
feed the children on? " 

These words brought back to Maslova's mind her craving 
for drink. 

" A little vodka," she said to Korableva, wiping the tears 
with her sleeve and sobbing less frequently. 

" All right, fork out," said Korableva. 

Resurrection 125 



Maslova got the money, which she had also hidden in a 
roll, and passed the coupon to Korableva. Korableva ac- 
cepted it, though she could not read, trusting to Khoro- 
shavka, who knew everything, and who said that the slip of 
paper was worth 2 roubles 50 copecks, then climbed up to 
the ventilator, where she had hidden a small flask of vodka. 
Seeing this, the women whose places were further off went 
away. Meanwhile Maslova shook the dust out of her cloak 
and kerchief, got up on the bedstead, and began eating a 

" I kept your tea for you/' said Theodosia, getting down 
from the shelf a mug and a tin teapot wrapped in a rag, 
" but I'm afraid it is quite cold." The liquid was quite cold 
and tasted more of tin than of tea, yet Maslova filled the mug 
and began drinking it with her roll. " Finashka, here you 
are," she said, breaking off a bit of the roll and giving it to 
the boy, who stood looking at her mouth. 

Meanwhile Korableva handed the flask of vodka and a 
mug to Maslova, who offered some to her and to Khoro- 
shavka. These prisoners were considered the aristocracy 
of the cell because they had some money, and shared what 
they possessed with the others. 

In a few moments Maslova brightened up and related 
merrily what had happened at 'the court, and what had 
struck her most, i.e., how all the men had followed her 
wherever she went. In the court they all looked at her, she 
said, and kept coming into the prisoners' room while she 
was there. 

" One of the soldiers even says, ' It's all to look at you 
that they come/ One would come in, \ Where is such a 
paper ? ' or something, but I see it is not the paper he wants ; r 
he just devours me with his eyes," she said, shaking her 
head. " Regular artists." 

126 Resurrection 

" Yes, that's so," said the watchman's wife, and ran on in 
her musical strain, " they're like flies after sugar." 

" And here, too," Maslova interrupted her, " the same 
thing. They can do without anything else. But the likes of 
them will go without bread sooner than miss that ! Hardly 
had they brought me back when in comes a gang from the 
railway. They pestered me so, I did not know how to rid 
myself of them. Thanks to the assistant, he turned them 
off. One bothered so, I hardly got away." 

" What's he like ? " asked Khoroshavka. 

" Dark, with moustaches." 

" It must be him." 

"Him— who?" 

" Why, Schegloff; him as has just gone by." 

" What's he, this Schegloff ? " 

"What, she don't know Schegloff? Why, he ran twice 
from Siberia. Now they've got him, but he'll run away. 
The warders themselves are afraid of him," said Khoro- 
shavka, who managed to exchange notes with the male 
prisoners and knew all that went on in the prison. " He'll 
run away, that's flat." 

" If he does go away you and I'll have to stay," said Kor- 
ableva, turning to Maslova, " but you'd better tell us now 
what the advocate says about petitioning. Now's the time 
to hand it in." 

Maslova answered that she knew nothing about it. 

At that moment the red-haired woman came up to the 
" aristocracy " with both freckled hands in her thick hair, 
scratching her head with her nails. 

" I'll tell you all about it, Katerina," she began. " First 
and foremost, you'll have to write down you're dissatisfied 
with the sentence, then give notice to the Procureur." 

" What do you want here ? " said Korableva angrily ; 
" smell the vodka, do you? Your chatter's not wanted. We 
know what to do without your advice." 

" No one's speaking to you ; what do you stick your nose 
in for?" 

"It's vodka you want; that's why you come wriggling 
yourself in here." 

" Well, offer her some," said Maslova, always ready to 
share anything she possessed with anybody. 

" I'll offer her something." 

" Come on then," said the red-haired one, advancing 

Resurrection 1 27 

towards Korableva. "Ah! think I'm afraid of such as 

" Convict fright ! " 

" That's her as says it." 


"I? A slut? Convict! Murderess \" screamed the red- 
haired one. 

" Go away, I tell you," said Korableva gloomily, but the 
red-haired one came nearer and Korableva struck her in 
the chest. The red-haired woman seemed only to have 
waited for this, and with a sudden movement caught hold 
of Korableva's hair with one hand and with the other 
struck her in the face. Korableva seized this hand, and 
Maslova and Khoroshavka caught the red-haired woman 
oy her arms, trying to pull her away, but she let go the old 
woman's hair with her hand only to twist it round her fist, 
korableva, with her head bent to one side, was dealing 
out blows w r ith one arm and trying to catch the red-haired 
woman's hand with her teeth, while the rest of the women 
crowded round, screaming and trying to separate the fight- 
ers ; even the consumptive one came up and stood coughing 
and watching the fight. The children cried and huddled 
together. The noise brought the woman warder and a 
jailer. The fighting women were separated ; and Kora- 
bleva, taking out the bits of torn hair from her head, and 
the red-haired one, holding her torn chemise together over 
her yellow breast, began loudly to complain. 

" I know, it's all the vodka. Wait a bit ; I'll tell the in- 
spector to-morrow. He'll give it you. Can't I smell it? 
Mind, get it all out of the way, or it will be the worse for 
you," said the warder. " We've no time to settle your dis- 
putes. Get to your places and be quiet." 

But quiet was not soon re-established. For a long time 
the women went on disputing and explaining to one an- 
other whose fault it all was. At last the warder and the 
jailer left the cell, the women grew quieter and began 
going to bed, and the old woman went to the icon and com- 
menced praying. 

" The two jailbirds have met," the red-haired woman 
suddenly called out in a hoarse voice from the other end of 
the shelf beds, accompanying every word with frightfully 
vile abuse. 

*28 Resurrection 

" Mind you don't get it again," Korableva replied, also 
adding words of abuse, and both were quiet again. 

" Had I not been stopped I'd have pulled your damned 
eyes out," again began the red-haired one, and an answer 
of the same kind followed from Korableva. Then again a 
short interval and more abuse. But the intervals became 
longer and longer, as when a thunder-cloud is passing, and 
at last all was quiet. 

All were in bed, some began to sngre ; and only the old 
woman, who always prayed a long time, went on bowing 
before the icon and the deacon's daughter, who had got up 
after the warder left, was pacing up and down the room 
again. Maslova kept thinking that she was now a convict 
condemned to hard labour, and had twice been reminded 
of this — once by Botchkova and once by the red-haired 
woman — and she could not reconcile herself to the thought. 
Korableva, who lay next to her, turned over in her bed. 

" There now," said Maslova in a low voice; " who would 
have thought it? See what others do and get nothing 
for it." 

" Never mind, girl. People manage to live in Siberia. 
As for you, you'll not be lost there either," Korableva said, 
trying to comfort her. 

" I know I'll not be lost ; still it is hard. It's not suc.l a 
fate I want — I, who am used to a comfortable life." 

" Ah, one can't go against God," said Korableva, with a 
sigh. " One can't, my dear." 

" I know, granny. Still, it's hard." 

They were silent for a while. 

"Do you hear that baggage?" whispered Korableva, 
drawing Maslova's attention to a strange sound proceeding 
from the other end of the room. 

This sound was the smothered sobbing of the red-haired 
woman. The red-haired woman was crying because she 
had been abused and had not got any of the vodka she 
wanted so badly; also because she remembered how all her 
life she had been abused, mocked at, offended, beaten. Re- 
membering this, she pitied herself, and, thinking no one 
heard her, began crying as children cry, sniffing with her 
nose and swallowing the salt tears. 

" I'm sorry for her," said Maslova. 

" Of course one is sorry," said Korableva, " but she 
shouldn't come bothering." 

Resurrection 1 29 



The next morning Nekhludoff awoke, conscious that 
something had happened to him, and even before he had 
remembered what it was he knew it to be something impor- 
tant and good. 

" Katiisha — the trial ! " Yes, he must stop lying and tell 
the whole truth. 

By a strange coincidence on that very morning he received 
the long-expected letter from Mary Vasilievna, the wife of 
the Marechal de Noblesse, the very letter he particularly 
needed. She gave him full freedom, and wished him happi- 
ness in his intended marriage. 

" Marriage ! " he repeated with irony. " How far I am 
from all that at present/' 

And he remembered the plans he had formed the day be- 
fore, to tell the husband everything, to make a clean breast of 
it, and express his readiness to give hun any kind of satisfac- 
tion. But this morning this did not seem so easy as the day 
before. And, then, also, why make a man unhappy by telling 
him what he does not know ? Yes, if he came and asked, he 
would tell him all, but to go purposely and tell — no ! that was 

And telling the wh<s>le truth to Missy seemed just as diffi- 
cult this morning. Again, he could not begin to speak with- 
out offence. As in many worldly affairs, something had to 
remain unexpressed. Only one thing he decided on, i.e., not 
to visit there, and to tell the truth if asked. 

But in connection with Katiisha, nothing was to remain 
unspoken. " I shall go to the prison and shall tell her every- 
thing, and ask her to forgive me. And if need be — yes, if 
need be, I shall marry her/' he thought. 

This idea, that he was ready to sacrifice all on moral 
grounds, and marry her, again made him feel very tender 
towards himself. Concerning money matters lie resolved this 
morning to arrange them in accord with his conviction, that 

13c Resurrection 

the holding of landed property was unlawful. Even if he 
should not be strong enough to give up everything, he would 
still do what he could, not deceiving himself or others. 

It was long since he had met the coming day with so much 
energy. When Agraphena Petrovna came in, he told her, 
with more firmness than he thought himself capable of, that 
he no longer needed this lodging nor her services. There 
had been a tacit understanding that he was keeping up so 
large and expensive an establishment because he was think- 
ing of getting married. The giving up of the house had, 
therefore, a special meaning. Agraphena Petrovna looked 
at him in surprise. 

" I thank you very much, Agraphena Petrovna, for all 
your care for me, but I no longer require so large a house 
nor so many servants. If you wish to help me, be so good as 
to settle about the things, put them away as it used to be 
done during mamma's life, and when Natasha comes she 
will see to everything." Natasha was Nekhludoff's sister. 

Agraphena Petrovna shook her head. " See about the 
things ? Why, they'll be required again," she said, 

" No, they won't, Agraphena Petrovna ; I assure you they 
won't be required," said Nekhludoff, in answer to what the 
shaking of her head had expressed. " Please tell Corney 
also that I shall pay him two months' wages, but shall have 
no further need of him." 

" It is a pity, Dmitri Ivanovitch, that you should think of 
doing this," she said. " Well, supposing you go abroad, still 
you'll require a place of residence again." 

" You are mistaken in your thoughts, Agraphena Pe- 
trovna ; I am not going abroad. If I go on a journey, it will 
be to quite a different place." He suddenly blushed very red. 
" Yes, I must tell her," he thought; "no hiding; everybody 
must be told." 

4< A very strange and important thing happened to me yes- 
terday. Do you remember my Aunt Mary Ivanovna's Ka- 
tusha ? " 

" Oh, yes. Why, I taught her how to sew." 

" Well, this Katiisha was tried in the Court and I was on 
the jury." 

" Oh, Lord ! What a pity ! " cried Agraphena Petrovna, 
" What was she being tried for? " 

" Murder ; and it is I have done it all." 

" Well, now this is very strange ; how could you do it all?" 

Resurrection 1 3 1 

" Yes, I am the cause of it all ; and it is this that has altered 
all my plans." 

" What difference can it make to you? " 

" This difference : that I, being the cause of her getting 
on to that path, must do all I can to help her." 

" That is just according to your own good pleasure; you 
are not particularly in fault there. It happens to every one, 
and if one's reasonable, it all gets smoothed over and forgot- 
ten," she said, seriously and severely. " Why should you 
place it to your account? There's no need. I had already 
heard before that she had strayed from the right path. Well, 
whose fault is it ? " 

" Mine ! that's why I want to put it right." 

" It is hard to put right." 

" That is my business. But if you are thinking about 
yourself, then I will tell you that, as mamma expressed the 
wish " 

" I am not thinking about myself. I have been so bounti- 
fully treated by the dear defunct, that I desire nothing. 
Lisenka" (her married niece) " has been inviting me, and I 
shall go to her when I am not wanted any longer. Only it 
is a pity you should take this so to heart ; it happens to every- 

" Well, I do not think so. And I still beg that you will 
help me let this lodging and put away the things. And please 
do not be angry with me. I am very, very grateful to you 
for all you have done." 

And, strangely, from the moment Nekhludoff realised that 
it was he who was so bad and disgusting to himself, others 
were no longer disgusting to him ; on the contrary, he felt a 
kindly respect for Agraphena Petrovna, and for Corney. 

He would have liked to go and confess to Corney also, but 
Corney's manner was so insinuatingly deferential that he 
had not the resolution to do it. 

On the way to the Law Courts, passing along the same 
streets with the same isvostchik as the day before, he was 
surprised what a different being he felt himself to be. The 
marriage with Missy, which only yesterday seemed so prob- 
able, appeared quite impossible now. The day before he felt 
it was for him to choose, and had no doubts that she would 
be happy to marry him ; to-day he felt himself unworthy not 
only of marrying, but even of being intimate with her. " If 
she only knew what I am, nothing would induce her to re- 

132 Resurrection 

ceive me. And only yesterday I was finding fault with her 
because she flirted with N . Anyhow, even if she con- 
sented to marry me, could I be, I won't say happy, but at 
peace, knowing that the other was here in prison, and would 
to-day or to-morrow be taken to Siberia with a gang of other 
prisoners, while I accepted congratulations and made calls 
with my young wife ; or while I count the votes at the meet- 
ings, for and against the motion brought forward by the rural 
inspection, etc., together with the Mare dial de Noblesse, 
whom I abominably deceive, and afterwards make appoint- 
ments with his wife (how abominable!) or while I continue 
to work at my picture, which will certainly never get fin- 
ished? Besides, I have no business to waste time on such 
things. I can do nothing of the kind now," he continued to 
himself, rejoicing at the change he felt within himself. "The 
first thing now is to see the advocate and find out his deci- 
sion, and then . . . then go and see her and tell her every- 

And when he pictured to himself how he would see her, 
and tell her all, confess his sin to her, and tell her that he 
would do all in his power to atone for his sin, he was touched 
at his own goodness, and the tears came to his eyes. 

Resurrection 133 



On coming into the Law Courts Nekhludoff met the usher 
of yesterday, who to-day seemed to him much to be pitied, 
in the corridor, and asked him where those prisoners who 
had been sentenced were kept, and to whom one had to apply 
for permission to visit them. The usher told him that the 
condemned prisoners were kept in different places, and that, 
until they received their sentence in its final form, the per- 
mission to visit them depended on the president. " I'll come 
and call you myself, and take you to the president after the 
session. The president is not even here at present. After the 
session ! And now please come in ; we are going to com- 
mence. " 

Nekhludoff thanked the usher for his kindness, and went 
into the jurymen's room. As he was approaching the 
room, the other jurymen were just leaving it to go into the 
court. The merchant had again partaken of a little re- 
freshment, and was as merry as the day before, and greeted 
Nekhludoff like an old friend. And to-day Peter Gerasimo- 
vitch did not arouse any unpleasant feelings in Nekhludoff 
by his familiarity and his loud laughter. Nekhludoff would 
have liked to tell all the jurymen about his relations to 
yesterday's prisoner. " By rights," he thought, " I ought 
to have got up yesterday during the trial and disclosed my 

He entered the court with the other jurymen, and wit- 
nessed the same procedure as the day before. 

" The judges are coming," was again proclaimed, and 
again three men, with embroidered collars, ascended the 
platform, and there was the same settling of the jury on the 
high-backed chairs, the same gendarmes, the same por- 
traits, the same priest, and Nekhludoff felt that, though he 
knew what he ought to do, he could not interrupt all this 
solemnity. The preparations for the trials were just the 

1 34 Resurrection 

same as the day before, excepting that the swearing in of 
the jury and the president's address to them were omitted. 

The case before the Court this day was one of burglary. 
The prisoner, guarded by two gendarmes with naked 
swords, was a thin, narrow-chested lad of 20, with a blood- 
less, sallow face, dressed in a grey cloak. He sat alone in 
the prisoner's dock. This boy was accused of having, to- 
gether with a companion, broken the lock of a shed and 
stolen several old mats valued at 3 roubles* and 67 copecks. 
According to the indictment, a policeman had stopped this 
boy as he was passing with his companion, who was carry- 
ing the mats on his shoulder. The boy and his companion 
confessed at once, and were both imprisoned. The boy's 
companion, a locksmith, died in prison, and so the boy was 
being tried alone. The old mats were lying on the table 
as the objects of material evidence. The business was con- 
ducted just in the same manner as the day before, with the 
whole armoury of evidence, proofs, witnesses, swearing in, 
questions, experts, and cross-examinations. In answer to 
every question put to him by the president, the prosecutor, 
or the advocate, the policeman (one of the witnesses) in- 
variably ejected the words : " Just so," or " Can't tell." Yet, 
in spite of his being stupefied, and rendered a mere machine 
by military discipline, his reluctance to speak about the 
arrest of this prisoner was evident. Another witness, an 
old house proprietor, and owner of the mats, evidently a 
rich old man, when asked whether the mats were his, re- 
luctantly identified them as such. When the public prose- 
cutor asked him what he meant to do with these mats, what 
use they were to him, he got angry, and answered : " The 
devil take those mats ; I don't w T ant them at all. Had I 
known there would be all this bother about them I should 
not have gone looking for them, but would rather have 
added a ten-rouble note or two to them, only not to be 
dragged here and pestered with questions. I have spent a 
lot on isvostchiks. Besides, I am not well. I have been suf- 
fering from rheumatism for the last seven years." It was 
thus the witness spoke. 

The accused himself confessed everything, and looking 
round stupidly, like an animal that is caught, related how 
it had all happened. Still the public prosecutor, drawing 

* The rouble is worth a little over two shillings, and contains 
100 copecks. 

Resurrection 135 

up his shoulders as he had done the day before, asked subtle 
questions calculated to catch a cunning criminal. 

In his speech he proved that the theft had been com- 
mitted from a dwelling-place, and a lock had been broken ; 
and that the boy, therefore, deserved a heavy punishment. 
The advocate appointed by the Court proved that the theft 
was not committed from a dwelling-place, and that, though 
the crime was a serious one, the prisoner was not so very 
dangerous to society as the prosecutor stated. The presi- 
dent assumed the role of absolute neutrality in the same 
way as he had done on the previous day, and impressed on 
the jury facts which they all knew and could not help know- 
ing. Then came an interval, just as the day before, and 
they smoked ; and again the usher called out " The judges 
are coming/' and in the same way the two gendarmes sat 
trying to keep awake and threatening the prisoner with 
their naked weapons. 

The proceedings showed that this boy was apprenticed 
by his father at a tobacco factory, where he remained five 
years. This year he had been discharged by the owner 
after a strike, and, having lost his place, he wandered about 
the town without any work, drinking all he possessed. In 
a traktir* he met another like himself, who had lost his 
place before the prisoner had, a locksmith by trade and a 
drunkard. One night, those two, both drunk, broke the 
lock of a shed and took the first thing they happened to lay 
hands on. The/ confessed all and were put in prison, where 
the locksmith died while awaiting the trial. The boy was 
now being tried as a dangerous creature, from whom so- 
ciety must be protected. 

" Just as dangerous a creature as yesterday's culprit/' 
thought Nekhhidoff, listening to all that was going on be- 
fore him. " They are dangerous, and we who judge them 

? I, a rake, an adulterer, a deceiver. We are not 

dangerous. But, even supposing that this boy is the most 
dangerous of all that are here in the court, what should be 
done from a common-sense point of view when he has been 
caught? It is clear that he is not an exceptional evil-doer, 
but a most ordinary boy ; every one sees it — and that he has 
become what he is simply because he got into circum- 
stances that create such characters, and, therefore, to pre- 

* Cheap restaurant. 



vent such a boy from going wrong the circumstances that 
create these unfortunate beings must be done away with. 

" But what do we do ? We seize one such lad who hap- 
pens to get caught, knowing well that there are thousands 
like him w T hom we have not caught, and send him to prison, 
where idleness, or most unwholesome, useless labour is 
forced on him, in company of others weakened and en- 
snared by the lives they have led. And then we send him, 
at the public expense, from the Moscow to the Irkoutsk 
Government, in company with the most depraved of men. 

" But we do nothing to destroy the conditions in which 
people like these are produced ; on the contrary, we sup- 
port the establishments where they are formed. These es- 
tablishments are well known : factories, mills, workshops, 
public-houses, gin-shops, brothels. And we do not destroy 
these places, but, looking at them as necessary, we support 
and regulate them. We educate in this way not one, but 
millions of people, and then catch one of them and imagine 
that we have done something, that we have guarded our- 
selves, and nothing more can be expected of us. Have we not 
sent him from the Moscow to the Irkoutsk Government ?" 
Thus thought Nekhludoff with unusual clearness and vivid- 
ness, sitting in his high-backed chair next to the colonel, 
and listening to the different intonations of the advocates', 
prosecutor's, and president's voices, and looking at their 
self-confident gestures. " And how much and what hard 
effort this pretence requires," continued Nekhludoff in his 
mind, glancing round the enormous room, the portraits, 
lamps, armchairs, uniforms, the thick walls and large win- 
dows ; and picturing to himself the tremendous size of the 
building, and the still more ponderous dimensions of the 
whole of this organisation, with its army of officials, scribes, 
watchmen, messengers, not only in this place, but all over 
Russia, who receive wages for carrying on this comedy 
which no one needs. " Supposing we spent one-hundredth 
of these efforts helping these castaways, whom we now 
only regard as hands and bodies, required by us for our 
own peace and comfort. Had some one chanced to take 
pity on him and given some help at the time when poverty 
made them send him to town, it might have been sufficient/' 
Nekhludoff thought, looking at the boy's piteous face. " Or 
even later, when, after 12 hours' work at the factory, he 
was going to the public-house, led away by his companions, 

Resurrection 1 37 

had some one then come and said, ' Don't go, Vania ; it is 
not right,' he would not have gone, nor got into bad ways, 
and would not have done any wrong. 

" But no ; no one who would have taken pity on him 
came across this apprentice in the years he lived like a poor 
little animal in the town, and with his hair cut close so as 
not to breed vermin, and ran errands for the workmen. No, 
all he heard and saw, from the older workmen and his com- 
panions, since he came to live in town, was that he who 
cheats, drinks, swears, who gives another a thrashing, who 
goes on the loose, is a fine fellow. Ill, his constitution un- 
dermined by unhealthy labour, drink, and dabauchery — 
bewildered as in a dream, knocking aimlessly about town, 
he gets into some sort of a shed, and takes from there some 
old mats, which nobody needs — and here we, all of us 
educated people, rich or comfortably off, meet together, 
dressed in good clothes and fine uniforms, in a splendid 
apartment, to mock this Mnfortunate brother of ours whom 
we ourselves have ruined. 

" Terrible ! It is difficult to say whether the cruelty or 
the absurdity is greater, but the one and the other seem to 
reach their climax/' 

Nekhltidoff thought all this, no longer listening to what 
was going on, and he was horror-struck by that which was 
being revealed to him. He could not understand why he 
had not been able to see all this before, and why others were 
unable to see it. 

i 3 8 




During an interval Nekhludoff got up and went out into 
the corridor, with the intention of not returning to the 
court. Let them do what they liked with him, he could 
take no more part in this awful and horrid tomfoolery. 

Having inquired where the Procureur s cabinet was he 
went straight to him. The attendant did not wish to let 
him in, saying that the Procureur was busy, but Nekhlu- 
doff paid no heed and went to the door, where he was met 
by an official. He asked to be announced to the Procureur, 
saying he was on the jury and had a very important com- 
munication to make. 

His title and good clothes were of assistance to him. The 
official announced him to the Procureur, and Nekhludoff 
was let in. The Procureur met him standing, evidently 
annoyed at the persistence with which Nekhludoff de- 
manded admittance. 

" What is it you want ? " the Procureur asked, severely. 

" I am on the jury; my name is Nekhludoff, and it is ab- 
solutely necessary for me to see the prisoner Maslova," 
Nekhludoff said, quickly and resolutely, blushing, and feel- 
ing that he was taking a step which would have a decisive 
influence on his life. 

The Procureur was a short, dark man, with short, grizzly 
hair, quick, sparkling eyes, and a thick beard cut close on 
his projecting lower jaw. 

" Maslova ? Yes, of course, I know. She was accused 
of poisoning," the Procureur said, quietly. " But why do 
you want to see her?" And then, as if wishing to tone 
down his question, he added, " I cannot give you the per- 
mission without knowing why you require it." 

" I require it for a particularly important reason." 

"Yes?" said the Procureur, and, lifting his eyes, looked 
attentively at Nekhludoff. " Has her case been heard or 

Resurrection 1 39 

" She was tried yesterday, and unjustly sentenced; she is 

" Yes? If she was sentenced only yesterday," went on the 
Procureur, paying no attention to Nekhludoff's statement 
concerning Maslova's innocence, " she must still be in the 
preliminary detention prison until the sentence is delivered 
in its final form. Visiting is allowed there only on certain 
days ; I should advise you to inquire there." 

14 But I must see her as soon as possible," Nekhludoff said, 
his jaw trembling as he felt the decisive moment approach- 

" Why must you? " said the Procureur, lifting his brows 
with some agitation. 

" Because I betrayed her and brought her to the condition 
which exposed her to this accusation." 

" All the same, I cannot see what it has to do with visiting 

" This : that whether I succeed or not in getting the sen- 
tence changed I want to follow her, and — marry her," said 
Nekhludoff, touched to tears by his own conduct, and at the 
same time pleased to see the effect he produced on the Pro- 

" Really ! Dear me ! " said the Procureur. " This is cer- 
tainly a very exceptional case. I believe you are a member 
of the Krasnopersk rural administration?" he asked, as if 
he remembered having heard before of this Nekhludoff, 
who was now making so strange a declaration. 

" I beg your pardon, but I do not think that has anything 
to do with my request," answered Nekhludoff, flushing 

" Certainly not," said the Procureur, with a scarcely per- 
ceptible smile and not in the least abashed ; " only your wish 
is so extraordinary and so out of the common." 

" Well; but can I get the permission? " 

"The permission? Yes, I will give you an order of ad- 
mittance directly. Take a seat." 

He went up to the table, sat down, and began to write. 

" Please sit down," 

Nekhludoff continued to stand. 

Having written an order of admittance, and handed it to 
Nekhludoff, the Procureur looked curiously at him. 

" I must also state that I can no longer take part in the ses- 

140 Resurrection 

" Then you will have to lay valid reasons before the Courts 
as you, of course, know." 

u My reasons are that I consider all judging not only use- 
less, but immoral." 

" Yes," said the Procureur, with the same scarcely percep- 
tible smile, as if to show that this kind of declaration was 
well known to him and belonged to the amusing sort. " Yes, 
but you will certainly understand that I, as Procureur, can- 
not agree with you on this point. Therefore, I should advise 
you to apply to the Court, which will consider your declara- 
tion, and find it valid or not valid, and in the latter case will 
impose a fine. Apply, then, to the Court." 

44 I have made my declaration, and shall apply nowhere 
else," Nekhludoff said, angrily. 

44 Well, then, good-afternoon," said the Procureur, bowing 
his head, evidently anxious to be rid of this strange visitor. 

" Who was that you had here? " asked one of the members 
of the Court, as he entered, just after Nekhludoff left the 

" Nekhludoff, you know ; the same that used to make all 
sorts of strange statements at the Krasnopersk rural meet- 
ings. Just fancy! He is on the jury, and among the pris- 
oners there is a woman or girl sentenced to pewal servitude, 
whom he says he betrayed, and now he wants to marry her." 

" You don't mean to say so." 

" That's what he told me. And in such a strange state of 
excitement ! " 

" There is something abnormal in the young men of to- 

" Oh, but he is not so very young." 

" Yes. But how tiresome your famous Ivoshenka was. 
He carries the day by wearying one out. He talked and 
talked without end." 

" Oh, that kind of people should be simply stopped, or they 
will become real obstructionists." 

Resurrection 1 4. 1 



I^rom the Procureur Nekhludoff went straight to the pre- 
iiminary detention prison. However, no Maslova was to be 
found there, and the inspector explained to Nekhludoff that 
she would probably be in the old temporary prison. Nekh- 
ludoff went there. 

Yes, Katerina Maslova was there. 

The distance between the two prisons was enormous, and 
Nekhludoff only reached the old prison towards evening. He 
was going up to the door of the large, gloomy building, but 
the sentinel stopped him and rang. A warder came in an- 
swer to the bell. Nekhludoff showed him his order of ad- 
mittance, but the warder said he could not let him in without 
the inspector's permission. Nekhludoff went to see the in- 
spector. As he was going up the stairs he heard distant 
sounds of some complicated bravura, played on the piano. 
When a cross servant girl, with a bandaged eye, opened the 
door to him, those sounds seemed to escape from the room 
and to strike his ear. It was a rhapsody of Liszt's, that 
everybody was tired of, splendidly played but only to* one 
point. When that point was reached the same thing was 
repeated. Nekhludoff asked the bandaged maid whether the 
inspector was in. She answered that he was not in. 

" Will he return soon? " 

The rhapsody again stopped and recommenced loudly and 
brilliantly again up to the same charmed point. 

" I will go and ask," and the servant went away. 

" Tell him he is not in and won't be to-day ; he is out visit- 
ing. What do they come bothering for ? " came the sound 
of a woman's voice from behind the door, and again the 
rhapsody rattled on and stopped, and the sound of a chair 
pushed back was heard. It was plain the irritated pianist 
meant to rebuke the tiresome visitor, who had come at an 
untimely hour. 

" Papa is not in," a pale girl with crimped hair said, 

142 Resurrection 

crossly, coming out into the ante-room, but, seeing a young 
man in a good coat, she softened. 

" Come in, please. . . . What is it you want? " 

" I want to see a prisoner in this prison. ,, 

" A political one, I suppose? " 

" No, not a political one. I have a permission from the 

" Well, I don't know, and papa is out ; but come in, 
please," she said, again, " or else speak to the assistant. He 
is in the office at present ; apply there. What is your name ? " 

" I thank you," said Nekhludoff, without answering her 
question, and went out. 

The door was not yet closed after him when the same 
lively tones recommenced. In the courtyard Nekhludoff 
met an officer with bristly moustaches, and asked for the 
assistant-inspector. It was the assistant himself. He looked 
at the order of admittance, but said that he could not decide 
to let him in w T ith a pass for the preliminary prison. Besides, 
it was too late. " Please to come again to-morrow. To- 
morrow, at 10, everybody is allowed to go in. Come then, 
and the inspector himself will be at home. Then you can 
have the interview either in the common room or, if the in- 
spector allows it, in the office." 

And so Nekhludoff did not succeed in getting an inter- 
view that day, and returned home. As he went along the 
streets, excited at the idea of meeting her, he no longer 
thought about the Law Courts, but recalled his conversations 
with the Procureur and the inspector's assistant. 

The fact that he had been seeking an interview with her, 
and had told the Procureur, and had been in two prisons, so 
excited him that it was long before he could calm down. 
When he got home he at once fetched out his diary, that had 
long remained untouched, read a few sentences out of it, and 
then wrote as follows : 

" For two years I have not written anything in my diary, 
and thought I never should return to this childishness. Yet 
it is not childishness, but converse with my own self, with 
this real divine self which lives in every man. All this time 
that I slept there was no one for me to converse with. I 
was awakened by an extraordinary event on the 28th of 
April, in the Law Court, when I was on the jury. I saw her 
in the prisoners' dock, the Katusha betrayed by me, in a pris- 
oner's cloak, condemned to penal servitude through a strange 

Resurrection 143 

mistake, and my own fault. I have just been to the Pro- 
cureur's and to the prison, but I was not admitted. I have 
resolved to do all I can to see her, to confess to her, and to 
atone for my sin, even by a marriage. God help me. My 
soul is at peace and I am full of joy." 

:^4 Resurrection 



That night Maslova lay awake a long time with her eyes 
open looking at the door, in front of which the deacon's 
daughter kept passing. She was thinking that nothing 
would induce her to go to the island of Sakhalin and marry 
a convict, but would arrange matters somehow with one of 
the prison officials, the secretary, a warder, or even a 
warder's assistant. " Aren't they all given that way? Only 
I must not get thin, or else I am lost." 

She thought of how the advocate had looked at her, and 
also the president, and of the men she met, and those who 
came in on purpose at the court. She recollected how her 
companion, Bertha, who came to see her in prison, had told 
her about the student whom she had " loved " while she was 
with Kitaeva, and who had inquired about her, and pitied 
her very much. She recalled many to mind, only not Nekh- 
ludoff. She never brought back to mind the days of her 
childhood and youth, and her love to Nekhludoff. That 
would have been too painful. These memories lay untouched 
somewhere deep in her soul; she had forgotten him, and 
never recalled and never even dreamt of him. To-day, in the 
court, she did not recognise him, not only because when she 
last saw him he was in uniform, without a beard, and had 
only a small moustache and thick, curly, though short hair, 
and now was bald and bearded, but because she never 
thought about him. She had buried his memory on that ter- 
rible dark night when he, returning from the army, had 
passed by on the railway without stopping to call on his 
aunts.' Katusha then knew her condition. Up to that night 
she did not consider the child that lay beneath her heart a 
burden. But on that night everything changed, and the child 
became nothing but a weight. 

His aunts had expected Nekhludoff, had asked him to 
come and see them in passing, but he had telegraphed that 

Resurrection 145 

he could not come, as he had to be in Petersburg at an ap- 
pointed time. When Katusha heard this she made up her 
mind to go to the station and see him. The train was to pass 
by at two o'clock in the night. Katusha having helped the old 
ladies to bed, and persuaded a little girl, the cook's daughter, 
Mashka, to come with her, put on a pair of old boots, threw 
a shawl over her head, gathered up her dress, and ran to the 

It was a warm, rainy, and windy autumn night. The rain 
now pelted down in warm, heavy drops, now stopped again. 
It was too dark to see the path across the field, and in the 
wood it was pitch black, so that although Katusha knew the 
way well, she got off the path, and got to the little station 
where the train stopped for three minutes, not before, as she 
had hoped, but after the second bell had been rung. Hurry- 
ing up the platform, Katusha saw him at once at the win- 
dows of a first-class carriage. Two officers sat opposite each 
other on the velvet-covered seats, playing cards. This car- 
riage was very brightly lit up ; on the little table between the 
seats stood two thick, dripping candles. He sat in his close- 
fitting breeches on the arm of the seat, leaning against the 
back, and laughed. As soon as she recognised him she 
knocked at the carriage window with her benumbed hand, 
but at that moment the last bell rang, and the train first gave 
a backward jerk, and then gradually the carriages began to 
move forward. One of the players rose with the cards in his 
hand, and looked out. She knocked again, and pressed her 
face to the window, but the carriage moved on, and she went 
alongside looking in. The officer tried to lower the window, 
but could not. Nekhliidoff pushed him aside and began low- 
ering it himself. The train went faster, so that she had to 
walk quickly. The train went on still faster and the window 
opened. The guard pushed her aside, and jumped in. Ka- 
tusha ran on, along the wet boards of the platform, and when 
she came to the end she could hardly stop herself from fall- 
ing as she ran down the steps of the platform. She was run- 
ning by the side of the railway, though the first-class car- 
riage had long passed her, and the second-class carriages 
were gliding by faster, and at last the third-class carriages — 
still faster. But she ran on, and when the last carriage with 
the lamps at the back had gone by, she had already reached 
the tank which fed the engines, and was unsheltered from 
the wind, which was blowing her shawl about and making 

146 Resurrection 

her skirt cling round her legs. The shawl flew off her head, 
but still she ran on. 

41 Katerina Michailovna, you ve lost your shawl!" 
screamed the little girl, who was trying to keep up with her. 

Katiisha stopped, threw back her head, and catching hold 
of it with both hands sobbed aloud. 4 ' Gone ! " she screamed. 

" He is sitting in a velvet arm-chair and joking and drink- 
ing, in a brightly lit carriage, and I, out here in the mud, in 
the darkness, in the wind and the rain, am standing and 
weeping/' she thought to herself ; and sat down on the 
ground, sobbing so loud that the little girl got frightened, 
and put her arms round her, wet as she was. 

" Come home, dear/' she said. 

" When a train passes — then under a carriage, and there 
will be an end," Katiisha was thinking, without heeding the 

And she made up her mind to do it, when, as it always 
happens, when a moment of quiet follows great excitement, 
he, the child — his child — made himself known within her. 
Suddenly all that a moment before had been tormenting her, 
so that it had seemed impossible to live, all her bitterness 
towards him, and the wish to revenge herself, even by dying, 
passed away ; she grew quieter, got up, put the shawl on her 
head, and went home. 

Wet, muddy, and quite exhausted, she returned, and from 
that day the change which brought her where she now was 
began to operate in her soul. Beginning from that dreadful 
night, she ceased believing in God and in goodness. She had 
herself believed in God, and believed that other people also 
believed in Him ; but after that night she became convinced 
that no one believed, and that all that was said about God 
and His laws was deception and untruth. He whom she 
loved, and who had loved her — yes, she knew that — had 
thrown her away ; had abused her love. Yet he was the best 
of all the people she knew. All the rest were still worse. All 
that afterwards happened to her strengthened her in this be- 
lief at every step. His aunts, the pious old ladies, turned her 
out when she could no longer serve them as she used to. 
And of all those she met, the women used her as a means of 
getting money, the men, from the old police officer down to 
the warders of the prison, looked at her as on an object for 
pleasure. And no one in the world cared for aught but 
pleasure. In this belief the old author with whom she had 

Resurrection 147 

come together in the second year of her life of independence 
had strengthened her. He had told her outright that it was 
this that constituted the happiness of life, and he called it 
poetical and aesthetic. 

Everybody lived for himself only, for his pleasure, and all 
the talk concerning God and righteousness was deception. 
And if sometimes doubts arose in her mind and she won- 
dered why everything was so ill-arranged in the world that 
all hurt each other, and made each other suffer, she thought 
it best not to dwell on it, and if she felt melancholy she could 
smoke, or, better still, drink, and it would pass. 

148 Resurrection 



On Sunday morning at five o'clock, when a whistle 
sounded in the corridor of the women's ward of the prison, 
Korableva, who was already awake, called Maslova. 

" Oh, dear ! life again," thought Maslova, with horror, 
involuntarily breathing in the air that had become terribly 
noisome towards the morning. She wished to fall asleep 
again, to enter into the region of oblivion, but the habit of 
fear overcame sleepiness, and she sat up and looked round, 
drawing her feet under her. The women had all got up ; 
only the elder children were still asleep. The spirit-trader 
was carefully drawing a cloak from under the children, so as 
not to wake them. The watchman's wife was hanging up 
the rags to dry that served the baby as swaddling clothes, 
while the baby was screaming desperately in Theodosia's 
arms, who was trying to quiet it. The consumptive woman 
was coughing with her hands pressed to her chest, while the 
blood rushed to her face, and she sighed loudly, almost 
screaming, in the intervals of coughing. The fat, red-haired 
woman was lying on her back, with knees drawn up, and 
loudly relating a dream. The old woman accused of incen- 
diarism was standing in front of the image, crossing herself 
and bowing, and repeating the same words over and over 
again. The deacon's daughter sat on the bedstead, looking 
before her, with a dull, sleepy face. Khoroshavka was 
twisting her black, oily, coarse hair round her fingers. The 
sound of slipshod feet was heard in the passage, and the 
door opened to let in two convicts, dressed in jackets and 
grey trousers that did not reach to their ankles. With se- 
rious, cross faces they lifted the stinking tub and carried 
it out of the cell. The women went out to the taps in the 
corridor to wash. There the red-haired woman again be- 
gan a quarrel with a woman from another cell. 

" Is it the solitary cell you want? " shouted an old jailer, 

Resurrection 1 49 

slapping the red-haired woman on her bare, fat back, so that 
it sounded through the corridor. " You be quiet/' 

" Lawks ! the old one's playful," said the woman, taking 
his action for a caress. 

" Now, then, be quick ; get ready for the mass." Maslova 
had hardly time to do her hair and dress when the inspector 
came with his assistants. 

" Come out for inspection," cried a jailer. 

Some more prisoners came out of other cells and stood in 
two rows along the corridor; each woman had to place her 
hand on the shoulder of the woman in front of her. They 
were all counted. 

After the inspection the woman warder led the prisoners 
to church. Maslova and Theodosia were in the middle of a 
column of over a hundred women, who had come out of dif- 
ferent cells. All were dressed in white skirts, white jackets, 
and wore white kerchiefs on their heads, except a few who 
had their own coloured clothes on. These were wives who, 
with their children, were following their convict husbands to 
Siberia. The whole flight of stairs was filled by the proces- 
sion. The patter of softly-shod feet mingled with the voices 
and now and then a laugh. When turning, on the landing, 
Maslova saw her enemy, Botchkova, in front, and pointed out 
her angry face to Theodosia. At the bottom of the stairs the 
women stopped talking. Bow r ing and crossing themselves, 
they entered the empty church, which glistened with gild- 
ing. Crowding and pushing one another, they took their 
places on the right. 

After the women came die men condemned to banishment, 
those serving their term in the prison, and those exiled by 
their Communes ; and, coughing loudly, they took their 
stand, crowding the left side and the middle of the church. 

On one side of the gallery above stood the men sentenced 
to penal servitude in Siberia, who had been let into the 
church before the others. Each of them had half his head 
shaved, and their presence was indicated by the clanking of 
the chains on their feet. On the other side of the gallery 
stood those in preliminary confinement, without chains, their 
heads not shaved. 

The prison church had been rebuilt and ornamented by 
a rich merchant, who spent several tens of thousands of 
roubles on it, and it glittered with gay colours and gold. 
Fpr & time thers w^s §i}^n^ in the church, and only cough- 

150 Resurrection 

ing, blowing of noses, the crying of babies, and now ana then 
the rattling of chains, was heard. But at last the convicts 
that stood in the middle moved, pressed against each other, 
leaving a passage in the centre of the church, down which 
the prison inspector passed to take his place in front of every 
one in the nave. 

Resurrection 151 



The service began. 

It consisted of the following. The priest, having dressed 
in a strange and very inconvenient garb, made of gold cloth, 
cut and arranged little bits of bread on a saucer, and then 
put them into a cup with wine, repeating at the same time 
different names and prayers. Meanwhile the deacon first 
read Slavonic prayers, difficult to understand in themselves, 
and rendered still more incomprehensible by being read very 
fast, and then sang them turn and turn about with the con- 
victs. The contents of the prayers were chiefly the desire 
for the welfare of the Emperor and his family. These pe- 
titions were repeated many times, separately and together 
with other prayers, the people kneeling. Besides this, sev- 
eral, verses from the Acts of the Apostles were read by the 
deacon in a peculiarly strained voice, which made it impos- 
sible to understand what he read, ancT then the priest read 
very distinctly a part of the Gospel according to St. Mark, 
in which it said that Christ, having risen from the dead be- 
fore flying up to heaven to sit down at His Father's right 
hand, first showed Himself to Mary Magdalene, out of whom 
He had driven seven devils, and then to eleven of His disci- 
ples, and ordered them to preach the Gospel to the whole cre- 
ation, and the priest added that if any one did not believe this 
he would perish, but he that believed it and was baptised 
should be saved, and should besides drive out devils and 
cure people by laying his hands on them, should talk in 
strange tongues, should take up serpents, and if he drank 
poison should not die, but remain well. 

The essence of the service consisted in the supposition 
that the bits cut up by the priest and put by him into the 
wine, when manipulated and prayed over in a certain way, 
turned into the flesh and blood of God. 

These manipulations consisted in the priest's regularly 
lifting and holding up his arms, though hampered by the 

1$2 Resurrection 

gold cloth sack he had on, then, sinking on to his knees and 
kissing the table and all that was on it, but chiefly in his 
taking a cloth by two of its corners and waving it regularly 
and softly over the silver saucer and golden cup. It was 
supposed that, at this point, the bread and the wine turned 
into flesh and blood ; therefore, this part of the service was 
performed with the greatest solemnity. 

" Now, to the blessed, most pure, and most holy Mother 
of God," the priest cried from the golden partition which 
divided part of the church from the rest, and the choir be- 
gan solemnly to sing that it was very right to glorify the 
Virgin Mary, who had borne Christ without losing her vir- 
ginity, and was therefore worthy of greater honour than 
some kind of cherubim, and greater glory than some kind of 
seraphim. After this the transformation was considered ac- 
complished, and the priest having taken the napkin off the 
saucer, cut the middle bit of bread in four, and put it into 
the wine, and then into his mouth. He was supposed to have 
eaten a bit of God's flesh and swallowed a little of His blood, 
Then the, priest drew a curtain, opened the middle door in the 
partition, and, taking the gold cup in his hands, came out 
of the door, inviting those who wished to do so also to come 
and eat some of God's flesh and blood that was contained in 
the cup. A few children appeared to wish to do so. 

After having asked the children their names, the priest 
carefully took out of the cup, with a spoon, and shoved a bit 
of bread soaked in wine deep into the mouth of each child 
in turn, and the deacon, while wiping the children's 
mouths, sang, in a merry voice, that the children were 
eating the flesh and drinking the blood of God. After 
this the priest carried the cup back behind the parti- 
tion, and there drank all the remaining blood and ate up 
all the bits of flesh, and after having carefully sucked 
his moustaches and wiped his mouth, he stepped briskly 
from behind the partition, the soles of his calfskin boots 
creaking. The principal part of this Christian service was 
now finished, but the priest, wishing to comfort the unfor- 
tunate prisoners, added to the ordinary service another. 
This consisted of his going up to the gilt hammered-out 
image (with black face and hands) supposed to represent 
the very God he had been eating, illuminated by a dozen 
wax candles, and proceeding, in a strange, discordant voice, 
to hum or sing the following words : 

Resurrection 153 

" Jesu sweetest, glorified of the Apostles, Jesu lauded by 
the martyrs, almighty Monarch, save me, Jesu my Saviour. 
Jesu, most beautiful, have mercy on him who cries to Thee, 
Saviour Jesu. Born of prayer Jesu, all thy saints, all thy 
prophets, save and find them worthy of the joys of heaven. 
Jesu, lover of men." 

Then he stopped, drew breath, crossed himself, bowed to 
the ground, and every one did the same — the inspector, the 
warders, the prisoners ; and from above the clinking of the 
chains sounded more unintermittently. Then he continued : 
" Of angels the. Creator and Lord of powers, Jesu most 
wonderful, the angels' amazement, Jesu most powerful, of 
our forefathers the Redeemer. Jesu sweetest, of patriarchs 
the praise. Jesu most glorious, of kings the strength. Jesu 
most good, of prophets the fulfilment. Jesu most amazing, 
of martyrs the strength. Jesu most humble, of monks the 
joy. Jesu most merciful, of priests the sweetness. Jesu 
most charitable, of the fasting the continence. Jesu most 
sweet, of the just the joy. Jesu most pure, of the celibates 
the chastity. Jesu before all ages of sinners the salvation. 
Jesu, son of God, have mercy on me." 

Every time he repeated the word " Jesu " his voice be- 
came more and more wheezy. At last he came to a stop, 
and holding up his silk-lined cassock, and kneeling down 
on one knee, he stooped down to the ground and the choir 
began to sing, repeating the words, " Jesu, Son of God, 
have mercy on me," and the convicts fell down and rose 
again, shaking back the hair that was left on their heads, 
and rattling with the chains that were bruising their thin 

This continued for a long time. First came the glorifica- 
tion, which ended with the words, " Have mercy on me." 
Then more glorifications, ending with "Alleluia ! " And 
the convicts made the sign of the cross, and bowed, first at 
each sentence, then after every two and then after three, 
and all were very glad when the glorification ended, and 
the priest shut the book with a sigh of relief and retired 
behind the partition. One last act remained. The priest 
took a large, gilt cross, with enamel medallions at the ends, 
from a table, and came out into the centre of the church 
with it. First the inspector came up and kissed the cross, 
then the jailers, then the convicts, pushing and abusing 
each other in whispers. The priest, talking to the inspector, 

154 Resurrection 

pushed the cross and his hand now against the mouths 
and now against the noses of the convicts, who were try- 
ing to kiss both the cross and the hand of the priest. And 
thus ended the Christian service, intended for the comfort 
and the teaching of these strayed brothers. 

Resurrection 155 



And none of those present, from the inspector down to 
Maslova, seemed conscious of the fact that this Jesus, 
whose name the priest repeated such a great number of 
times, and whom he praised with all these curious expres- 
sions, had forbidden the very things that were being done 
there; that He had prohibited not only this meaningless 
much-speaking and the blasphemous incantation over the 
bread and wine, but had also, in the clearest words, for- 
bidden men to call other men their master, and to pray in 
temples; and had ordered that every one should pray in 
solitude, had forbidden to erect temples, saying that He had 
come to destroy them, and that one should worship, not in 
a temple, but in spirit and in truth ; and, above all, that He 
had forbidden not only to judge, to imprison, to torment, to 
execute men, as was being done here, but had prohibited 
any kind of violence, saying that He had come to give free- 
dom to the captives. 

No one present seemed conscious that all that was going 
on here was the greatest blasphemy and a supreme mock- 
ery of that same Christ in whose name it was being done. 
No one seemed to realise that the gilt cross with the enamel 
medallions at the ends, which the priest held out to the 
people to be kissed, was nothing but the emblem of that 
gallows on which Christ had been executed for denouncing 
just what was going on here. That these priests, who 
imagined they were eating and drinking the body and blood 
of Christ in the form of bread and wine, did in reality eat 
and drink His flesh and His blood, but not as wine and bits 
of bread, but by ensnaring " these little ones " with whom 
He identified Himself, by depriving them of the greatest 
blessings and submitting them to most cruel torments, and 
by hiding from men the tidings of great joy which He had 
brought. That thought did not enter into the mind of 
any one present. 

156 Resurrection 

The priest did his part with a quiet conscience, because 
he was brought up from childhood to consider that the only 
true faith was the faith which had been held by all the holy 
men of olden times and was still held by the Church, and 
demanded by the State authorities. He did not believe that 
the bread turned into flesh, that it was useful for the soul to 
repeat so many words, or that he had actually swallowed a 
bit of God. No one could believe this, but he believed that 
one ought to hold this faith. What strengthened him most 
in this faith was the fact that, for fulfilling the demands of 
this faith, he had for the last 18 years been able to draw 
an income, which enabled him to keep his family, send his 
son to a gymnasium and his daughter to a school for the 
daughters of the clergy. The deacon believed in the same 
manner, and even more firmly than the priest, for he had 
forgotten the substance of the dogmas of this faith, and 
knew only that the prayers for the dead, the masses, with 
and without the acathistus, all had a definite price, which 
real Christians readily paid, and, therefore, he called out his 
" have mercy, have mercy/' very willingly, and read and 
said what was appointed, with the same quiet certainty of 
its being necessary to do so with which other men sell fag- 
gots, flour, or potatoes. The prison inspector and the war- 
ders, though they had never understood or gone into the 
meaning of these dogmas and of all that went on in church, 
believed that they must believe, because the higher authori- 
ties and the Tsar himself believed in it. Besides, though 
faintly (and themselves unable to explain why), they felt 
that this faith defended their cruel occupations. If this faith 
did not exist it would have been more difficult, perhaps 
impossible, for them to use all their powers to torment 
people, as they were now doing, with a quiet conscience. 
The inspector was such a kind-hearted man that he could 
not have lived as he was now living unsupported by his 
faith. Therefore, he stood motionless, bowed and crossed 
himself zealously, tried to feel touched when the song about 
the cherubims was being sung, and when the children re- 
ceived communion he lifted one of them, and held him up 
to the priest with his own hands. 

The great majority of the prisoners believed that there 
lay a mystic power in these gilt images, these vestments, 
candles, cups, crosses, and this repetition of incompre- 
hensible words, " Jesu sweetest " and " have mercy " — a 

Resurrection i$y 

power through which might be obtained much convenience 
in this and in the future life. Only a few clearly saw the 
deception that was practised on the people who adhered to 
this faith, and laughed at it in their hearts ; but the major- 
ity, having made several attempts to get the conveniences 
they desired, by means of prayers, masses, and candles, and 
not having got them (their prayers remaining unanswered), 
were each of them convinced that their want of success was 
accidental, and that this organisation, approved by the edu- 
cated and by archbishops, is very important and necessary, 
if not for this, at any rate for the next life. 

Maslova also believed in this way. She felt, like the rest, 
a mixed sensation of piety and dulness. She stood at first 
in a crowd behind a railing, so that she could see no one 
but her companions ; but when those to receive communion 
moved on, she and Theodosia stepped to the front, and they 
saw the inspector, and, behind him, standing among the 
warders, a little peasant, with a very light beard and fair 
hair. This was Theodosia's husband, and he was gazing 
with fixed eyes at his wife. During, the acathistus Maslova 
occupied herself in scrutinising him and talking to Theo- 
dosia in whispers, and bowed and made the sign of the cross 
only when every one else did. 

i 5 8 




Nekhludoff left home early. A peasant from the coun- 
try was still driving along the side street and calling out in 
a voice peculiar to his trade, " Milk ! milk ! milk ! " 

The first warm spring rain had fallen the day before, and 
now wherever the ground was not paved the grass shone 
green. The birch trees in the gardens looked as if they 
were strewn with green fluff, the wild cherry and the pop- 
lars unrolled their long, balmy buds, and in shops and 
dwelling-houses the double window-frames were being re- 
moved and the windows cleaned. 

In the Tolkoochi * market, which Nekhludoff had to pass 
on his way, a dense crowd was surging along the row of 
booths, and tattered men walked about selling top-boots, 
which they carried under their arms, and renovated trousers 
and waistcoats, which hung over their shoulders. 

Men in clean coats and shining boots, liberated from the 
factories, it being Sunday, and women with bright silk 
kerchiefs on their heads and cloth jackets trimmed with 
jet, were already thronging at the door of the traktir. 
Policemen, with yellow cords to their uniforms and carry- 
ing pistols, were on duty, looking out for some disorder 
which might distract the ennui that oppressed them. On 
the paths of the boulevards and on the newly-revived grass, 
children and dogs ran about, playing, and the nurses sat 
merrily chattering on the benches. Along the streets, still 
fresh and damp on the shady side, but dry in the middle, 
heavy carts rumbled unceasingly, cabs rattled and tramcars 
passed ringing by. The air vibrated with the pealing and 
clanging of church bells, that were calling the people to 
attend to a service like that which was now being conducted 

* Literally, jostling market, where second-hand clothes and all 
sorts of cheap goods are sold. 

Resurrection 159 

in the prison. And the people, dressed in their Sunday best, 
were passing on their way to their different parish churches. 

The isvostchik did not drive Nekhliidoff up to the prison 
itself, but to the last turning that led to the prison. 

Several persons — men and women — most of them carry- 
ing small bundles, stood at this turning, about 100 steps 
from the prison. To the right there were several low 
wooden buildings ; to the left, a two-storeyed house with a 
signboard. The huge brick building, the prison proper, 
was just in front, and the visitors were not allowed to come 
up to it. A sentinel was pacing up and down in front of it, 
and shouted at any one who tried to pass him. 

At the gate of the wooden buildings, to the right, op- 
posite the sentinel, sat a warder on a bench, dressed in uni- 
form, with gold cords, a notebook in his hands. The vis- 
itors came up to him, and named the persons they wanted 
to see, and he put the names down. Nekhliidoff also went 
up, and named Katerina Maslova. The warder wrote down 
the name. 

" Why don't they admit us yet ? " asked Nekhliidoff. 

" The service is going on. When the mass is over, you'll 
be admitted." 

Nekhliidoff stepped aside from the waiting crowd. A 
man in tattered clothes, crumpled hat, with bare feet and 
red stripes all over his face, detached himself from the 
crowd, and turned towards the prison. 

"Now, then, where are you going?" shouted the sen- 
tinel with the gun. 

" And you hold your row," answered the tramp, not in 
the least abashed by the sentinel's words, and turned back. 
"Well, if you'll not let me in, I'll wait. But, no! Must 
needs shout, as if he were a general." 

The crowd laughed approvingly. The visitors were, for 
the greater part, badly-dressed people; some were ragged, 
but there were also some respectable-looking men and 
women. Next to Nekhliidoff stood a clean-shaven, stout, 
and red-cheeked man, holding a bundle, apparently con- 
taining under-garments. This was the doorkeeper of a 
bank ; he had come to see his brother, who was arrested for 
forgery. The good-natured fellow told Nekhliidoff the 
whole story of his life, and was going to question him in 
turn, when their attention was aroused by a student and a 
veiled lady, who drove up in a trap, with rubber tyres, 

160 Resurrection 

drawn by a large thoroughbred horse. The student was 
holding a large bundle. He came up to Nekhludoff, and 
asked if and how he could give the rolls he had brought in 
alms to the prisoners. His fiancee wished it (this lady 
was his fiancee), and her parents had advised them to take 
some rolls to the prisoners. 

" I myself am here for the first time," said Nekhludoff, 
" and don't know ; but I think you had better ask this man/' 
and he pointed to the warder with the gold cords and the 
book, sitting on the right. 

As they were speaking, the large iron door with a win- 
dow in it opened, and an officer in uniform, followed by an- 
other warder, stepped out. The warder with the notebook 
proclaimed that the admittance of visitors would now com- 
mence. The sentinel stepped aside, and all the visitors 
rushed to the door as if afraid of being too late ; some even 
ran. At the door there stood a warder who counted the 
visitors as they came in, saying aloud, 16, 17, and so on. 
Another warder stood inside the building and also counted 
the visitors as they entered a second door, touching each 
one with his hand, so that when they went away again not 
one visitor should be able to remain inside the prison and 
not one prisoner might get out. The warder, without look- 
ing at whom he was touching, slapped Nekhludoff on the 
back, and Nekhludoff felt hurt by the touch of the warder's 
hand; but, remembering what he had come about, he felt 
ashamed of feeling dissatisfied and taking offence. 

The first apartment behind the entrance doors was a 
large vaulted room with iron bars to the small windows. In 
this room, which was called the meeting-room, Nekhludoff 
was startled by the sight of a large picture of the Cruci- 

"What's that for?" he thought, his mind involuntarily 
connecting the subject of the picture with liberation and 
not with imprisonment. 

He went on, slowly letting the hurrying visitors pass be- 
fore, and experiencing a mingled feeling of horror at the 
evil-doers locked up in this building, compassion for those 
who, like Katusha and the boy they tried the day before, 
must be here though guiltless, and shyness and tender emo- 
tion at the thought of the interview before him. The war- 
der at the other end of the meeting-room said something 
as they passed, hut Nekhludoff, absorbed by his own 

Resurrection 1 6 1 

thoughts, paid no attention to him, and continued to follow 
the majority of the visitors, and so got into the men's part 
of the prison instead of the women's. 

Letting the hurrying visitors pass before him, he was the 
last to get into the interviewing-room. As soon as Nekh- 
liidoff opened the door of this room, he was struck by the 
deafening roar of a hundred voices shouting at once, the 
reason of which he did not at once understand. But when 
he came nearer to the people, he saw that they were all 
pressing against a net that divided the room in two, like 
flies settling on sugar, and he understood what it meant. 
The two halves of the room, the windows of which were 
opposite the door he had come in by, were separated, not 
by one, but by two nets reaching from the floor to the ceil- 
ing. The wire nets were stretched 7 feet apart, and 
soldiers were walking up and down the space between them. 
On the further side of the nets were the prisoners, on the 
nearer, the visitors. Between them was a double row of 
nets and a space of 7 feet wide, so that they could not hand 
anything to one another, and any one whose sight was not 
very good could not even distinguish the face on the other 
side. It was also difficult to talk ; one had to scream in 
order to be heard. 

On both sides were faces pressed close to the nets, faces 
of wives, husbands, fathers, mothers, children, trying to see 
each other's features and to say what was necessary in such 
a way as to be understood. 

But as each one tried to be heard by the one he was 
talking to, and his neighbour tried to do the same, they did 
their best to drown each other's voices, and that was the 
cause of the din and shouting which struck NekhludofT 
when he first came in. It was impossible to understand 
what was being said and what were the relations between 
the different people. Next NekhludofT an old woman with 
a kerchief on her head stood trembling, her chin pressed 
close to the net, and shouting something to a young fellow, 
half of whose head was shaved, who listened attentively 
with raised brows. By the side of the old woman was a 
young man in a peasant's coat, who listened, shaking his 
head, to a boy very like himself. Next stood a man in rags, 
who shouted, waving his arm and laughing. Next to him 
a woman, with a good woollen shawl on her shoulders, sat 
on the floor holding a baby in her lap and crying bitterly. 

1 62 Resurrection 

This was apparently the first time she saw the greyheaded 
man on the other side in prison clothes, and with his head 
shaved. Beyond her was the doorkeeper, who had spoken 
to Nekhludoff outside ; he was shouting with all his might 
to a greyhaired convict on the other side. 

When Nekhludoff found that he would have to speak in 
similar conditions, a feeling of indignation against those 
who were able to make and enforce these conditions arose 
in him ; he was surprised that, placed in such a dreadful 
position, no one seemed offended at this outrage on human 
feelings. The soldiers, the inspector, the prisoners them- 
selves, acted as if acknowledging all this to be necessary. 

Nekhludoff remained in this room for about five minutes, 
feeling strangely depressed, conscious of how powerless he 
was, and at variance with all the world. He was seized witt* 
a curious moral sensation like seasickness. 

Resurrection 1 63 



"Well, but I must do what I came here for," he said, 
trying to pick up courage. " What is to be done now? " He 
looked round for an official, and seeing a thin little man 
in the uniform of an officer going up and down behind the 
people, he approached him. 

" Can you tell me, sir," he said, with exceedingly strained 
politeness of manner, " where the women are kept, and 
where one is allowed to interview them ? " 

" Is it the women's ward you want to go to ? " 

" Yes, I should like to see one of the women prisoners," 
Nekhludoff said, with the same strained politeness. 

" You should have said so when you were in the hall. 
Who is it, then," that you want to see? " 

" I want to see a prisoner called Katerina Maslova." 

" Is she a political one ? " 

" No, she is simply ..." 

" What ! Is she sentenced ? " 

" Yes ; the day before yesterday she was sentenced," 
meekly answered Nekhludoff, fearing to spoil the inspec- 
tor's good humour, which seemed to incline in his favour. 

" If you want to go to the women's ward please to step 
this way," said the officer, having decided from Nekhludoff's 
appearance that he was worthy of attention. " Sideroff, 
conduct the gentleman to the women's ward," he said, turn- 
ing to a moustached corporal with medals on his breast. 

" Yes, sir." 

At this moment heart-rending sobs were heard coming 
from some one near the net. 

Everything here seemed strange to Nekhludoff; but 
strangest of all was that he should have to thank and feel 
obligation towards the inspector and the chief warders, the 
very men who were performing the cruel deeds that were 
done in this house. 

The corporal showed Nekhludoff through the corridor, 
out of the men's into the women's interviewingf-room. 

1 64 Resurrection 

This room, like that of the men, was divided by two wire 
nets ; but it was much smaller, and there were fewer visitors 
and fewer prisoners, so that there was less shouting than in 
the men's room. Yet the same thing was going on here, 
only, between the nets instead of soldiers there was a woman 
warder, dressed in a blue-edged uniform jacket, with gold 
cords on the sleeves, and a blue belt. Here also, as in the 
men's room, the people were pressing close to the wire net- 
ting on both sides ; on the nearer side, the townspeople in 
varied attire; on the further side, the prisoners, some in 
white prison clothes, others in their own coloured dresses. 
The whole length of the net was taken up by the people 
standing close to it. Some rose on tiptoe to be heard across 
the heads of others; some sat talking on the floor. 

The most remarkable of the prisoners, both by her pierc- 
ing screams and her appearance, was a thin, dishevelled 
gipsy. Her kerchief had slipped off her curly hair, and she 
stood near a post in the middle of the prisoner's division, 
shouting something, accompanied by quick gestures, to a 
gipsy man in a blue coat, girdled tightly below the waist. 
Next the gipsy man, a soldier sat on the ground talking to 
a prisoner; next the soldier, leaning close to the net, stood 
a young peasant, with a fair beard and a flushed face, keep- 
ing back his tears with difficulty. A pretty, fair-haired pris- 
oner, with bright blue eyes, was speaking to him. These two 
were Theodosia and her husband. Next to them was a 
tramp, talking to a broad-faced woman ; then two women, 
then a man, then again a woman, and in front of each a 
prisoner. Maslova was not among them. But some one 
stood by the window behind the prisoners, and Nekhludoff 
knew it was she. His heart began to beat faster, and his 
breath stopped. The decisive moment was approaching. 
He went up to the part of the net where he could see the 
prisoner, and recognised her at once. She stood behind the 
blue-eyed Theodosia, and smiled, listening to what Theo- 
dosia was saying. She did not wear the prison cloak now, 
but a white dress, tightly drawn in at the waist by a belt, 
and very full in the bosom. From under her kerchief ap- 
peared the black ringlets of her fringe, just the same as in 
the court. 

" Now, in a moment it will be decided," he thought 
u How shall I call her? Or will she come herself? " 

Resurrection 1 65 

She was expecting Bertha ; that this man had come to see 
her never entered her head. 

" Whom do you want? " said the warder who was walk- 
ing between the nets, coming up to NekhludofL 

" Katerina Maslova," Nekhludoff uttered, with difficulty. 

" Katerina Maslova, some one to see you," cried the 

166 Resurrection 



Maslova looked round, and with head thrown back and 
expanded chest, came up to the net with that expression of 
readiness which he well knew, pushed in between two pris- 
oners, and gazed at Nekhludoff with a surprised and ques- 
tioning look. But, concluding from his clothing he was a 
rich man, she smiled. 

"Is it me you want?" she asked, bringing her smiling 
face, with the slightly squinting eyes, nearer the net. 

" I, I — I wished to see " Nekhludoff did not know how 

to address her. " I wished to see you — I " He was not 

speaking louder than usual. 

" No ; nonsense, I tell you ! " shouted the tramp who 
stood next to him. " Have you taken it or not ? " 

" Dying, I tell you ; what more do you want ? " some one 
else was screaming at his other side. 

Maslova could not hear what Nekhludoff was saying, but 
the expression of his face as he was speaking reminded her 
of him. She did not believe her own eyes ; still the smile 
vanished from her face and a deep line of suffering appeared 
on her brow. 

" I cannot hear what you are saying," she called out, 
wrinkling her brow and frowning more and more. 

" I have come," said Nekhludoff. " Yes, I am doing my 
duty — I am confessing," thought Nekhludoff; and at this 
thought the tears came in his eyes, and he felt a choking sen- 
sation in his throat, and holding on with both hands to the 
net, he made efforts to keep from bursting into tears. 

" I say, why do you shove yourself in where you're not 
wanted ? " some one shouted at one side of him. 

" God is my witness ; I know nothing," screamed a pris- 
oner from the other side. 

Noticing his excitement, Maslova recognised him. 

" You're like . . . but no ; I don't know you," she shouted, 
without looking at him, and blushing, while her face grew 
still more stern. 

Resurrection 167 

" I have come to ask you to forgive me," he said, in a loud 
but monotonous voice, like a lesson learnt by heart. 

Having said these words he became confused ; but imme- 
diately came the thought that, if he felt ashamed, it was all 
the better ; he had to bear this shame, and he continued in a 
loud voice : 

" Forgive me ; I have wronged you terribly." 

She stood motionless and without taking her squinting 
eyes off him. 

He could not continue to speak, and stepping away from 
the net he tried to suppress the sobs that were choking him. 

The inspector, the same officer who had directed Nekhlii- 
doff to the women's ward, and whose interest he seemed to 
have aroused, came into the room, and, seeing Nekhliidoff 
not at the net, asked him why he was not talking to her 
whom he wanted to see. Nekhliidoff blew his nose, gave 
himself a shake, and, trying to appear calm, said : 

" It's so inconvenient through these nets ; nothing can be 

Again the inspector considered for a moment. 

" Ah, well, she can be brought out here for awhile. Mary 
Karlovna," turning to the warder, " lead Maslova out." 

A minute later Maslova came out of the side door. Step- 
ping softly, she came up close to Nekhliidoff, stopped, and 
looked up at him from under her brows. Her black hair 
was arranged in ringlets over her forehead in the same way 
as it had been two days ago ; her face, though unhealthy and 
puffy, was attractive, and looked perfectly calm, only the 
glittering black eyes glanced strangely from under the 
swollen lids. / 

" You may talk here," said the inspector, and shrugging 
his shoulders he stepped aside with a look of surprise. 
Nekhliidoff moved towards a seat by the wall. 

Maslova cast a questioning look at the inspector, and 
then, shrugging her shoulders in surprise, followed Nekh- 
liidoff to the bench, and having arranged her skirt, sat 
down beside him. 

" I know it is hard for you to forgive me," he began, but 
stopped. His tears were choking him. " But though I 
can't undo the past, I shall now do what is in my power. 
Tell me " 

" How have you managed to find me?" she said, with- 

1 68 Resurrection 

out answering his question, neither looking away from him 
nor quite at him, with her squinting eyes. 

" O God, help me ! Teach me what to do," Nekhludoff 
thought, looking at her changed face. " I was on the jury 
the day before yesterday," he said. " You did not recog- 
nise me? " 

" No, I did not ; there was not time for recognitions. I 
did not even look," she said. 

" There was a child, was there not? " he asked. 

" Thank God ! he died at once/' she answered, abruptly 
and viciously. 

" What do you mean ? Why ? " 

M I was so ill myself, I nearly died," she said, in the same 
quiet voice, which Nekhludoff had not expected and could 
not understand. 

" How could my aunts have let you go? " 

"Who keeps a servant that has a baby? They sent me 
off as soon as they noticed. But why speak of this? I re- 
member nothing. That's all finished." 

" No, it is not finished ; I wish to redeem my sin." 

" There's nothing to redeem. What's been has been and 
is passed," she said ; and, what he never expected, she 
looked at him and smiled in an unpleasantly luring, yet pit- 
eous, manner. 

Maslova never expected to see him again, and certainly 
not here and not now ; therefore, when she first recognised 
him, she could not keep back the memories which she 
never wished to revive. In the first moment she remem- 
bered dimly that new, wonderful world of feeling and of 
thought which had been opened to her by the charming 
young man who loved her and whom she loved, and then 
his incomprehensible cruelty and the whole string of 
humiliations and suffering which flowed from and followed 
that magic joy. This gave her pain, and, unable to under- 
stand it, she did what she was always in the habit of doing, 
she got rid of these memories by enveloping them in the mist 
of a depraved life. In the first moment, she associated the 
man now sitting beside her with the lad she had loved ; but 
feeling that this gave her pain, she dissociated them again. 
Now, this well-dressed, carefully-got-up gentleman with 
perfumed beard was no longer the Nekhludoff whom she 
had loved but only one of the people who made use of 
creatures like herself when they needed them, and whom 

Resurrection 169 

creatures like herself had to make use of in their turn as 
profitably as they could ; and that is why she looked at him 
with a luring smile and considered silently how she could 
best make use of him. 

" That's all at an end," she said. " Now I'm condemned 
to Siberia/' and her lip trembled as she was saying this 
dreadful word. 

" I knew ; I was certain you were not guilty," said Nekh- 

" Guilty ! of course not ; as if I could be a thief or a 
robber." She stopped, considering in what way she could 
best get something out of him. 

" They say here that all depends on the advocate," she 
began. " A petition should be handed in, only they say it's 

" Yes, most certainly," said Nekhludoff. " I have already 
spoken to an advocate." 

" No money ought to be spared ; it should be a good 
one," she said. 

" I shall do all that is possible." 

They were silent, and then she smiled again in the same 

" And I should like to ask you ... a little money 
if you can . . . not much ; ten roubles, I do not want 
more," she said, suddenly. 

" Yes, yes," Nekhludoff said, with a sense of confusion, 
and felt for his purse. 

She looked rapidly at the inspector, who was walking up 
and down the room. " Don't give it in front of him ; he'd 
take it away." 

Nekhludoff took out his purse as soon as the inspector 
had turned his back ; but had no time to hand her the note 
before the inspector faced them again, so he crushed it up 
in his hand. 

" This woman is dead," Nekhludoff thought, looking at 
this once sweet, and now defiled, puffy face, lit up by an 
evil glitter in the black, squinting eyes which were now 
glancing at the hand in which he held the note, then fol- 
lowing the inspector's movements, and for a moment he 
hesitated. The tempter that had been speaking to him in 
the night again raised its voice, trying to lead him out of 
the realm of his inner into the realm of his outer life, away 
from the question of what he should do to the question of 

I jo Resurrection 

what the consequences would be, and what would be 

" You can do nothing with this woman," said the voice ; 
" you will only tie a stone round your neck, which will help 
to drown you, and hinder you from being useful to others. 
Is it not better to give her all the money that is here, say 
good-bye, and finish with her forever ? " whispered the 

But here he felt that now, at this very moment, some- 
thing most important was taking place in his soul — that 
his inner life was, as it were, wavering in the balance, so 
that the slightest effort would make it sink to this side or 
the other. And he made this effort by calling to his assist- 
ance that God whom he had felt in his soul the day before, 
and that God instantly responded. He resolved to tell her 
everything now— at once. 

" Katusha, I have come to ask you to forgive me, and 
you have given me no answer. Have you forgiven me? 
Will you ever forgive me ? " he asked. 

She did not listen to him, but looked at his hand and 
at the inspector, and when the latter turned she hastily 
stretched out her hand, grasped the note, and hid it under 
her belt. 

" That's odd, what you are saying there," she said, with a 
smile of contempt, as it seemed to him. 

Nekhludoff felt that there was in her soul one who was 
his enemy and who was protecting her, such as she was 
now, and preventing him from getting at her heart. But, 
strange to say, this did not repel him, but drew him nearer 
to her by some fresh, peculiar power. He knew that he 
must waken her soul, that this was terribly difficult, but the 
very difficulty attracted him. He now felt towards her as 
he had never felt towards her or any one else before. There 
was nothing personal in this feeling: he wanted nothing 
from her for himself, but only wished that she might not 
remain as she now was, that she might awaken and be- 
come again what she had been. 

" Katusha, why do you speak like that? I know you; I 
remember you — and the old days in Papovo." 

" What's the use of recalling what's past? " she remarked, 

" I am recalling it in order to put it right, to atone for 
my sin, Katusha," and he was going to say that he would 

Resurrection 171 

marry her, but, meeting her eyes, he read in them some- 
thing so dreadful, so coarse, so repellent, that he could not 
go on. 

At this moment the visitors began to go. The inspector 
came up to Nekhludoff and said that the time was up. 

" Good-bye ; I have still much to say to you, but you see 
it is impossible to do so now," said Nekhludoff, and held 
out his hand. " I shall come again." 

" I think you have said all." 

She took his hand but did not press it. 

" No ; I shall try to see you again, somewhere where we 
can talk, and then I shall tell you what I have to say — some- 
thing very important." 

" Well, then, come; why not? " she answered, and smiled 
with that habitual, inviting, and promising smile which she 
gave to the men whom she wished to please. 

" You are more than a sister to me," said Nekhludoff. 

" That's odd/' she said again, and went behind the grat- 
ing. ; ;■ 

1^2 Resurrection 


maslova's view of life. 

Before the first interview, Nekhliidoff thought that when 
she saw him and knew of his intention to serve her, Katusha pleased and touched, and would be Katusha again ; 
but, to his horror, he found that Katusha existed no more, 
and there was Maslova in her place. This astonished and 
horrified him. 

What astonished him most was that Katusha was not 
ashamed of her position — not the position of a prisoner (she 
was ashamed of that), but her position as a prostitute. She 
seemed satisfied, even proud of it. And, yet, how could it be 
otherwise? Everybody, in order to be able to act, has to 
consider his occupation important and good. Therefore, in 
whatever position a person is, he is certain to form such a 
view of the life of men in general which will make his occu- 
pation seem important and good. 

It is usually imagined that a thief, a murderer, a spy, a 
prostitute, acknowledging his or her profession as evil, is 
ashamed of it. But the contrary is true. People whom fate 
and their sin-mistakes have placed in a certain position, how- 
ever false that position may be, form a view of life in general 
which makes their position seem good and admissible. In 
order to keep up their view of life, these people instinctively 
keep to the circle of those people who share their views of 
life and their own place in it. This surprises us, where the 
persons concerned are thieves, bragging about their dex- 
terity, prostitutes vaunting their depravity, or murderers 
boasting of their cruelty. This surprises us only because 
the circle, the atmosphere in which these people live, is lim- 
ited, and we are outside it. But can we not observe the same 
phenomenon when the rich boast of their wealth, i.e., rob- 
bery ; the commanders in the army pride themselves on their 
victories, i.e., murder; and those in high places vaunt their 
power, i.e., violence? We do not see the perversion in the 

Resurrection 173 

views of life held by these people, only because the circle 
formed by them is more extensive, and we ourselves are 
moving inside of it. 

And in this manner Maslova had formed her views of life 
and of her own position. She was a prostitute condemned to 
Siberia, and yet she had a conception of life which made it 
possible for her to be satisfied with herself, and even to pride 
herself on her position before others. 

According to this conception, the highest good for all men 
without exception — old, young, schoolboys, generals, edu- 
cated and uneducated, was connected with the relation of the 
sexes; therefore, all men, even when they pretended to be 
occupied with other things, in reality took this view. She 
was an attractive woman, and therefore she was an im- 
portant and necessary person. The whole of her former and 
present life was a confirmation of the correctness of this con- 

With such a view of life, she was by no means the lowest, 
but a very important person. And Maslova prized this view 
of life more than anything; she could not but prize it, for, 
if she lost the importance that such a view of life gave her 
among men, she would lose the meaning of her life. And, in 
order not to lose the meaning of her life, she instinctively 
clung to the set that looked at life in the same way as she did. 
Feeling that Nekhludoff wanted to lead her out into another 
world, she resisted him, foreseeing that she would have to 
lose her place in life, with the self-possession and self-re- 
spect it gave her. For this reason she drove from her the 
recollections of her early youth and her first relations with 
Nekhludoff. These recollections did not correspond with 
her present conception of the world, and were therefore quite 
rubbed out of her mind, or, rather, lay somewhere buried 
and untouched, closed up and plastered over so that they 
should not escape, as when bees, in order to protect the result 
of their labour, will sometimes plaster a nest of worms. 
Therefore, the present Nekhludoff was not the man she had 
once loved with a pure love, but only a rich gentleman whom 
",he could, and must, make use of, and with whom she could 
only have the same relations as with men in general. 

" No, I could not tell her the chief thing/' thought Nekh- 
ludoff, moving towards the front doors with the rest of the 
people. " I did not tell her that I would marry her ; I did 
not tell her so, but I will," he thought. 

1 74 Resurrection 

The two warders at the door let out the visitors, counting 
them again, and touching each one with their hands, so that 
no extra person should go out, and none remain within. The 
slap on his shoulder did not offend Nekhludoff this time ; he 
did not even notice it. 

Resurrection 175 



Nekhludoff meant to rearrange the whole of his exter- 
nal life, to let his large house and move to an hotel, but 
Agraphena Petrovna pointed out that it was useless to 
change anything before the winter. No one would rent a 
town house for the summer ; anyhow, he would have to live 
and keep his things somewhere. And so all his efforts to 
change his manner of life (he meant to live more simply : as 
the students live) led to nothing. Not only did everything 
remain as it was, but the house was suddenly filled with new 
activity. All that was made of wool or fur was taken out to 
be aired and beaten. The gate-keeper, the boy, the cook, and 
Corney himself took part in this activity. All sorts of 
strange furs, which no one ever used, and various uniforms 
were taken out and hung on a line, then the carpets and fur- 
niture were brought out, and the gate-keeper and the boy 
rolled their sleeves up their muscular arms and stood beating 
these things, keeping strict time, while the rooms were filled 
with the smell of naphthaline. 

When Nekhludoff crossed the yard or looked out of the 
window and saw all this going on, he was surprised at the 
great number of things there were, all quite useless. Their 
only use, Nekhludoff thought, was the providing of exercise 
for Agraphena Petrovna, Corney, the gate-keeper, the boy, 
and the cook. 

" But it's not worth while altering my manner of life 
now," he thought, " while Maslova's case is not decided. 
Besides, it is too difficult. It will alter of itself when she will 
be set free or exiled, and I follow her." 

On the appointed day Nekhludoff drove up to the advocate 
Fanarin's own splendid house, which was decorated with 
huge palms and other plants, and wonderful curtains, in fact, 
with all the expensive luxury witnessing to the possession of 
much idle money, ie., money acquired without labour, 
which only those possess who grow rich suddenly, In the 

i y6 Resurrection 

waiting-room, just as in a doctor's waiting-room, he found 
many dejected-looking people sitting round* several tables, 
on which lay illustrated papers meant to amuse them, await- 
ing their turns to be admitted to the advocate. The advo- 
cate's assistant sat in the room at a high desk, and having 
recognised Nekhludoff, he came up to him and said he would 
go and announce him at once. But the assistant had not 
reached the door before it opened and the sounds of loud, 
animated voices were heard ; the voice of a middle- 
aged, sturdy merchant, with a red face and thick moustaches, 
and the voice of Fanarin himself. Fanarin was also a mid- 
dle-aged man of medium height, with a worn look on his 
face. Both faces bore the expression which you see on the 
faces of those who have just concluded a profitable but not 
quite honest transaction. 

" Your own fault, you know, my dear sir," Fanarin said, 

" We'd all be in 'eaven were it not for hour sins." 

" Oh, yes, yes ; we all know that," and both laughed un- 

" Oh, Prince Nekhludoff ! Please to step in," said Fan- 
arin, seeing him, and, nodding once more to the merchant, 
he led Nekhludoff into his business cabinet, furnished in a 
severely correct style. 

" Won't you smoke ? " said the advocate, sitting down op- 
posite Nekhludoff and trying to conceal a smile, apparently 
still excited by the success of the accomplished transaction. 

" Thanks ; I" have come about Maslova's case." 

* Yes, yes ; directly ! But oh, what rogues these fat 
money bags are ! " he said. " You saw this here fellow. 
Why, he has about twelve million roubles, and he cannot 
speak correctly ; and if he can get a twenty-five rouble note 
out of you he'll have it, if he's to wrench it out with his 

" He says ' 'eaven and hour/ and you say ' this here fel- 
low,' " Nekhludoff thought, with an insurmountable feeling 
of aversion towards this man who wished to show by his free 
and easy manner that he and Nekhludoff belonged to one and 
the same camp, while his other clients belonged to another. 

" He has worried me to death — a fearful scoundrel. I felt 
T must relieve my feelings," said the advocate, as if to excuse 
his speaking about things that had no reference to business. 

** Well, how about your case? I have read it attentively; tmt 

Resurrection i jj 

do not approve of it. I mean that greenhorn of an advocate 
has left no valid reason for an appeal." 

" Well, then, what have you decided ? " 

u One moment. Tell him," he said to his assistant, who 
had just come in, " that I keep to what I have said. If he 
can, it's all right; if not, no matter." 

" But he won't agree." 

" Well, no matter," and the advocate frowned. 

" There now, and it is said that we advocates get our 
money for nothing," he remarked, after a pause. ' I have 
freed one insolvent debtor from a totally false charge, and 
now they all flock to me. Yet every such case costs enormous 
labour. Why, don't we, too, ' lose bits of flesh in the ink- 
stand ? ■ as some writer or other has said. Well, as to your 
case, or, rather, the case you are taking an interest in. It 
has been conducted abominably. There is no good reason for 
appealing. Still," he continued, " we can but try to get the 
sentence revoked. This is what I have noted down." He 
took up several sheets of paper covered with writing, and 
began to read rapidly, slurring over the uninteresting legal 
terms and laying particular stress on some sentences. " To 
the Court of Appeal, criminal department, etc., etc. Accord- 
ing to the decisions, etc., the verdict, etc., So-and-so Maslova 
pronounced guilty of having caused the death through 
poison of the merchant Smelkoff, and has, according to Stat- 
ute 1454 of the penal code, been sentenced to Siberia," etc., 
etc. He stopped. Evidently, in spite of his being so used to 
it, he still felt pleasure in listening to his own productions. 
" This sentence is the direct result of the most glaring ju- 
dicial perversion and error," he continued, impressively, 
" and there are grounds for its revocation. Firstly, the read- 
ing of the medical report of the examination of Smelkoff's 
intestines was interrupted by the president at the very begin- 
ning. This is point one." 

" But it was the prosecuting side that demanded this 
reading," Nekhludoff said, with surprise. 

" That does not matter. There might have been reasons 
for the defence to demand this reading, too." 

" Oh, but there could have been no reason whatever for 

" It is a ground for appeal, though. To continue : ' Sec- 
ondly/ he went on reading, i when Maslova's advocate, in 
his speech for the defence, wishing to characterise Mas- 

178 Resurrection 

lova's personality, referred to the causes of her fall, he was 
interrupted by the president calling him to order for the 
alleged deviation from the direct subject. Yet, as has been 
repeatedly pointed out by the Senate, the elucidation of the 
criminal's characteristics and his or her moral standpoint 
in general has a significance of the first importance in crim- 
inal cases, even if only as a guide in the settling of the 
question of imputation/ That's point two," he said, with a 
look at Nekhliidoff. 

" But he spoke so badly that no one could make anything 
of it/' Nekhliidoff said, still more astonished. 

" The fellow's quite a fool, and of course could not 
be expected to say anything sensible," Fanarin said, 
laughing ; " but, all the same, it will do as a reason for 
appeal. Thirdly : ' The president, in his summing up, con- 
trary to the direct decree of section 1, statute 801, of the 
criminal code, omitted to inform the jury what the judicial 
points are that constitute guilt; and did not mention that 
having admitted the fact of Maslova having administered 
the poison to Smelkoff, the jury had a right not to impute 
the guilt of murder to her, since the proofs of wilful intent 
to deprive Smelkoff of life were absent, and only to pro- 
nounce her guilty of carelessness resulting in the death of 
the merchant, which she did not desire/ This is the chief 

" Yes ; but we ought to have known that ourselves. It 
was our mistake." 

" And now the fourth point," the advocate continued. 
" The form of the answer given by the jury contained an 
evident contradiction. Maslova is accused of wilfully 
poisoning Smelkoff, her one object being that of cupidity, 
the only motive to commit murder she could have had. The 
jury in their verdict acquit her of the intent to rob, or par- 
ticipation in the stealing of valuables, from which it follows 
that they intended also to acquit her of the intent to murder, 
and only through a misunderstanding, which arose from the 
incompleteness of the president's summing up, omitted to 
express it in due form in their answer. Therefore an answer 
of this kind by the jury absolutely demanded the applica- 
tion of statutes 816 and 808 of the criminal code of pro- 
cedure, i.e., an explanation by the president to the jury of 
the mistake made by them, and another debate on the ques- 
tion of the prisoner's guilt." 

Resurrection 179 

" Then why did the president not do it? " 

" I, too, should like to know why," Fanarin said, laugh- 

" Then the Senate will, of course, correct this error? " 

" That will all depend on who will preside there at the 
time. Well, now, there it is. I have further said," he con- 
tinued, rapidly, " a verdict of this kind gave the Court no 
right to condemn Maslova to be punished as a criminal, and 
to apply section 3, statute 771 of the penal code to her case. 
This is a decided and gross violation of the basic principles 
of our criminal law. In view of the reasons stated, I have 
the honour of appealing to you, etc., etc., the refutation, 
according to 909, 910, and section 2, 912 and 928 statute of 
the criminal code, etc., etc. ... to carry this case before 
another department of the same Court for a further exam- 
ination. There ; all that can be done is done, but, to be 
frank, I have little hope of success, though, of course, it all 
depends on what members will be present at the Senate. 
If you have any influence there you can but try." 

" I do know some." 

" All right ; only be quick about it. Else they'll all go off 
for a change of air ; then you may have to wait three months 
before they return. Then, in case of failure, we have still 
the possibility of appealing to His Majesty. This, too, de- 
pends on the private influence you can bring to work. In 
this case, too, I am at your service ; I mean as to the work- 
ing of the petition, not the influence." 

" Thank you. Now as to your fees? " 

" My assistant will hand you the petition and tell you/ 5 

" One thing more. The Procureur gave me a pass for 
visiting this person in prison, but they tell me I must also 
get a permission from the governor in order to get an inter- 
view at another time and in another place than those ap- 
pointed. Is this necessary ? " 

" Yes, I think so. But the governor is away at present ; 
a vice-governor is in his place. And he is such an im- 
penetrable fool that you'll scarcely be able to do anything 
with him." 

"Is it Maslennikoff?" 

" Yes." 

" I know him," said Nekhludoff, and got up to go. At 
this moment a horribly ugly, little, bony, snub-nosed, yel- 
low-faced woman flew into the room. It was the advocate's 

180 Resurrection 

wife, who did not seem to be in the least bit troubled by her 
ugliness. She was attired in the most original manner ; she 
seemed enveloped in something made of velvet and silk, 
something yellow and green, and her thin hair was crimped. 
She stepped out triumphantly into the ante-room, followed 
by a tall, smiling man, with a greenish complexion, dressed 
in a coat with silk facings, and a white tie. This was an 
author. Nekhludoff knew him by sight. 

She opened the cabinet door and said, ■■ Anatole, you 
must come to me. Here is Simeon Ivanovitch, who will 
read his poems, and you must absolutely come and read 
about Garshin." 

Nekhludoff noticed that she whispered something to her 
husband, and, thinking it was something concerning him, 
wished to go away, but she caught him up and said : " I 
beg your pardon, Prince, I know you, and, thinking an in- 
troduction superfluous, I beg you to stay and take part in 
our literary matinee. It will be most interesting. M. Fana- 
rin will read." 

" You see what a lot I have to do," said Fanarin, spread- 
ing out his hands and smilingly pointing to his wife, as if to 
show how impossible it was to resist so charming a creature. 

Nekhludoff thanked the advocate's wife with extreme 
politeness for the honour she did him in inviting him, but 
refused the invitation with a sad and solemn look, and left 
the room. 

" What an" affected fellow ! " said the advocate's wife, 
when he had gone out. 

In the ante-room the assistant handed him a ready-writ- 
ten petition, and said that the fees, including the business 
with the Senate and the commission, would come to 1,000 
roubles, and explained that M. Fanarin did not usually 
undertake this kind of business, but did it only to oblige 

" And about this petition. Who is to sign it? " 

" The prisoner may do it herself, or if this is inconvenient, 
M. Fanarin can, if he gets a power of attorney from her." 

" Oh, no. I shall take the petition to her and get her to 
sign it," said Nekhludoff, glad of the opportunity of seeing 
her before the appointed day. 

Resurrection 1 8 1 



At the usual time the jailer's whistle sounded in the cor- 
ridors of the prison, the iron doors of the cells rattled, bare 
feet pattered, heels clattered, and the prisoners who acted as 
scavengers passed along the corridors, filling the air with 
disgusting smells. The prisoners washed, dressed, and 
came out for revision, then went to get boiling water for 
their tea. 

The conversation at breakfast in all the cells was very 
lively. It was all about two prisoners who were to be flogged 
that day. One, Vasiliev, was a young man of some educa- 
tion, a clerk, who had killed his mistress in a fit of jealousy. 
His fellow-prisoners liked him because he was merry and 
generous and firm in his behaviour with the prison authori- 
ties. He knew the laws and insisted on their being carried 
out. Therefore he was disliked by the authorities. 

Three weeks before a jailer struck one of the scavengers 
who had spilt some soup over his new uniform. Vasiliev 
took the part of the scavenger, saying that it was not law- 
ful to strike a prisoner. 

" I'll teach you the law," said the jailer, and gave Vasi- 
liev a scolding. Vasiliev replied in like manner, and the 
jailer was going to hit him, but Vasiliev seized the jailer's 
hands, held them fast for about three minutes, and, after 
giving the hands a twist, pushed the jailer out of the door. 
The jailer complained to the inspector, who ordered Vasi- 
liev to be put into a solitary cell. 

The solitary cells were a row of dark closets, locked from 
outside, and there were neither beds, nor chairs, nor tables 
in them, so that the inmates had to sit or lie on the dirty 
floor, while the rats, of which there were a great many in 
those cells, ran across them. The rats were so bold that 
they stole the bread from the prisoners, and even attacked 
them if they stopped moving. Vasiliev said he would not 
go into the solitary cell, because he had not done anything 

1 82 Resurrection 

wrong ; but they used force. Then he began struggling, and 
two other prisoners helped him to free himself from the 
jailers. All the jailers assembled, and among them was 
Petrov, who was distinguished for his strength. The pris- 
oners got thrown down and pushed into the solitary cells. 
The governor was immediately informed that something 
very like a rebellion had taken place. And he sent back an 
order to flog the two chief offenders, Vasiliev and the tramp, 
Nepomnishy, giving each thirty strokes with a birch rod. 
The flogging was appointed to take place in the women's in- 

All this was known in the prison since the evening, and it 
was being talked about with animation in all the cells. 

Korableva, Khoroshavka, Theodosia, and Maslova sat 
together in their corner, drinking tea, all of them flushed and 
animated by the vodka they had drunk, for Maslova, who 
now had a constant supply of vodka, freely treated her com- 
panions to it. 

" He's not been a-rioting, or anything," Korableva said, 
referring to Vasiliev, as she bit tiny pieces off a lump of 
sugar with her strong teeth. " He only stuck up for a chum, 
'cause it's not law r ful to strike prisoners nowadays." 

" And he's a fine fellow, I've heard say," said Theodosia, 
who sat bareheaded, with her long plaits round her head, on 
a log of wood opposite the shelf bedstead on which the tea- 
pot stood. 

" There, now, if you were to ask him/' the watchman's 
wife said to Maslova (by him she meant Nekhliidoff). 

" I shall tell him. He'll do anything for me," Maslova 
said, tossing her head, and smiling. 

" Yes, but when is he coming? and they've already gone to 
fetch them," said Theodosia. " It is terrible," she added, 
with a sigh. 

" I once did see how they flogged a peasant in the village. 
Father-in-law, he sent me once to the village elder. Well, 
I went, and there "... The watchman's wife began her 
long story, which was interrupted by the sound of voices 
and steps in the corridor above them. 

The women were silent, and sat listening. 

" There they are, hauling him along, the devils ! " Kho- 
roshavka said. " They'll do him to death, they will. The 
jailers are so enraged with him because he never would give 
in to them/' 

Resurrection 183 

All was quiet again upstairs, and the watchman's wife 
finished her story of how she was that frightened when she 
went into the barn and saw them flogging a peasant, her in- 
side turned at the sight, and so on. Khoroshavka related 
how Schegloff had been flogged, and never uttered a sound. 
Then Theodosia put away the tea things, and Korableva and 
the watchman's wife took up their sewing. Maslova sat 
down on the bedstead, with her arms round her knees, dull 
and depressed. She was about to lie down and try to sleep, 
when the woman warder called her into the office to see a 

" Now, mind, and don't forget to tell him about us/' the 
old woman (Menshova) said, while Maslova was arranging 
the kerchief on her head before the dim looking-glass. " We 
did not set fire to the house, but he himself, the fiend, did it ; 
his workman saw him do it, and will not damn his soul by 
denying it. You just tell to ask to see my Mitri. Mitri 
will tell him all about it, as plain as can be. Just think of 
our being locked up in prison when we never dreamt of any 
ill, while he, the fiend, is enjoying himself at the pub, with 
another man's wife." 

" That's not the law," remarked Korableva. 

"■ I'll tell him— I'll tell him," answered Maslova. " Sup- 
pose I have another drop, just to keep up courage," she 
added, with a wink ; and Korableva poured out half a cup of 
vodka, which Maslova drank. Then, having wiped her 
mouth and repeating the words " Just to keep up courage," 
tossing her head and smiling gaily, she followed the warder 
along the corridor. 

1 84 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff had to wait in the hall for a long time. When 
he had arrived at the prison and rung at the entrance door, 
he handed the permission of the Procureur to the jailer on 
duty who met him. 

" No, no," the jailer on duty said hurriedly, " the inspec- 
tor is engaged." 

" In the office?" asked Nekhludoff. 

" No, here in the interviewing-room." 

" Why, is it a visiting day to-day? " 

" No; it's special business." 

"I should like to see him. What am I to do?" said 

" When the inspector comes out you'll tell him wait 

a bit," said the jailer. 

At this moment a sergeant-major, with a smooth, shiny 
face and moustaches impregnated with tobacco smoke, came 
out of a side door, with the gold cords of his uniform glis- 
tening, and addressed the jailer in a severe tone. 

" What do you mean by letting any one in here ? The . 
office. . . ." 

" I was told the inspector was here," said Nekhludoff, sur- 
prised at the agitation he noticed in the sergeant-major's 

At this moment the inner door opened, and Petrov came 
out, heated and perspiring. 

" He'll remember it," he muttered, turning to the sergeant- 
major. The latter pointed at Nekhludoff by a look, and 
Petrov knitted his brows and went out through a door at 
the back. 

" Who will remember it ? Why do they all seem so con- 
fused? Why did the sergeant-major make a sign to him? " 
Nekhludoff thought. 

The sergeant-major, again addressing Nekhludoff, said: 

Resurrection 185 

" You cannot meet here ; please step across to the office." 
And Nekhliidoff was about to comply when the inspector 
came out of the door at the back, looking even more con- 
fused than his subordinates, and sighing continually. When 
he saw Nekhliidoff he turned to the jailer. 

" Fedotoff, have Maslova, cell 5, women's ward, taken to 
the office." 

u Will you come this way, please," he said, turning to 
Nekhliidoff. They ascended a steep staircase and entered 
a little room with one window, a writing-table, and a few 
chairs in it. The inspector sat down. 

" Mine are heavy, heavy duties," he remarked, again ad- 
dressing Nekhliidoff, and took out a cigarette. 

" You are tired, evidently," said Nekhliidoff. 

" Tired of the whole of the service — the duties are very 
trying. One tries to lighten their lot, and only makes it 
worse ; my only thought is how to get away. Heavy, heavy 
duties ! " 

Nekhliidoff did not know what the inspector's particular 
difficulties were, but he saw that to-day he was in a peculiarly 
dejected and hopeless condition, calling for pity. " Yes, I 
should think the duties were heavy for a kind-hearted man," 
he said. " Why do you serve in this capacity? " 

" I have a family." 

" But, if it is so hard " 

" Well, still you know it is possible to be of use in some 
measure; I soften down all I can. Another in my place 
would conduct the affairs quite differently. Why, we have 
more than 2,000 persons here. And what persons ! One 
must know how to manage them. It is easier said than done, 
you know. After all, they are also men; one cannot help 
pitying them." The inspector began telling Nekhliidoff of 
a fight that had lately taken place among the convicts, which 
had ended by one man being killed. 

The story was interrupted by the entrance of Maslova, 
who was accompanied by a jailer. 

Nekhliidoff saw her through the doorway before she had 
noticed the inspector. She was following the warder briskly, 
smiling and tossing her head. When she saw the inspector 
she suddenly changed, and gazed at him with a frightened 
look ; but, quickly recovering, she addressed Nekhliidoff 
boldly and gaily. 

" How d'you do? " she said, drawling out her words, arid 

1 86 Resurrection 

smilingly took his hand and shook it vigorously, not like the 
first time. 

" Here, I've brought you a petition to sign," said Nekhlii- 
doff, rather surprised by the boldness with which she greeted 
him to-day. 

" The advocate has written out a petition which you will 
have to sign, and then we shall send it to Petersburg." 

" All right ! That can be done. Anything you like," she 
said, with a wink and a smile. 

And Nekhludoff drew a folded paper from his pocket and 
went up to the table. 

"May she sign it here?" asked Nekhludoff, turning to 
the inspector. 

" It's all right, it's all right ! Sit down. Here's a pen ; you 
can write ? " said the inspector. 

" I could at one time," she said; and, after arranging her 
skirt and the sleeves of her jacket, she sat down at the table, 
smiled awkwardly, took the pen with her small, energetic 
hand, and glanced at Nekhludoff with a laugh. 

Nekhludoff told her what to write and pointed out the 
place where to sign. 

Sighing deeply as she dipped her pen into the ink, and 
carefully shaking some drops off the pen, she wrote her 

" Is it all?" she asked, looking from Nekhludoff to the 
inspector, and putting the pen now on the inkstand, now on 
the papers. 

" I have a few words to tell you," Nekhludoff said, taking 
the pen from her. 

" All right ; tell me," she said. And suddenly, as if re- 
membering something, or feeling sleepy, she grew serious. 

The inspector rose and left the room, and Nekhludoff re* 
mained with her. 

Resurrection 1 87 



The jailer who had brought Maslova in sat on a window- 
nil at some distance from them. 

The decisive moment had come for Nekhludofif. He had 
been incessantly blaming himself for not having told her the 
principal thing at the first interview, and was now deter- 
mined to tell her that he would marry her. She was sitting 
at the further side of the table. Nekhltidoff sat down oppo- 
site her. It was light in the room, and Nekhliidoff for the 
first time saw her face quite near. He distinctly saw the 
crowsfeet round her eyes, the wrinkles round her mouth, and 
the swollen eyelids. He felt more sorry than before. Lean- 
ing over the table so as not to be heard by the jailer — a man. 
of Jewish type with grizzly whiskers, who sat by the win- 
dow — Nekhliidoff said : 

" Should this petition come to nothing we shall appeal to 
the Emperor. All that is possible shall be done/' 

" There, now, if we had had a proper advocate from the 
first," she interrupted. " My defendant was quite a silly. 
He did nothing but pay me compliments," she said, and 
laughed. " If it had then been known that I was acquainted 
with you, it would have been another matter. They think 
every one's a thief." 

" How strange she is to-day," Nekhliidoff thought, and 
was just going to say what he had on his mind when she be- 
gan again : 

" There's something I want to say. We have here an old 
woman ; such a fine one, d'you know, she just surprises every 
one; she is imprisoned for nothing, and her son, too, and 
everybody knows they are innocent, though they are accused 
of having set fire to a house. D'you know, hearing I was 
acquainted with you, she says : ' Tell him to ask to see my 
son ; he'll tell him all about it.' " Thus spoke Maslova, turn- 
ing her head from side to side, and glancing at Nekhltidoff. 

1 88 Resurrection 

" Their name's Menshoff . Well, will you do it ? Such a fine 
old thing, you know ; you can see at once she's innocent. 
You'll do it, there's a dear," and she smiled, glanced up at 
him, and then cast down her eyes. 

" All right. I'll find out about them," Nekhludoff said, 
more and more astonished by her free-and-easy manner. 
" But I was going to speak to you about myself. Do you re- 
member what I told you last time? " 

" You said a lot last time. What was it you told me ? " she 
said, continuing to smile and to turn her head from side to 

" I said I had come to ask you to forgive me," he began. 

" What's the use of that ? Forgive, forgive, where's the 
good of " 

" To atone for my sin, not by mere words, but in deed. I 
have made up my mind to marry you." 

An expression of fear suddenly came over her face. Her 
squinting eyes remained fixed on him, and yet seemed not to 
be looking at him. 

" What's that for ? " she said, with an angry frown. 

" T feel that it is my duty before God to do it." 

■ ■ What God have you found now ? You are not saying 
what you ought to. God, indeed ! What God ? You ought 
to have remembered God then," she said, and stopped with 
her mouth open. It was only now that Nekhludoff noticed 
that her breath smelled of spirits, and that he understood the 
cause of her excitement. 

" Try and be calm," he said. 

" Why should I be calm ? " she began, quickly, flushing 
scarlet. " I am a convict, and you are a gentleman and a 
prince. There's no need for you to soil yourself by touching 
me. You go to your princesses ; my price is a ten-rouble 

" However cruelly you may speak, you cannot express 
what I myself am feeling," he said, trembling all over; " you 
cannot imagine to what extent I feel myself guilty towards 

" Feel yourself guilty ? " she said, angrily mimicking him. 
" You did not feel so then, but threw me ioo roubles. That's 
your price." 

" I know, I know ; but what is to be done now ? " said 
Nekhludoff. " I have decided not to leave you, and what I 
have said I shall do." 

Resurrection 189 

" And I say you sha'n't," she said, and laughed aloud. 

" Katusha," he said, touching her hand. 

" You go away. I am a convict and you a prince, and 
you've no business here/' she cried, pulling away her hand, 
her whole appearance transformed by her wrath. " You've 
got pleasure out of me in this life, and want to save yourself 
through me in the life to come. You are disgusting to me — 
your spectacles and the whole of your dirty fat mug. Go, 
go ! " she screamed, starting to her feet. 

The jailer came up to them. 

" What are you kicking up this row for? That 
won't " 

" Let her alone, please," said Nekhludoff. 

" She must not forget herself/' said the jailer. 

41 Please wait a little," said Nekhludoff, and the jailer re- 
turned to the window. 

Maslova sat down again, dropping her eyes and firmly 
clasping her small hands. 

Nekhludoff stooped over her, not knowing what to do. 

" You do not believe me? " he said. 

" That you mean to marry me ? It will never be. I'll 
rather hang myself. So there ! " 

" Well, still I shall go on serving you." 

" That's your affair, only I don't want anything from you. 
I am telling you the plain truth," she said. " Oh, why did I 
not die then ? " she added, and began to cry piteously. 

Nekhludoff could not speak ; her tears infected him. 

She lifted her eyes, looked at him in surprise, and began to 
wipe her tears with her kerchief. 

The jailer came up again and reminded them that it was 
time to part. 

Maslova rose. 

" You are excited. If it is possible, I shall come again to- 
morrow ; you think it over," said Nekhludoff. 

She gave him no answer and, without looking up, fol- 
lowed the jailer out of the room. 

" Well, lass, you'll have rare times now," Korableva said, 
when Maslova returned to the cell. " Seems he's mighty 
sweet on you ; make the most of it while he's after you. He'll 
help you out. Rich people can do anything." 

" Yes, that's so," remarked the watchman's wife, with her 
musical voice. " When a poor man thinks of getting mar- 
ried, there's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip; but a 

1 90 Resurrection 

rich man need only make up his mind and it's done. We 
knew a toff like that duckie. What d'you think he did? M 

"Well, have you spoken about my affairs?" the old 
woman asked. 

But Maslova gave her fellow-prisoners no answer ; she lay 
down on the shelf bedstead, her squinting eyes fixed on a 
corner of the room, and lay there until the evening. 

A painful struggle went on in her soul. What Nekhliidoff 
had told her called up the memory of that world in which 
she had suffered and which she had left without having 
understood, hating it. She now feared to wake from the 
trance in which she was living. Not having arrived at any 
conclusion when evening came, she again bought some 
vodka and drank with her companions. 

Resurrection 1 9 1 



" So this is what it means, this," thought Nekhludoff as 
he left the prison, only now fully understanding his crime. 
If he had not tried to expiate his guilt he would never have 
found out how great his crime was. Nor was this all; she, 
too, would never have felt the whole horror of what had 
been done to her. He only now saw what he had done to the 
soul of this woman ; only now she saw and understood what 
had been done to her. Up to this time Nekhludoff had 
played with a sensation of self-admiration, had admired his 
own remorse; now he was simply filled with horror. He 
knew he could not throw her up now, and yet he could not 
imagine what would come of their relations to one another. 

Just as he was going out, a jailer, with a disagreeable, 
insinuating countenance, and a cross and medals on his 
breast, came up and handed him a note with an air of mys- 

" Here is a note from a certain person, your honour," he 
said to Nekhludoff as he gave him the envelope. 

"What person?" 

" You will know when you read it. A political prisoner. 
I am in that ward, so she asked me ; and though it is against 

the rules, still feelings of humanity " The jailer spoke 

in an unnatural manner. 

Nekhludoff was surprised that a jailer of the ward where 
political prisoners were kept should pass notes inside the 
very prison walls, and almost within sight of every one ; he 
did not then know that this was both a jailer and a spy. 
However, he took the note and read it on coming out of the 

The note was written in a bold hand, and ran as follows : 
" Having heard that you visit the prison, and are interested 
in the case of a criminal prisoner, the desire of seeing you 
arose in me. Ask for a permission to see me. I can give 
you a good deal of information concerning your protegee, 
and also our group,— Yours gratefully, Vera Doukbova." 

192 Resurrection 

Vera Doiikhova had been a school-teacher in an out-of~ 
the-way village of the Novgorod Government, where Nekh- 
ludoff and some friends of his had once put up while bear 
hunting. Nekhludoff gladly and vividly recalled those old 
days, and his acquaintance with Doiikhova. It was just be- 
fore Lent, in an isolated spot, 40 miles from the railway. 
The hunt had been successful ; two bears had been killed ; 
and the company were having dinner before starting on their 
return journey, when the master of the hut where they were 
putting up came in to say that the deacon's daughter 
wanted to speak to Prince Nekhludoff. " Is she pretty?" 
some one asked. " None of that, please," Nekhludoff said, 
and rose with a serious look on his face. Wiping his 
mouth, and wondering what the deacon's daughter might 
want of him, he went into the host's private hut. 

There he found a girl with a felt hat and a warm cloak on 
s — a sinewy, ugly girl ; only her eyes with their arched brows 
were beautiful. 

"Here, miss, speak to him," said the old housewife; 
" this is the prince himself. I shall go out meanwhile." 

" In what way can I be of service to you?" Nekhludoff 

" I — I — I see you are throwing away your money on 
such nonsense — on hunting," began the girl, in great con- 
fusion. " I know — I only want one thing — to be of use to 
the people, and I can do nothing because I know nothing." 
Her eyes were so truthful, so kind, and her expression of 
resoluteness and yet bashfulness was so touching, that 
Nekhludoff, as it often happened to him, suddenly felt as if 
he were in her position, understood, and sympathised. 

"What can I do, then?" 

" I am a teacher, but should like to follow a course of 
study ; and I am not allowed to do so. That is, not that I 
am not allowed to ; they'd allow me to, but I have not got 
the means. Give them to me, and when I have finished the 
course I shall repay you. I am thinking the rich kill bears 
and give the peasants drink ; all this is bad. Why should 
they not do good ? I only want 80 roubles. But if you don't 
wish to, never mind," she added, gravely. 

" On the contrary, I am very grateful to you for this 
opportunity. ... I will bring it at once," said Nekh- 

He went out into the passage, and there met one of his 

Resurrection 193 

comrades, who had been overhearing his conversation. 
Paying no heed to his chaffing, Nekhludoff got the money 
out of his bag and took it to her. 

" Oh, please, do not thank me ; it is I who should thank 
you," he said. 

It was pleasant to remember all this now ; pleasant to re- 
member that he had nearly had a quarrel with an officer 
who tried to make an objectionable joke of it, and how an- 
other of his comrades had taken his part, which led to a 
closer friendship between them. How successful the whole 
of that hunting expedition had been, and how happy he 
had felt when returning to the railway station that night. 
The line of sledges, the horses in tandem, glide quickly 
along the narrow road that lies through the forest, now 
between high trees, now between low firs weighed down by 
the snow, caked in heavy lumps on their branches. A red 
light flashes in the dark, some one lights an aromatic cigar- 
ette. Joseph, a bear driver, keeps running from sledge to 
sledge, up to his knees in snow, and while putting things to 
rights he speaks about the elk which are now going about 
on the deep snow and gnawing the bark off the aspen trees, 
of the bears that are lying asleep in their deep hidden dens, 
and his breath comes warm through the opening in the 
sledge cover. All this came back to Nekhludoff's mind ; 
but, above all, the joyous sense of health, strength, and free- 
dom from care : the lungs breathing in the frosty air so deeply 
that the fur cloak is drawn tightly on his chest, the fine 
snow drops off the low branches on to his face, his body is 
warm, his face feels fresh, and his soul is free from care, 
self-reproach, fear, or desire. How beautiful it was. And 
now, O God ! what torment, what trouble ! 

Evidently Vera Doukhova was a revolutionist and im- 
prisoned as such. He must see her, especially as she prom* 
ised to advise him how to lighten Maslova's lot. 

1 94 Resurrection 



Awaking early the next morning, Nekhludoff remem- 
bered what he had done the day before, and was seized 
with fear. 

But in spite of this fear, he was more determined than 
ever to continue what he had begun. 

Conscious of a sense of duty, he left the house and went 
to see Maslennikoff in order to obtain from him a permis- 
sion to visit Maslova in prison, and also the Menshoffs — 
mother and son — about whom Maslova had spoken to him. 

Nekhludoff had known this Maslennikoff a long time; 
they had been in the regiment together. At that time 
Maslennikoff was treasurer to the regiment. He was a 
kind-hearted and zealous officer, knowing and wishing to 
know nothing beyond the regiment and the Imperial fam- 
ily. Now Nekhludoff saw him as an administrator, who 
had exchanged the regiment for an administrative office in 
the government where he lived. He was married to a rich 
and energetic woman, who had forced him to exchange mili- 
tary for civil service. She laughed at him, and caressed 
him, as if he were her own pet animal. Nekhludoff had 
been to see them once during the winter, but the couple 
were so uninteresting to him that he had not gone again. 

At the sight of Nekhludoff MaslennikofFs face beamed 
all over. He had the same fat red face, and was as corpu- 
lent and as well dressed as in his military days. Then, he 
used to be always dressed in a well-brushed uniform, made 
according to the latest fashion, tightly fitting his chest and 
shoulders ; now, it was a civil service uniform he wore, and 
that, too, tightly fitted his well-fed body and showed off his 
broad chest, and was cut according to the latest fashion. In 
spite of the difference in age (Maslennikoff was 40), the two 
men were very familiar with one another. 

" Halloo, old fellow ! How good of you to come ! Let 

Resurrection 195 

us go and see my wife. I have just ten minutes to spare 
before the meeting. My chief is away, you know. I am at 
the head of the Government administration/' he said, un- 
able to disguise his satisfaction. 

" I have come on business." 

" What is it ? " said Maslennikoff, in an anxious and 
seTere tone, putting himself at once on his guard. 

" There is a person, whom I am very much interested 
in, in prison " (at the word " prison " Maslennikoff's face 
grew stern) ; " and I should like to have an interview in the 
office, and not in the common visiting-room. I have been 
told it depended on you." 

" Certainly, mon cher" said Maslennikoff, putting both 
hands on Nekhludoff's knees, as if to tone down his 
grandeur ; " but remember, I am monarch only for an 

" Then will you give me an order that will enable me 
to see her? " 

" It's a woman ? " 

" Yes." 

" What is she there for? " 

" Poisoning, but she has been unjustly condemned." 

" Yes, there you have it, your justice administered by 
jury, Us n'en font point d'autres" he said, for some unknown 
reason, in French. " I know you do not agree with me, 
but it can't be helped, c'est mon opinion bien arretee," he 
added, giving utterance to an opinion he had for the last 
twelve months been reading in the retrograde Conserva- 
tive paper. " I know you are a Liberal." 

" I don't know whether I am a Liberal or something 
else," Nekhliidoff said, smiling; it always surprised him to 
find himself ranked with a political party and called a 
Liberal, when he maintained that a man should be heard 
before he was judged, that before being tried all men were 
equal, that nobody at all ought to be ill-treated and beaten, 
but especially those who had not yet been condemned by 
law. " I don't know whether I am a Liberal or not ; but I 
do know that however bad the present way of conducting a 
trial is, it is better than the old." 

" And whom have you for an advocate? " 

i( I have spoken to Fanarin." 

" Dear me, Fanarin ! " said Maslennikoff, with a grimace, 
recollecting howjthis Fanarin had examined him as a wit- 

196 Resurrection 

ness at a trial the year before and had, in the politest man- 
ner, held him up to ridicule for half an hour. 

" I should not advise you to have anything to do with 
him. Fanarin est un homme tare." 

" I have one more request to make," said Nekhludoff, 
without answering him. " There's a girl whom I knew long 
ago, a teacher; she is a very pitiable little thing, and is now 
also imprisoned, and would like to see me. Could you give 
me a permission to visit her? " 

Maslennikoff bent his head on one side and considered. 

" She's a political one? " 

" Yes, I have been told so." 

" Well, you see, only relatives get permission to visit 
political prisoners. Still, Til give you an open order. 
Je sais que vous nabuserez pas. What's the name of your 
protegee? Doukhova? Elle est jolie? " 

" Hideiise." 

Maslennikoff shook his head disapprovingly, went up 
to the table, and wrote on a sheet of paper, with a printed 
heading : " The bearer, Prince Dmitri Ivanovitch Nekh- 
ludoff, is to be allowed to interview in the prison office the 
meschdnka Maslova, and also the medical assistant, Dou- 
khova," and he finished with an elaborate flourish. 

" Now you'll be able to see what order we have got there. 
And it is very difficult to keep order, it is so crowded, es- 
pecially with people condemned to exile; but I watch 
strictly, and love the work. You will see they are very 
comfortable and contented. But one must know how to 
deal with them. Only a few days ago we had a little trouble 
— insubordination ; another would have called it mutiny, 
and would have made many miserable, but with us it all 
passed quietly. We must have solicitude on one hand, firm- 
ness and power on the other," and he clenched the fat, 
white, turquoise-ringed fist, which issued out of the starched 
cuff of his shirt sleeve, fastened with a gold stud. " Solici- 
tude and firm power." 

" Well, I don't know about that," said Nekhludoff. " I 
went there twice, and felt very much depressed." 

"Do you know, you ought to get acquainted with the 
Countess Passek," continued Maslennikoff, growing talka- 
tive. " She has given herself up entirely to this sort of 
work. Elle fait beaueoup de bien. Thanks to her — and, 
perhaps I may add without false modesty, to me — every- 

Resurrection 197 

thing has been changed, changed in such a way that the 
former horrors no longer exist, and they are really quite 
comfortable there. Well, you'll see. There's Fanarin. I 
do not know him personally ; besides, my social position 
keeps our ways apart; but he is positively a bad man, and 
besides, he takes the liberty of saying such things in the 
court — such things ! " 

" Well, thank you," Nekhludoff said, taking the paper, 
and without listening further he bade good-day to his former 

" And won't you go in to see my wife ? " 
" No, pray excuse me ; I have no time now." 
" Dear me, why she will never forgive me," said Mas- 
lennikoff, accompanying his old acquaintance down to the 
first landing, as he was in the habit of doing to persons of 
not the greatest, but the second greatest importance, with 
whom he classed Nekhludoff ; " now do go in, if only for a 

But Nekhludoff remained firm ; and while the footman 
and the door-keeper rushed to give him his stick and over- 
coat, and opened the door, outside of which there stood a 
policeman, Nekhludoff repeated that he really could not 
come in. 

" Well, then ; on Thursday, please. It is her ' at-home. 9 
I will tell her you will come," shouted Maslennikoff from 
the stairs. 

198 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff drove that day straight from Maslennikoff's 
to the prison, and went to the inspector's lodging, which he 
now knew. He was again struck by the sounds of the same 
piano of inferior quality; but this time it was not a rhap- 
sody that was being played, but exercises by Clementi, again 
wkh the same vigour, distinctness, and quickness. The ser- 
vant with the bandaged eye said the inspector was in, and 
showed Nekhludoff to a small drawing-room, in which there 
stood a sofa and, in front of it, a table, with a large lamp, 
which stood on a piece of crochet work, and the paper shade 
of which was burnt on one side. The chief inspector en- 
tered, with his usual sad and weary look. 

" Take a seat, please. What is it you want ? " he said, 
buttoning up the middle button of his uniform. 

" I have just been to the vice-governor's, and got this 
order from him. I should like to see the prisoner Maslova." 

"Markova?" asked the inspector, unable to hear dis- 
tinctly because of the music. 


" Well, yes." The inspector got up and went to the door 
whence proceeded dementi's roulades. 

" Mary, can't you stop just a minute? " he said, in a voice 
that showed that this music was the bane of his life. " One 
can't hear a word." 

The piano was silent, but one could hear the sound of 
reluctant steps, and some one looked in at the door. 

The inspector seemed to feel eased by the interval of si- 
lence, lit a thick cigarette of weak tobacco, and offered one 
to Nekhludoff. 

Nekhludoff refused. 

" What I want is to see Maslova." 

• " Oh, yes, that can be managed. Now, then, what do you 
want ? " he said, addressing a little girl of five or six, who 
came into the room and walked up to her father with her 
head turned towards Nekhludoff, and her eyes £xed on him. 

Resurrection 199 

" There, now, you'll fall down, ,, said the inspector, smil- 
ing, as the little gin ran up to him, and, not looking where 
she was going, caught her foot in a little rug. 

" Well, then, if I may, I shall go." 

" It's not very convenient to see Maslova to-day/' said the 

"How's that?" 

" Well, you know, it's all your own fault," said the in- 
spector, with a slight smile. " Prince, give her no money 
into her hands. If you like, give it me. I will keep it for 
her. You see, you gave her some money yesterday ; she got 
some spirits (it's an evil we cannot manage to root out), 
and to-day she is quite tipsy, even violent." 

"Can this be true?" 

" Oh, yes, it is. I have even been obliged to have recourse 
to severe measures, and to put her into a separate cell. She is 
a quiet woman in an ordinary way. But please do not give 
her any money. These people are so " 

What had happened the day before came vividly back to 
Nekhludoff's mind, and again he was seized with fear. 

" And Doiikhova, a political prisoner ; might I see her ? " 

" Yes, if you like," said the inspector. He embraced the 
little girl, who was still looking at Nekhludoff, got up, and, 
tenderly motioning her aside, went into the ante-room. 
Hardly had he got into the overcoat which the maid helped 
him to put on, and before he had reached the door, the dis- 
tinct sounds of dementi's roulades again began. 

" She entered the Conservatoire, but there is such disorder 
there. She has a great gift," said the inspector, as they 
went down the stairs. " She means to play at concerts." 

The inspector and Nekhludoff arrived at the prison. The 
gates were instantly opened as they appeared. The jailers, 
with their ringers lifted to their caps, followed the inspector 
with their eyes. Four men, with their heads half shaved, 
who were carrying tubs rilled with something, cringed when 
they saw the inspector. One of them frowned angrily, his 
black eyes glaring. 

" Of course a talent like that must be developed ; it would 
not do to bury it, but in a small lodging, you know, it is 
rather hard." The inspector went on with the conversation, 
taking no notice of the prisoners. 

" Who is it you want to see? " 

" Doiikhova." 

200 Resurrection 

" Oh, she's in the tower. You'll have to wait a little/' he 

" Might I not meanwhile see the prisoners Menshoff, 
mother and son, who are accused of incendiarism? " 

" Oh, yes. Cell No. 21. Yes, they can be sent for.' ; 

" But might I not see Menshoff in his cell? " 

" Oh, you'll find the waiting-room more pleasant." 

" No. I should prefer the cell. It is more interesting." 

" Well, you have found something to be interested in !" 

Here the assistant, a smartly-dressed officer, entered the 
side door. 

" Here, see the Prince into Menshoff's cell, No. 21," said 
the inspector to his assistant, " and then take him to the 
office. And I'll go and call What's her name? " 

" Vera. Doukhova." 

The inspector's assistant was young, with dyed mous- 
taches, and diffusing the smell of eau-de-cologne. " This 
way, please," he said to Nekhludoff, with a pleasant smile. 
" Our establishment interests you? " 

" Yes, it does interest me ; and, besides, I look upon it as a 
duty to help a man who I heard was confined here, though 

The assistant shrugged his shoulders. 

" Yes, that may happen," he said quietly, politely stepping 
aside to let the visitor enter the stinking corridor first. 
" But it also happens that they lie. Here we are." 

The doors of the cells were open, and some of the pris- 
oners were in the corridor. The assistant nodded slightly to 
the jailers, and cast a side glance at the prisoners, who, keep- 
ing close to the wall, crept back to their cells, or stood like 
soldiers, with their arms at their sides, following the official 
with their eyes. After passing through one corridor, the 
assistant showed Nekhludoff into another to the left, sepa/ 
rated from the first by an iron door. 

This corridor was darker, and smelt even worse than the 
first. The corridor had doors on both sides, with little holes 
in them about an inch in diameter. There was only an old 
jailer, with an unpleasant face, in this corridor. 

" Where is Menshoff?" asked the inspector's assistant. 

■ f The eighth cell to the left." 

" And these? Are they occupied? " asked Nekhludoff. 

" Yes, all but one." 

Resurrection 201 


NO. 21. 

" May I look in? " asked Nekhludoff. 

" Oh, certainly/' answered the assistant, smiling, and 
turned to the jailer with some question. Nekhludoff 
looked into one of the little holes, and saw a tall young man 
pacing up and down the cell. When the man heard some one 
at the door he looked up with a frown, but continued walk- 
ing up and down. 

Nekhludoff looked into another hole. His eye met 
another large eye looking out of the hole at him, and he 
quickly stepped aside. In the third cell he saw a very small 
man asleep on the bed, covered, head and all, with his prison 
cloak. In the fourth a broad-faced man was sitting with 
his elbows on his knees and his head low down. At the 
sound of footsteps this man raised his head and looked up. 
His face, especially his large eyes, bore the expression of 
hopeless dejection. One could see that it did not even 
interest him to know who was looking into his cell. Who- 
ever it might be, he evidently hoped for nothing good from 
him. Nekhludoff was seized with dread, and went to 
Menshoff's cell, No. 21, without stopping to look through 
any more holes. The jailer unlocked the door and opened it. 
A young man, with long neck, well-developed muscles, a 
small head, and kind, round eyes, stood by the bed, hastily 
putting on his cloak, and looking at the newcomers with 
a frightened face. Nekhludoff was specially struck by the 
kind, round eyes that were throwing frightened and inquir- 
ing glances in turns at him, at the jailer, and at the assistant, 
and back again. 

" Here's a gentleman wants to inquire into your affair." 

" Thank you kindly." 

" Yes, I was told about you," Nekhludoff said, going 
through the cell up to the dirty grated window, " and I 
should like to hear all about it from yourself." 

Menshoff also came up to the window-, and at once started 

202 Resurrection 

telling his story, at first looking shyly at the inspector's as- 
sistant, but growing gradually bolder. When the assistant 
left the cell and went into the corridor to give some order 
the man grew quite bold. The story was told with the ac- 
cent and in the manner common to a most ordinary good 
peasant lad. To hear it told by a prisoner dressed in this 
degrading clothing, and inside a prison, seemed very 
strange to Nekhludoff. Nekhludoff listened, and at the 
same time kept looking around him — at the low bedstead 
with its straw mattress, the window and the dirty, damp 
wall, and the piteous face and form of this unfortunate, dis- 
figured peasant in his prison cloak and shoes, and he felt 
sadder and sadder, and would have liked not to believe what 
this good-natured fellow was saying. It seemed too dread- 
ful to think that men could do such a thing as to take a 
man, dress him in convict clothes, and put him in this hor- 
rible place without any reason only because he himself had 
been injured. And yet the thought that this seemingly 
true story, told with such a good-natured expression on the 
face, might be an invention and a lie was still more dreadful. 
This was the story : The village public-house keeper had 
enticed the young fellow's wife. He tried to get justice by 
all sorts of means. But everywhere the public-house keeper 
managed to bribe the officials, and was acquitted. Once 
he took his wife back by force, but she ran away next day. 
Then he came to demand her back, but, though he saw her 
when he came in, the public-house keeper told him she was 
not there, and ordered him to go away. He would not go, 
so the public-house keeper and his servant beat him so that 
they drew blood. The next day a fire broke out in the 
public-house, and the young man and his mother were ac- 
cused of having set the house on fire. He had not set it on 
fire, but was visiting a friend at the time. 

" And it is true that you did not set it on fire ? " 

" It never entered my head to do it, sir. It must be my 
enemy that did it himself. They say he had only just in- 
sured it. Then they said it was mother and I that did it, 
and that we had threatened him. It is true I once did go for 
him, my heart couldn't stand it any longer." 

" Can this be true ? " 

" God is my witness it is true. Oh, sir, be so good " 

and Nekhludoff had some difficulty to prevent him from 
bowing down to the ground. " You see I am perishing 

Resurrection 203 

without any reason/' His face quivered and he turned up 
the sleeve of his cloak and began to cry, wiping the tears 
with the sleeve of his dirty shirt. 

" Are you ready ? " asked the assistant. 

" Yes. Well, cheer up. We will consult a good lawyer, 
and will do what we can," said Nekhliidoff, and went out. 
Menshoff stood close to the door, so that the jailer knocked 
him in shutting it, and while the jailer was locking it he re r 
rnained looking out through the little hole. 

2.04 Resurrection 



Passing back along the broad corridor (it was dinner 
time, and the cell doors were open), among the men dressed 
in their light yellow cloaks, short, wide trousers, and prison 
shoes, who were looking eagerly at him, Nekhludoff felt a 
strange mixture of sympathy for them, and horror and per- 
plexity at the conduct of those who put and kept them here, 
and, besides, he felt, he knew not why, ashamed of himself 
calmly examining it all. 

In one of the corridors, some one ran, clattering with his 
shoes, in at the door of a cell. Several men came out from 
here, and stood in NekhludofFs way, bowing to him. 

" Please, your honour (we don't know what to call you), 
get our affair settled somehow/ 1 

" I am not an official. I know nothing about it." 

" Well, anyhow, you come from outside ; tell somebody — 
one of the authorities, if need be," said an indignant voice. 
" Show some pity on us, as a human being. Here we are 
suffering the second month for nothing." 

" What do you mean ? Why ? " said Nekhludoff. 

"Why? We ourselves don't know why, but are sitting 
here the second month." 

" Yes, it's quite true, and it is owing to an accident," said 
the inspector. " These people were taken up because they 
had no passports, and ought to have been sent back to 
their native government; but the prison there is burnt, and 
the local authorities have written, asking us not to send 
them on. So we have sent all the other passportless people 
to their different governments, but are keeping these." 

"What! For no other reason than that?" Nekhludoff 
exclaimed, stopping at the door. 

A crowd of about forty men, all dressed in prison clothes, 
surrounded him and the assistant, and several began talk- 
v tg at once. The assistant stopped them, 

" Let some one of you speak." 

Resurrection 205 

A tall, good-looking peasant, a stone-mason, of about 
fifty, stepped out from the rest. He told Nekhludoff that 
all of them had been ordered back to their homes and were 
now being kept in prison because they had no passports, yet 
they had passports which were only a fortnight overdue. 
The same thing had happened every year; they had many 
times omitted to renew their passports till they were over- 
due, and nobody had ever said anything ; but this year they 
had been taken up and were being kept in prison the second 
month, as if they were criminals. 

" We are all masons, and belong to the same artel. We 
are told that the prison in our government is burnt, but this 
is not our fault. Do help us." 

Nekhludoff listened, but hardly understood what the 
good-looking old man was saying, because his attention 
was riveted to a large, dark-grey, many-legged louse that 
was creeping along the good-looking man's cheek. 

" How's that? Is it possible for such a reason? " Nekh- 
ludoff said, turning to the assistant. 

" Yes, they should have been sent off and taken back to 
their homes/' calmly said the assistant, " but they seem to 
have been forgotten or something." 

Before the assistant had finished, a small, nervous man, 
also in prison dress, came out of the crowd, and, strangely 
contorting his mouth, began to say that they were being 
ill-used for nothing. 

" Worse than dogs," he began. 

" Now, now ; not too much of this. Hold your tongue, 
or you know " 

"What do I know?" screamed the little man, desper- 
ately. " What is our crime? " 

" Silence ! " shouted the assistant, and the little man was 

" But what is the meaning of all this ? " Nekhludoff 
thought to himself as he came out of the cell, while a hun- 
dred eyes were fixed upon him through the openings of the 
cell doors and from the prisoners that met him, making him 
feel as if he were running the gauntlet. 

" Is it really possible that perfectly innocent people are 
kept here?" Nekhludoff uttered when they left the cor- 

"What would you have us do? They lie so. To hear 
them talk they are all of them innocent," said the inspector's 

206 Resurrection 

assistant. " But it does happen that some are really i'm- 
prisoned for nothing." 

" Well, these have done nothing." 

" Yes, we must admit it. Still, the people are fearfully 
spoilt. There are such types — desperate fellows, with 
whom one has to look sharp. To-day two of that sort had 
to be punished." 

"Punished? How?" 

" Flogged with a birch-rod, by order." 

" But corporal punishment is abolished." 

" Not for such as are deprived of their rights. They are 
still liable to it." 

Nekhludoff thought of what he had seen the day before 
white waiting in the hall, and now understood that the pun- 
ishment was then being inflicted, and the mixed feeling of 
curiosity, depression, perplexity, and moral nausea, that 
grew into physical sickness, took hold of him more strongly 
than ever before. 

Without listening to the inspector's assistant, or looking 
round, he hurriedly left the corridor, and went to the of- 
fice. The inspector was in the office, occupied with other 
business, and had forgotten to send for Doukhova. He 
only remembered his promise to have her called when 
Nekhludoff entered the office. 

" Sit down, please. I'll send for her at once," said the 

Resurrection 207 



The office consisted of two rooms. The first room, with 
a large, dilapidated stove and two dirty windows, had a 
black measure for measuring the prisoners in one corner, 
and in another corner hung a large image of Christ, as is 
usual in places where they torture people. In this room 
stood several jailers. In the next room sat about twenty 
persons, men and women in groups and in pairs, talking in 
low voices. There was a writing table by the window. 

The inspector sat down by the table, and offered Nekh- 
ludoff a chair beside him. Nekhludoff sat down, and looked 
at the people in the room. 

The first who drew his attention was a young man with a 
pleasant face, dressed in a short jacket, standing in front of 
a middle-aged woman with dark eyebrows, and he was 
eagerly telling her something and gesticulating with his 
hands. Beside them sat an old man, with blue spectacles, 
holding the hand of a young woman in prisoner's clothes, 
who was telling him something. A schoolboy, with a fixed, 
frightened look on his face, was gazing at the old man. In 
one corner sat a pair of lovers. She was quite young and 
pretty, and had short, fair hair, looked energetic, and was 
elegantly dressed ; he had fine features, wavy hair, and 
wore a rubber jacket. They sat in their corner and seemed 
stupefied with love. Nearest to the table sat a grey-haired 
woman dressed in black, evidently the mother of a young, 
consumptive-looking fellow, in the same kind of jacket; her 
head lay on his shoulder. She was trying to say something, 
but the tears prevented her from speaking ; she began sev- 
eral times, but had to stop. The young man held a paper 
in his hand, and, apparently not knowing what to do, kept 
folding and pressing it with an angry look on his face. 

Beside them was a short-haired, stout, rosy girl, with 
very prominent eyes, dressed in a grey dress and a cape; 
she sat beside the weeping another, tenderly stroking her. 

208 Resurrection 

Everything about this girl was beautiful ; her large, white 
hands, her short, wavy hair, her firm nose and lips, but the 
chief charm of her face lay in her kind, truthful hazel eyes. 
The beautiful eyes turned away from the mother for a 
moment when Nekhludoff came in, and met his look. But 
she turned back at once and said something to the mother. 

Not far from the lovers a dark, dishevelled man, with a 
gloomy face, sat angrily talking to a beardless visitor, who 
looked as if he belonged to the Scoptsy sect. 

At the very door stood a young man in a rubber jacket, 
who seemed more concerned about the impression he pro- 
duced on the onlooker than about what he was saying. 

Nekhludoff, sitting by the inspector's side, looked round 
with strained curiosity. A little boy with closely-cropped 
hair came up to him and addressed him in a thin little voice. 

" And whom are you waiting for? " 

Nekhludoff was surprised at the question, but looking at 
the boy, and seeing the serious little face with its bright, at- 
tentive eyes fixed on him, answered him seriously that he 
was waiting for a woman of his acquaintance. 

" Is she, then, your sister? " the boy asked. 

" No, not my sister/' Nekhludoff answered in surprise. 

" And with whom are you here ? " he inquired of the boy. 

" I ? With mamma ; she is a political one," he replied. 

" Mary Pavlovna, take Kolia ! " said the inspector, evi- 
dently considering NekhludofFs conversation with the boy 

Mary Pavlovna, the beautiful girl who had attracted 
NekhludofFs attention, rose tall and erect, and with firm, 
almost manly steps, approached Nekhludoff and the boy. 

" What is he asking you? Who you are?" she inquired 
with a slight smile, and looking straight into his face with a 
trustful look in her kind, prominent eyes, and as simply as 
if there could be no doubt whatever that she was and must 
be on sisterly terms with everybody. 

" He likes to know everything," she said, looking at the 
boy with so sweet and kind a smile that both the boy and 
Nekhludoff were obliged to smile back. 

" He was asking me whom I have come to see." 

" Mary Pavlovna, it is against the rules to speak to 
strangers. You know it is," said the inspector. 

" All right, all right," she said, and went back to the con- 
sumptive lad's mother, holding Kolia's little hand in her 

Resurrection 209 

large, white one, while he continued gazing up into her 

" Whose is this little boy ? " Nekhludoff asked of the in- 

" His mother is a political prisoner, and he was born in 
prison, " said the inspector, in a pleased tone, as if glad to 
point out how exceptional his establishment was. 

" Is it possible? " 

" Yes, and now he is going to Siberia with her." 

" And that young girl ? " 

" I cannot answer your question," said the inspector^ 
shrugging his shoulders. " Besides, here is Doukhova." 

2 1 o Resurrection 



Through a door, at the back of the room, entered, with 
a wriggling gait, the thin, yellow Vera Doukhova, with her 
large, kind eyes. 

" Thanks for having come," she said, pressing Nekh- 
ludoff's hand. " Do you remember me? Let us sit down." 

" I did not expect to see you like this." 

" Oh, I am very happy. It is so delightful, so delightful, 
that I desire nothing better," said Vera Doukhova, with the 
usual expression of fright in the large, kind, round eyes fixed 
on Nekhludoff, and twisting the terribly thin, sinewy neck, 
surrounded by the shabby, crumpled, dirty collar of her 

Nekhludoff asked her how she came to be in prison. 

In answer she began relating all about her affairs with 
great animation. Her speech was intermingled with a great 
many long words, such as propaganda, disorganisation, 
social groups, sections and sub-sections, about which she 
seemed to think everybody knew, but which Nekhludoff 
had never heard of. 

She told him all the secrets of the Nardovolstvo,* evi- 
dently convinced that he was pleased to hear them. Nekh- 
ludoff looked at her miserable little neck, her thin, unkempt 
hair, and wondered why she had been doing all these 
strange things, and why she was now telling all this to 
him. He pitied her, but not as he had pitied Menshoff, the 
peasant, kept for no fault of his own in the stinking prison. 
She was pitiable because of the confusion that filled her 
mind. It was clear that she considered herself a heroine, 
and was ready to give her life for a cause, though she could 
hardly have explained what that cause was and in what its 
success would lie. 

The business that Vera Doukhova wanted to see Nekh- 
ludoff about was the following : A friend of hers, who had 
not even belonged to their " sub-group," as she expressed 
* Literally, "People's Freedom/' a revolutionary movement. 

Resurrection 2 1 1 

it, had been arrested with her about five months before, and 
imprisoned in the Petropavlovsky fortress because some 
prohibited books and papers (which she had been 
asked to keep) had been found in her possession. Vera 
Doukhova felt herself in some measure to blame for her 
friend's arrest, and implored Nekhludoff, who had connec- 
tions among influential people, to do all he could in order to 
set this friend free. 

Besides this, Doukhova asked him to try and get permis- 
sion for another friend of hers, Gourkevitch (who was also 
imprisoned in the Petropavlovsky fortress), to see his 
parents, and to procure some scientific books which he re 
quired for his studies. Nekhludoff promised to do what he 
could when he went to Petersburg. 

As to her own story, this is what she said : Having fin- 
ished a course of midwifery, she became connected with a 
group of adherents to the Nardovolstvo, and made up her 
mind to agitate in the revolutionary movement. At first all 
went on smoothly. She wrote proclamations and occupied 
herself with propaganda work in the factories ; then, an im- 
portant member having been arrested, their papers were 
seized and all concerned were arrested. " I was also ar- 
rested, and shall be exiled. But what does it matter? I feel 
perfectly happy." She concluded her story with a piteous 

Nekhludoff made some inquiries concerning the girl with 
the prominent eyes. Vera Doukhova told him that this girl 
was the daughter of a general, and had been long attached 
to the revolutionary party, and was arrested because she 
had pleaded guilty to having shot a gendarme. She lived in 
a house with some conspirators, where they had a secret 
printing press. One night, when the police came to search 
this house, the occupiers resolved to defend themselves, put 
out the light, and began destroying the things that might 
incriminate them. The police forced their way in, and one 
of the conspirators fired, and mortally wounded a gen- 
darme. When an inquiry was instituted, this girl said that it 
was she who had fired, although she had never had a re- 
volver in her hands, and would not have hurt a fly. And 
she kept to it, and was now condemned to penal servitude 
in Siberia. 

" An altruistic, fine character," said Vera Doukhova, ap 

2 1 2 Resurrection 

The third business that Vera Doiikhova wanted to talk 
about concerned Maslova. She knew, as everybody does 
know in prison, the story of Maslova's life and his connection 
with her, and advised him to take steps to get her removed 
into the political prisoner's ward, or into the hospital to 
help to nurse the sick, of which there were very many at 
that time, so that extra nurses were needed. 

Nekhludoff thanked her for the advice, and said he would 
*ry to act upon it. 

Resurrection 213 



Their conversation was interrupted by the inspector, who 
said that the time was up, and the prisoners and their friends 
must part. Nekhludoff took leave of Vera Doukhova and 
went to the door, where he stopped to watch what was 
going on. 

The inspector's order called forth only heightened anima- 
tion among the prisoners in the room, but no one seemed 
to think of going. Some rose and continued to talk stand- 
ing, some went on talking without rising. A few began 
crying and taking leave of each other. The mother and her 
consumptive son seemed especially pathetic. The young 
fellow kept twisting his bit of paper and his face seemed 
angry, so great were his efforts not to be infected by his 
mother's emotion. The mother, hearing that it was time 
to part, put her head on his shoulder and sobbed and sniffed 

The girl with the prominent eyes — Nekhludoff could not 
help watching her — was standing opposite the sobbing 
mother, and was saying something to her in a soothing 
tone. The old man with the blue spectacles stood holding 
his daughter's hand and nodding in answer to what she 
said. The young lovers rose, and, holding each other's 
hands, looked silently into one another's eyes. 

" These are the only two who are merry," said a young 
man with a short coat who stood by Nekhludoff's side, also 
looking at those who were about to part, and pointed to 
the lovers. Feeling Nekhludoff's and the young man's eyes 
fixed on them, the lovers — the young man with the rubber 
coat and the pretty girl — stretched out their arms, and with 
their hands clasped in each other's, danced round and round 
again. " To-night they are going to be married here in 
prison, and she will follow him to Siberia," said the young 

"What is he?" 

214 Resurrection 

".A convict, condemned to penal servitude. Let those two 
at least have a little joy, or else it is too painful/' the young 
man added, listening to the sobs of the consumptive lad's 

" Now, my good people ! Please, please do not oblige me 
to have recourse to severe measures," the inspector said, re- 
peating the same words several times over. " Do, please," 
he went on in a weak, hesitating manner. " It is high time. 
What do you mean by it ? This sort of thing is quite impos- 
sible. I am now asking you for the last time," he repeated 
wearily, now putting out his cigarette and then lighting 

It was evident that, artful, old, and common as were the 
devices enabling men to do evil to others without feeling 
responsible for it, the inspector could not but feel conscious 
that he was one of those who were guilty of causing the 
sorrow which manifested itself in this room. And it was 
apparent that this troubled him sorely. At length the prison- 
ers and their visitors began to go — the first out of the inner, 
the latter out of the outer door. The man with the rubber 
jacket passed out among them, and the consumptive youth 
and the dishevelled man. Mary Pavlovna went out with the 
boy born in prison. 

The visitors went out too. The old man with the blue 
spectacles, stepping heavilv, went out, followed by Nekhlu- 

" Yes, a strange state of things this," said the talkative 
young man, as if continuing an interrupted conversation, 
as he descended the stairs side by side with Nekhludoff. 
" Yet we have reason to be grateful to the inspector who 
does not keep strictly to the rules, kind-hearted fellow. If 
they can get a talk it does relieve their hearts a bit, after 
all ! " 

While talking to the young man, who introduced him- 
self as Medinzeff, Nekhludoff reached the hall. There the 
inspector came up to them with weary step. 

" If you wish to see Maslova," he said, apparently desir- 
ing to be polite to Nekhludoff, " please come to-morrow." 

"■ Very well," answered Nekhludoff, and hurried away, 
experiencing more than ever that sensation of moral nausea 
which he always felt on entering the prison. 

The sufferings of the evidently innocent Menshoff seemed 
terrible, and not so much his physical suffering as the per- 

Resurrection 2 1 5 

plexity, the distrust in the good and in God which he must 
feel, seeing the cruelty of the people who tormented him 
without any reason. 

Terrible were the disgrace and sufferings cast on these 
hundreds of guiltless people simply because something was 
not written on paper as it should have been. Terrible were 
the brutalised jailers, whose occupation is to torment their 
brothers, and who were certain that they were fulfilling an 
important and useful duty ; but most terrible of all seemed 
this sickly, elderly, kind-hearted inspector, who was obliged 
to part mother and son, father and daughter, who were just 
the same sort of people as he and his own children. 

' ' What is it all for?" Nekhludoff asked himself, and 
could not find an answer. 

216 Resurrection 



The next day Nekhludoff went to see the advocate, and 
spoke to him about the Menshoffs' case, begging him to 
undertake their defence. The advocate promised to look 
into the case, and if it turned out to be as Nekhludoff said 
he would in all probability undertake the defence free of 
charge. Then Nekhludoff told him of the 130 men who 
were kept in prison owing to a mistake. " On whom did it 
depend? Whose fault was it? " 

The advocate was silent for a moment, evidently anxious 
to give a correct reply. 

" Whose fault is it? No one's," he said, decidedly. " Ask 
the Procureur, he'll say it is the Governor's ; ask the Gov- 
ernor, he'll say it is the Procureur' s fault. No one is in 

" I am just going to see the Vice-Governor. I shall tell 

" Oh, that's quite useless," said the advocate, with a 
smile. " He is such a — he is not a relation or friend of 
yours ? — such a blockhead, if I may say so, and yet a crafty 
animal at the same time." 

Nekhludoff remembered what Maslennikoff had said 
about the advocate, and did not answer, but took leave and 
went on to Maslennikoff's. He had to ask Mas- 
lennikoff two things : about Maslova's removal to 
the prison hospital, and about the 130 passportless 
men innocently imprisoned. Though it was very hard 
to petition a man whom he did not respect, and by whose 
orders men were flogged, yet it was the only means of gain- 
ing his end, and he had to go through with it. 

As he drove up to Maslennikoff's house Nekhludoff saw 
a number of different carriages by the front door, and re- 
membered that it was Maslennikoff's wife's " at-home " day, 
to which he had been invited. At the moment Nekhludoff 
drove up there was a carriage in front of the door, and a 

Resurrection 2 1 7 

footman in livery, with a cockade in his hat, was helping a 
lady down the doorstep. She was holding up her train, and 
showing her thin ankles, black stockings, and slippered feet. 
Among the carriages was a closed landau, which he knew 
to be the Korchagins'. The grey-haired, red-cheeked 
coachman took off his hat and bowed in a respectful yet 
friendly manner to Nekhludoff, as to a gentleman he knew 
well. Nekhludoff had not had time to inquire for Mas- 
lennikoff, when the latter appeared on the carpeted stairs, 
accompanying a very important guest not only to the first 
landing but to the bottom of the stairs. This very important 
visitor, a military man, was speaking in French about a 
lottery for the benefit of children's homes that were to be 
founded in the city, and expressed the opinion that this was 
a good occupation for the ladies. " It amuses them, and the 
money comes." 

" Qu'elles samusent et que le bon dieu les benisse. M. 
Nekhludoff! How d'you do? How is it one never sees 
you ? " he greeted Nekhludoff. " Allez presenter vos devoirs 
a Madame. And the Korchagins are here et Nadine Buk- 
shevden. Toutes les jolies femmes de la ville" said the im- 
portant guest, slightly raising his uniformed shoulders as he 
presented them to his own richly liveried servant to have his 
military overcoat put on. " An revoir, mon cher!' And he 
pressed Maslennikoff's hand. 

" Now, come up ; I am so glad/' said Maslennikoff, 
grasping NekhludofFs hand. In spite of his corpulency 
Maslennikoff hurried quickly up the stairs. He was in par- 
ticularly good spirits, owing to the attention paid him by the 
important personage. Every such attention gave him the 
same sense of delight as is felt by an affectionate dog when 
its master pats it, strokes it, or scratches its ears. It wags 
its tail, cringes, jumps about, presses its ears down, and 
madly rushes about in a circle. Maslennikoff was ready to 
do the same. He did not notice the serious expression on 
NekhludofFs face, paid no heed to his words, but pulled him 
irresistibly towards the drawing-room, so that it was im- 
possible for Nekhludoff not to follow. " Business after- 
wards. I shall do whatever you want," said Maslennikoff, 
as he drew Nekhludoff through the dancing hall. " An- 
nounce Prince Nekhludoff," he said to a footman, without 
stopping on his way. The footman started off at a trot and 
passed them. 

2 1 8 Resurrection 

u Vous n'avez qu a ordonner. But you must see my wife. 
As it is, I got it for letting you go without seeing her last 

By the time they reached the drawing-room the footman 
had already announced Nekhludoff, and from between the 
bonnets and heads that surrounded it the smiling face of 
Anna Ignatievna, the Vice-Governor's wife, beamed on 
Nekhludoff. At the other end of the drawing-room several 
ladies were seated round the tea-table, and some military 
men and some civilians stood near them. The clatter of 
male and female voices went on unceasingly. 

" Entiti! you seem to have quite forgotten us. How have 
we offended ? " 

With these words, intended to convey an idea of intimacy 
which had never existed between herself and Nekhludoff, 
Anna Ignatievna greeted the newcomer. 

"You are acquainted? — Madam Tilyaevsky, M. Chern- 
off. Sit down a bit nearer. Missy venes done a notre table 
on vous apportera votre the . . . And you," she said, having 
evidently forgotten his name, to an officer who was talking 
to Missy, " do come here. A cup of tea, Prince? " 

" I shall never, never agree with you. It's quite simple ; 
she did not love," a woman's voice was heard saying. 

" But she loved tarts." 

"Oh, your eternal silly jokes!" put in, laughingly, an- 
other lady resplendent in silks, gold, and jewels. 

" C'est excellent these little biscuits, and so light. I think 
I'll take another." 

" Well, are you moving soon? " 

" Yes, this is our last day. That's why we have come. 
Yes, it must be lovely in the country ; we are having a de- 
lightful spring." 

Missy, with her hat on, in a dark-striped dress of some 
kind that fitted her like a skin, was looking very handsome. 
She blushed when she saw Nekhludoff. 

" And I thought you had left," she said to him. 

" I am on the point of leaving. Business is keeping me 
in town, and it is on business I have come here." 

" Won't you come to see mamma? She would like to see 
you," she said, and knowing that she was saying what was 
not true, and that he knew it also, she blushed still more. 

" I fear I shall scarcely have time," Nekhludoff said 
gloomily, trying to appear as if he had not noticed her blush. 

Resurrection 2 1 g 

Missy frowned angrily, shrugged her shoulders, and 
turned towards an elegant officer, who grasped the empty 
cup she was holding, and knocking his sword against the 
chairs, manfully carried the cup across to another table. 

" You must contribute towards the Home fund." 

" I am not refusing, but only wish to keep my bounty 
fresh for the lottery. There I shall let it appear in all its 

" Well, look out for yourself," said a voice, followed by 
an evidently feigned laugh. 

Anna Ignatievna was in raptures ; her " at-home " had 
turned out a brilliant success. " Micky tells me you are 
busying yourself with prison work. I can understand you 
so well," she said to Nekhludoff. " Micky (she meant her 
fat husband, Maslennikoff) may have other defects, but 
you know how kind-hearted he is. All these miserable 
prisoners are his children. He does not regard them in any 
other light. II est d'une bonte " and she stopped, find- 
ing no words to do justice to this bonte of his, and quickly 
turned to a shrivelled old woman with bows of lilac ribbon 
all over, who came in just then. 

Having said as much as was absolutely necessary, and 
with as little meaning as conventionality required, Nekhlu- 
doff rose and went up to Maslennikoff. " Can you give me 
a few minutes' hearing, please ? " 

"Oh, yes. Well, what is it?" 

" Let us come in here." 

They entered a small Japanese sitting-room, and sat down 
by the window. 

220 Resurrection 



" Well ? Je suis a vous. Will you smoke ? But wait 
a bit; we must be careful and not make a mess here," said 
Maslennikoff, and brought an ashpan. "Well?" 

" There are two matters I wish to ask you about." 

" Dear me ! " 

An expression, of gloom and dejection came over Maslen- 
nikofFs countenance, and every trace of the excitement, like 
that of the dog's whom its master has scratched behind the 
ears, vanished completely. The sound of voices reached 
them from the drawing-room. A woman's voice was heard, 
saying, " Jamais je ne croirais" and a man's voice from the 
other side relating something in which the names of la Com- 
tesse Voronzoff and Victor Apraksine kept recurring. A 
hum of voices, mixed with laughter, came from another 
side. Maslennikoff tried to listen to what was going on in 
the drawing-room and to what Nekhludoff was saying at 
the same time. 

" I am again come about that same woman," said Nekhlu- 

" Oh, yes ; I know. The one innocently condemned." 

" I would like to ask that she should be appointed to serve 
in the prison hospital. I have been told that this could be 

Maslennikoff compressed his lips and meditated. " That 
will be scarcely possible," he said. " However, I shall see 
what can be done, and shall wire you an answer to-morrow." 

" I have been told that there were many sick, and help 
was needed." 

" All right, all right. I shall let you know in any case." 

" Please do," said Nekhludoff. 

The sound of a general and even a natural laugh came 
from the drawing-room. 

" That's all that Victor. He is wonderfully sharp when 
he is in the right vein," said Maslennikoff. 

Resurrection 221 

" The next thing I wanted to tell you," said Nekhludoff , 
" is that 130 persons are imprisoned only because their pass- 
ports are overdue. They have been kept here a month. ,, 

And he related the circumstances of the case. 

" How have you come to know of this ? " said Maslenni- 
koff, looking uneasy and dissatisfied. 

" I went to see a prisoner, and these men came and sur- 
rounded me in the corridor, and asked . . ." 

" What prisoner did you go to see? " 

" A peasant who is kept in prison, though innocent. I 
have put his case into the hands of a lawyer. But that is 
not the point. Is it possible that people who have done 
no wrong are imprisoned only because their passports are 
overdue? And . . ." 

" That's the Procureur's business," Maslennikoff inter- 
rupted, angrily. " There, now, you see what it is you call 
a prompt and just form of trial. It is the business of the 
Public Prosecutor to visit the prison and to find out if the 
prisoners are kept there lawfully. But that set play cards; 
that's all they do." 

" Am I to understand that you can do nothing? " Nekhlu- 
doff said, despondently, remembering that the advocate had 
foretold that the Governor would put the blame on the Pro- 
cur eur. 

" Oh, yes, I can. I shall see about it at once." 

" So much the worse for her. C'est un souffre douleur" 
came the voice of a woman, evidently indifferent to what 
she was saying, from the drawing-room. 

" So much the better. I shall take it also," a man's voice 
was heard to say from the other side, followed by the play- 
ful laughter of a woman, who was apparently trying to 
prevent the man from taking something away from her. 

" No, no ; not on any account," the woman's voice said. 

" All right, then. I shall do all this," Maslennikoff repeated, 
and put out the cigarette he held in his white, turquoise- 
ringed hand. " And now let us join the ladies." 

" Wait a moment," Nekhludoff said, stopping at the door 
of the drawing-room. " I was told that some men had re- 
ceived corporal punishment in the prison yesterday. Is this 

Maslennikoff blushed. 

" Oh, that's what you are after? No, mon cher, decidedly 
it won't do to let you in there ; you want to get at everything. 

222 Resurrection 

Come, come ; Anna is calling us," he said, catching Nekhlu* 
doff by the arm, and again becoming as excited as after the 
attention paid him by the important person, only now his 
excitement was not joyful, but anxious. 

Nekhludoff pulled his arm away, and without taking leave 
of any one and without saying a word, he passed through 
the drawing-room with a dejected look, went down into the 
hall, past the footman, who sprang towards him, and out 
at the street door. 

" What is the matter with him? What have you done to 
him ? " asked Anna of her husband. 

" This is a la Frangaise/' remarked some one. 

"A la Frangaise, indeed — it is a la Zoulou." 

" Oh, but he's always been like that." 

Some one rose, some one came in, and the clatter went on 
its course. The company used this episode with Nekhludoff 
as a convenient topic of conversation for the rest of the 
" at-home." 

On the day following his visit to Maslennikoff, Nekhlu- 
doff received a letter from him, written in a fine, firm hand, 
on thick, glazed paper, with a coat-of-arms, and sealed with 
sealing-wax. Maslennikoff said that he had written to the 
doctor concerning Maslova's removal to the hospital, and 
hoped Nekhludoff's wish would receive attention. The 
letter was signed, " Your affectionate elder comrade," and 
the signature ended with a large, firm, and artistic flourish. 
" Fool ! " Nekhludoff could not refrain from saying, espe- 
cially because in the word " comrade " he felt MaslennikofFs 
condescension towards him, i.e., while Maslennikoff was 
filling this position, morally most dirty and shameful, he 
still thought himself a very important man, and wished, if 
not exactly to flatter Nekhludoff, at least to show that he 
was not too proud to call him comrade. 

Resurrection 223 


nekhludoff's third interview with maslova in prison. 

One of the most widespread superstitions is that every 
man has his own special, definite qualities; that a man is 
kind, cruel, wise, stupid, energetic, apathetic, etc. Men are 
not like that. We may say of a man that he is more often 
kind than cruel, oftener wise than stupid, oftener energetic 
than apathetic, or the reverse; but it would be false to say 
of one man that he is kind and wise, of another that he is 
wicked and foolish. And yet we always classify mankind 
in this way. And this is untrue. Men are like rivers : the 
water is the same in each, and alike in all ; but every river is 
narrow here, is more rapid there, here slower, there broader, 
now clear, now cold, now dull, now warm. It is the same 
with men. Every man carries in himself the germs of every 
human quality, and sometimes one manifests itself, some- 
times another, and the man often becomes unlike himself, 
while still remaining the same man. In some people these 
changes are very rapid, and Nekhludoff was such a man. 
These changes in him were due to physical and to spiritual 
causes. At this time he experienced such a change. 

That feeling of triumph and joy at the renewal of life 
which he had experienced after the trial and after the first 
interview with Katusha, vanished completely, and after the 
last interview fear and revulsion took the place of that joy. 
He was determined not to leave her, and not to change his 
decision of marrying her, if she wished it ; but it seemed very 
hard, and made him suffer. 

On the day after his visit to Maslennikoff, he again went 
to the prison to see her. 

The inspector allowed him to speak to her, only not in the 
advocate's room nor in the office, but in the women's vi-sit- 
ing-room. In spite of his kindness, the inspector was more 
reserved with Nekhludoff than hitherto. 

An order for greater caution had apparently been sent, as 
a result of his conversation with Maslennikoff. 

" You may see her," the inspector said ; " but please re- 

224 Resurrection 

member what I said as regards money. And as to her re- 
moval to the hospital, that his excellency wrote to me about, 
it can be done ; the doctor would agree. Only she herself does 
not wish it. She says, ' Much need have I to carry out the 
slops for the scurvy beggars/ You don't know what these 
people are, Prince," he added. 

Nekhliidoff did not reply, but asked to have the interview. 
The inspector called a jailer, whom Nekhliidoff followed 
into the women's visiting-room, where there was no one but 
Maslova waiting. She came from behind the grating, quiet 
and timid, close up to him, and said, without looking at him : 

" Forgive me, Dmitri Ivanovitch, I spoke hastily the day 
before yesterday." 

" It is not for me to forgive you," Nekhliidoff began. 

" But all the same, you must leave me," she interrupted, 
and in the terribly squinting eyes with which she looked at 
him Nekhliidoff read the former strained, angry expression. 

" Why should I leave you? " 

"But why so?" 

She again looked up, as it seemed to him, with the same 
angry look. 

" Well, then, thus it is," she said. " You must leave me 
It is true what I am saying. I cannot. You just give it up 
altogether." Her lips trembled and she was silent for a 
moment. " It is true. I'd rather hang myself." 

Nekhliidoff felt that in this refusal there was hatred and 
unforgiving resentment, but there was also something be- 
sides, something good. This confirmation of the refusal in 
cold blood at once quenched all the doubts in Nekhliidoff's 
bosom, and brought back the serious, triumphant emotion 
he had felt in relation to Katiisha. 

" Katiisha, what I have said I will again repeat," he 
uttered, very seriously. " I ask you to marry me. If you do 
not wish it, and for as long as you do not wish it, I shall only 
continue to follow you, and shall go where you are taken." 

" That is your business. I shall not say anything more," 
she answered, and her lips began to tremble again. 

He, too, was silent, feeling unable to speak. 

" I shall now go to the country, and then to Petersburg," 
he said, when he was quieter again. " I shall do my utmost 
to get your — our case, I mean, reconsidered, and by the help 
of God the sentence may be revoked." 

Resurrection 225 

" And if it is not revoked, never mind. I have deserved it, 
if not in this case, in other ways," she said, and he saw how 
difficult it was for her to keep down her tears. 

" Well, have you seen Menshoff ? " she suddenly asked, to 
hide her emotion. " It's true they are innocent, isn't it? " 

" Yes, I think so." 

" Such a splendid old woman," she said. 

There was another pause. 

"Well, and as to the hospital?" she suddenly said, and 
looking at him with her squinting eyes. " If you like, I will 
go, and I shall not drink any spirits, either." 

Nekhludoff looked into her eyes. They were smiling. 
" Yes, yes, she is quite a different being," Nekhludoff 
thought. After all his former doubts, he now felt something 
he had never before experienced — the certainty that love is 

When Maslova returned to her noisome cell after this in- 
terview, she took off her cloak and sat down in her place on 
the shelf bedstead with her hands folded on her lap. In the 
cell were only the consumptive woman, the Vladimir woman 
with her baby, MenshofFs old mother, and the watchman's 
wife. The deacon's daughter had the day before been de- 
clared mentally diseased and removed to the hospital. The rest 
of the women were away, washing clothes. The old woman 
was asleep, the cell door stood open, and the watchman's 
children were in the corridor outside. The Vladimir woman, 
with her baby in her arms, and the watchman's wife, with 
the stocking she was knitting with deft fingers, came up to 
Maslova. " Well, have you had a chat? " they asked. Mas- 
lova sat silent on the high bedstead, swinging her legs, which 
did not reach to the floor. 

"What's the good of snivelling?" said the watchman's 
wife. " The chief thing's not to go down into the dumps. 
Eh, Katusha ? Now, then ! " and she went on, quickly mov- 
ing her fingers. 

Maslova did not answer. 

" And our women have all gone to wash," said the Vlad- 
imir woman. " I heard them say much has been given in 
alms to-day. Quite a lot has been brought." 

" Finashka," called out the watchman's wife, " where's 
the little imp gone to ? " 

She took a knitting needle, stuck it through both the ball 
and the stocking, and went out into the corridor. 

izb Resurrection 

At this moment the sound of women's voices was heard 
from the corridor, and the inmates of the cell entered, with 
their prison shoes, but no stockings on their feet. Each was 
carrying a roll, some even two. Theodosia came at once up 
to Maslova. 

"What's the matter; is anything wrong ?" Theodosia 
asked, looking lovingly at Maslova with her clear, blue eyes. 
" This is for our tea/' and she put the rolls on a shelf. 

" Why, surely he has not changed his mind about marry- 
ing ?" asked Korableva. 

" No, he has not, but I don't wish to," said Maslova, " and 
so I told him." 

" More fool you ! " muttered Korableva in her deep tones. 

" If one's not to live together, what's the use of marry- 
ing?" said Theodosia. 

" There's your husband — he's going with you," said the 
watchman's wife. 

" Well, of course, we're married," said Theodosia. " But 
why should he go through the ceremony if he is not to live 
with her?" 

" Why, indeed ! Don't be a fool ! You know if he mar- 
ries her she'll roll in wealth," said Korableva. 

" He says, ' Wherever they take you, I'll follow/ " said 
Maslova. " If he does, it's well ; if he does not, well also. 
I am not going to ask him to. Now he is going to try and 
arrange the matter in Petersburg. He is related to all the 
Ministers there. But, all the same, I have no need of him," 
she continued. 

" Of course not," suddenly agreed Korableva, evidently 
thinking about something else as she sat examining her bag, 
" Well, shall we have a drop? " 

" You have some," replied Maslova. " I won't/' 


Book II 



It was possible for Maslova's case to come before the 
Senate in a fortnight, at which time Nekhludoff meant to 
go to Petersburg, and, if need be, to appeal to the Emperor 
(as the advocate who had drawn up the petition advised) 
should the appeal be disregarded (and, according to the ad- 
vocate, it was best to be prepared for that, since the causes 
for appeal were so slight). The party of convicts, among 
whom was Maslova, would very likely leave in the begin- 
ning of June. In order to be able to follow her to Siberia, 
as Nekhludoff was firmly resolved to do, he was now ob- 
liged to visit his estates, and settle matters there. Nekh- 
ludoff first went to the nearest, Kousminski, a large estate 
that lay in the black earth district, and from which he de- 
rived the greatest part of his income. 

He had lived on that estate in his childhood and youth, 
and had been there twice since, and once, at his mother's 
request, he had taken a German steward there, and had 
with him verified the accounts.' The state of things there 
and the peasants' relations to the management, i.e., the 
landlord, had therefore been long known to him. The re- 
lations of the peasants to the administration were those of 
utter dependence on that management. Nekhludoff knew 
all this when, still a university student, he had confessed 
and preached Henry Georgeism, and, on the basis of that 
teaching, had given the land inherited from his father to 
the peasants. It is true that after entering the army, when 
he got into the habit of spending 20,000 roubles a year, 
those former occupations ceased to be regarded as a duty, 
and were forgotten, and he not only left off asking himself 
where the money his mother allowed him came from, but 
even avoided thinking about it. But his mother's death, 
the coming into the property, and the necessity of manag- 

230 Resurrection 

ing it, again raised the question as to what his position in 
reference to private property in land was. A month before 
Nekhliidoff would have answered that he had not the 
strength to alter the existing order of things ; that it was not 
he who was administering the estate ; and would one way or 
another have eased his conscience, continuing to live far 
from his estates, and having the money sent him. But now 
he decided that he could not leave things to go on as they 
were, but would have to alter them in a way unprofitable to 
himself, even though he had all these complicated and dif- 
ficult relations with the prison world which made money 
necessary, as well as a probable journey to Siberia before 
him. Therefore he decided not to farm the land, but to let 
it to the peasants at a low rent, to enable them to cultivate 
it without depending on a landlord. More than once, when 
comparing the position of a landowner with that of an 
owner of serfs, Nekhliidoff had compared the renting of 
land to the peasants instead of cultivating it with hired 
labour, to the old system by which serf proprietors used to 
exact a money payment from their serfs in place of labour. 
It was not a solution of the problem, and yet a step tow- 
ards the solution ; it was a movement towards a less rude 
form of slavery. And it was in this way he meant to act. 

Nekhliidoff reached Kousminski about noon. Trying to 
simplify his life in every way, he did not telegraph, but hired 
a cart and pair at the station. The driver was a young 
fellow in a nankeen coat, with a belt below his long waist. 
He was glad to talk to the gentleman, especially because 
while they were talking his broken-winded white horse and 
the emaciated spavined one could go at a foot-pace, which 
they always liked to do. 

The driver spoke about the steward at Kousminski with- 
out knowing that he was driving " the master." Nekhlii- 
doff had purposely not told him who he was. 

" That ostentatious German," said the driver (who had 
been to town and read novels) as he sat sideways on the 
box, passing his hand from the top to the bottom of his 
long whip, and trying to show off his accomplishments — 
" that ostentatious German has procured three light bays, 
and when he drives out with his lady — oh, my ! At Christ- 
mas he had a Christmas-tree in the big house. I drove some 
of the visitors there. It had 'lectric lights ; you could not see 
the like of it in the whole of the government. What's it to 

Resurrection 231 

him, he has cribbed a heap of money. I heard say he has 
bought an estate." 

Nekhludoff had imagined that he was quite indifferent 
to the way the steward managed his estate, and what ad- 
vantages the steward derived from it. The words of the 
long-waisted driver, however, were not pleasant to hear. 

A dark cloud now and then covered the sun ; the larks 
were soaring above the fields of winter corn; the forests 
were already covered with fresh young green ; the meadows 
speckled with grazing cattle and horses. The fields were 
being ploughed, and Nekhludoff enjoyed the lovely day. 
But every now and then he had an unpleasant feeling, and, 
when he asked himself what it was caused by, he remem- 
bered what the driver had told him about the way the Ger- 
man was managing Kousminski. When he got to his estate 
and set to work this unpleasant feeling vanished. 

Looking over the books in the office, and a talk with the 
foreman, who naively pointed out the advantages to be de- 
rived from the facts that the peasants had very little land 
of their own and that it lay in the. midst of the landlord's 
fields, made Nekhludoff more than ever determined to 
leave off farming and to let his land to the peasants. 

From the office books and his talk with the foreman, 
Nekhludoff found that two-thirds of the best of the culti- 
vated land was still being tilled with improved machinery 
by labourers receiving fixed wages; while the other third 
was tilled by the peasants at the rate of five roubles per 
desiatin* So that the peasants had to plough each desiatin 
three times, harrow it three times, sow and mow the corn, 
make it into sheaves, and deliver i u , on the threshing ground 
for five roubles, while the same amount of work done by 
wage labour came to at least 10 roubles. Everything the 
peasants got from the office they paid for in labour at a 
very high price. They paid in labour for the use of the 
meadows, for wood, for potato-stalks, and were nearly all 
of them in debt to the office. Thus, for the land that lay 
beyond the cultivated fields, which the peasants hired, four 
times the price that its value would bring in if invested at 
five per cent, was taken from the peasants, 

Nekhludoff had known all this before, but he now saw 
it in a new light, and wondered how he and others in his 
position could help seeing how abnormal such conditions 
* About two and three-quarter 4 acres. 

232 Resurrection 

are. The steward's arguments that if the land were let to 
the peasants the agricultural implements would fetch next 
to nothing, as it would be impossible to get even a quarter 
of their value for them, and that the peasants would spoil 
the land, and how great a loser Nekhludoff would be, only 
strengthened Nekhludoff in the opinion that he was doing 
a good action in letting the land to the peasants and thus 
depriving himself of a large part of his income. He decided 
to settle this business now, at once, while he was there. The 
reaping and selling of the corn he left for the steward to 
manage in due season, and also the selling of the agricultural 
implements and useless buildings. But he asked his steward 
to call the peasants of the three neighbouring villages that 
lay in the midst of his estate (Kousminski) to a meeting, at 
which he would tell them of his intentions and arrange about 
the price at which they were to rent the land. 

With the pleasant sense of the firmness he had shown in 
the face of the steward's arguments, and his readiness to 
make a sacrifice, Nekhludoff left the office, thinking over 
the business before him, and strolled round the house, 
through the neglected flower-garden — this year the flowers 
were planted in front of the steward's house — over the tennis 
ground, now overgrown with dandelions, and along the 
lime-tree walk, where he used to smoke his cigar, and where 
he had flirted with the pretty Kirimova, his mother's visitor. 
Having briefly prepared in his mind the speech he was going 
to make to the peasants, he Lgain went in to the steward, 
and, after tea, having once more arranged his thoughts, 
he went into the room prepared for him in the big house, 
which used to be a spare bedroom. 

In this clean little room, with pictures of Venice on the 
walls, and a mirror between the two windows, there stood 
a clean bed with a spring mattress, and by the side of it 
a small table, with a decanter of water, matches, and an ex- 
tinguisher. On a table by the looking-glass lay his open 
portmanteau, with his dressing-case and some books in it ; 
a Russian book, The Investigation of the Laws of Crimi- 
nality, and a German and an English book on the same 
subject, which he meant to read while travelling in the 
country. But it was too late to begin to-day, and he began 
preparing to go to bed. 

An old-fashioned inlaid mahogany arm-chair stood in the 
corner of the room, and this chair, which Nekhludoff re- 

Resurrection 233 

membered standing in his mother's bedroom, suddenly 
raised a perfectly unexpected sensation in his soul. He was 
suddenly filled with regret at the thought of the house that 
would tumble to ruin, and the garden that would run wild, 
and the forest that would be cut down, and all these farm- 
yards, stables, sheds, machines, horses, cows which he knew 
had cost so much effort, though not to himself, to acquire 
and to keep. It had seemed easy to give up all this, but now 
it was hard, not only to give this, but even to let the land 
and lose half his income. And at once a consideration, 
which proved that it was unreasonable to let the land to the 
peasants, and thus to destroy his property, came to his ser- 
vice. " I must not hold property in land. If I possess no 
property in land, I cannot keep up the house and farm. And, 
besides, I am going to Siberia, and shall not need either 
the house or the estate/' said one voice. " All this is 
so," said another voice, " but you are not going to spend 
all your life in Siberia. You may marry, and have children, 
and must hand the estate on to them in as good a condi- 
tion as you received it. There is a duty to the land, too. 
To give up, to destroy everything is very easy ; to acquire 
it very difficult. Above all, you must consider your future 
life, and what you will do with yourself, and you must 
dispose of your property accordingly. And are you really 
firm in your resolve? And then, are you really acting ac- 
cording to your conscience, or are you acting in order to be 
admired of men? " Nekhliidoff asked himself all this, and 
had to acknowledge that he was influenced by the thought 
of what people would say about him. And the more he 
thought about it the more questions arose, and the more 
unsolvable they seemed. 

In hopes of ridding himself of these thoughts by falling 
asleep, and solving them in the morning when his head 
would be fresh, he lay down on his clean bed. But it was 
long before he could sleep. Together with the fresh air 
and the moonlight, the croaking of the frogs entered the 
room, mingling with the trills of a couple of nightingales 
in the park and one close to the window in a bush of lilacs 
in bloom. Listening to the nightingales and the frogs, 
Nekhliidoff remembered the inspector's daughter, and her 
music, and the inspector; that reminded him of Maslova, 
and how her lips trembled, like the croaking of the frogs, 
when she said, " You must just leave it." Then the German 

234 Resurrection 

steward began going down to the frogs, and had to be held 
back, but he not only went down but turned into Maslova, 
who began reproaching Nekhliidoff, saying, u You are a 
prince, and I am a convict." " No, I must not give in;" 
thought Nekhludoff, waking up, and again asking himself, 
" Is what I am doing right ? I do not know, and no matter, 
no matter, I must only fall asleep now." And he began 
himself to descend where he had seen the inspector and 
Maslova climbing down to, and there it all ended. 

Resurrection 235 



The next day Nekhludoff awoke at nine o'clock. The 
young office clerk who attended on " the master " brought 
him his boots, shining as they had never shone before, and 
some cold, beautifully clear spring water, and informed him 
that the peasants were already assembling. Nekhludoff 
jumped out of bed, and collected his thoughts. Not a trace 
of yesterday's regret at giving up and thus destroying his 
property remained now. He remembered this feeling of 
regret with surprise ; he was now looking forward with joy 
to the task before him, and could not help being proud of it. 
He could see from the window the old tennis ground, over- 
grown with dandelions, on which the peasants were begin- 
ning to assemble. The frogs had not croaked in vain the 
night before ; the day was dull. There was no wind ; a soft 
warm rain had begun falling in the morning, and hung in 
drops on leaves, twigs, and grass. Besides the smell of the 
fresh vegetation, the smell of damp earth, asking for more 
rain, entered in at the window. While dressing, Nekhludoff 
several times looked out at the peasants gathered on the 
tennis ground. One by one they came, took off their hats 
or caps to one another, and took their places in a circle, 
leaning on their sticks. The steward, a stout, muscular, 
strong young man, dressed in a short pea-jacket, with a 
green stand-up collar, and enormous buttons, came to say 
that all had assembled, but that they might wait until 
Nekhludoff had finished his breakfast — tea and coffee, 
whichever he pleased ; both were ready. 

" No, I think I had better go and see them at once/' said 
Nekhludoff, with an unexpected feeling of shyness and 
shame at the thought of the conversation he was going to 
have with the peasants. He was going to fulfil a wish of 
the peasants, the fulfilment of which they did not even dare 
to hope for — to let the land to them at a low price, i.e., to 
confer a great boon ; and yet he felt ashamed of something. 
When Nekhludoff came up to the peasants, and the fair, 

236 Resurrection 

the curly,, the bald, the grey heads were bared before him t 
he felt so confused that he could say nothing. The rain 
continued to come down in small drops, that remained on 
the hair, the beards, and the fluff of the men's rough coats. 
The peasants looked at " the master/' waiting for him to 
speak, and he was so abashed that he could not speak. This 
confused silence was broken by the sedate, self-assured 
German steward, who considered himself a good judge of 
the Russian peasant, and who spoke Russian remarkably 
well. This strong, over-fed man, and Nekhludoff himself, 
presented a striking contrast to the peasants, with their thin, 
wrinkled faces and the shoulder blades protruding beneath 
their coarse coats. 

" Here's the Prince wanting to do you a favor, and to let 
the land to you ; only you are not worthy of it," said the 

" How are we not worthy of it, Vasili Karlovitch ? Don't 
we work for you? We were well satisfied with the deceased 
lady — God have mercy on her soul — and the young Prince 
will not desert us now. Our thanks to him," said a red- 
haired, talkative peasant. 

" Yes, that's why I have called you together. I should 
like to let you have all the land, if you wish it." 

The peasants said nothing, as if they did not understand 
or did not believe it. 

" Let's see. Let us have the land ? What do you mean ? " 
asked a middle-aged man. 

" To let it to you, that you might have the use of it, at a 
low rent." 

" A very agreeable thing," said an old man. 

" If only the pay is such as we can afford," said another. 

" There's no reason why we should not rent the land." 

" We are accustomed to live by tilling the ground." 

" And it's quieter for you, too, that way. You'll have to 
do nothing but receive the rent. Only think of all the sin 
and worry now ! " several voices were heard saying. 

" The sin is all on your side," the German remarked. " If 
only you did your work, and were orderly." 

" That's impossible for the likes of us," said a sharp-nosed 
old man. " You say, ' Why do you let the horse get into 
the corn? ' just as if I let it in. Why, I was swinging my 
scythe, or something of the kind, the livelong day, till the 
day seemed as long as a year, and so I fell asleep while 

Resurrection 237 

watching the herd of horses at night, and it got into your 
oats, and now you're skinning me." 

" And you should keep order." 

" It's easy for you to talk about order, but it's more than 
our strength will bear," answered a tall, dark, hairy middle- 
aged man. 

" Didn't I tell you to put up a fence? " 

" You give us the wood to make it of," said a short, plain- 
looking peasant. " I was going to put up a fence last year, 
and you put me to feed vermin in prison for three months. 
That was the end of that fence." 

" What is it he is saying? " asked Nekhludoff, turning to 
the steward. 

" Der erste Dieb im Dorfe* answered the steward in Ger- 
man. " He is caught stealing wood from the forest every 
year." Then turning to the peasant, he added, " You must 
learn to respect other people's property." 

" Why, don't we respect you? " said an old man. " We 
are obliged to respect you. Why, you could twist us into 
a rope ; we are in your hands." 

" Eh, my friend, it's impossible to do you. It's you who 
are ever ready to do us," said the steward. 

" Do you, indeed. Didn't you smash my jaw for me, and 
I got nothing for it ? No good going to law with the rich, it 

" You should keep to the law." 

A tournament of words was apparently going on without 
those who took part in it knowing exactly what it was all 
about ; but it was noticeable that there was bitterness on one 
side, restricted by fear, and on the other a consciousness of 
importance and power. It was very trying to Nekhludoff 
to listen to all this, so he returned to the question of arrang- 
ing the amount and the terms of the rent. 

" Well, then, how about the land? Do you wish to take 
it, and what price will you pay if I let you have the whole 
of it?" 

" The property is yours : it is for you to fix the price." 

Nekhludoff named the price. Though it was far below 
that paid in the neighbourhood, the peasants declared it too 
high, and began bargaining, as is customary among them. 
Nekhludoff thought his offer would be accepted with pleas- 
ure, but no signs of pleasure were visible. 

* The greatest thief in the village. 

238 Resurrection 

One thing only showed Nekhludoff that his offer was a 
profitable one to the peasants. The question as to who 
would rent the land, the whole commune or a special so- 
ciety, was put, and a violent dispute arose among those 
peasants who were in favour of excluding the weak and 
those not likely to pay the rent regularly, and the peasants 
who would have to be excluded on that score. At last, 
thanks to the steward, the amount and the terms of the 
rent were fixed, and the peasants went down the hill towards 
their villages, talking noisily, while Nekhludoff and the 
steward went into the office to make up the agreement. 
Everything was settled in the way Nekhludoff wished and 
expected it to be. The peasants had their land 30 per cent, 
cheaper than they could have got it anywhere in the district, 
the revenue from the land was diminished by half, but was 
more than sufficient for Nekhludoff, especially as there 
w r ould be money coming in for a forest he sold, as well as 
for the agricultural implements, which would be sold, too. 
Everything seemed excellently arranged, yet he felt 
ashamed of something. He could see that the peasants, 
though they spoke words of thanks, were not satisfied, and 
had expected something greater. So it turned out that he 
had deprived himself of a great deal, and yet not done what 
the peasants had expected. 

The next day the agreement was signed, and accom- 
panied by several old peasants, who had been chosen as 
deputies, Nekhludoff went out, got into the steward's ele- 
gant equipage (as the driver from the station had called it), 
said " good-bye " to the peasants, who stood shaking their 
heads in a dissatisfied and disappointed manner, and drove 
off to the station. Nekhludoff was dissatisfied /ith himself 
without knowing why, but all the time he felt sad and 
ashamed of something. 

Resurrection 239 



From Kousminski Nekhludoff went to the estate he had 
inherited from his aunts, the same where he first met Ka- 
tusha. He meant to arrange about the land there in the 
way he had done in Kousminski, Besides this, he wished 
to find out all he could about Katusha and her baby, and 
when and how it had died. He got to Panovo early one 
morning, and the first thing that struck him when he drove 
up was the look of decay and dilapidation that all the build- 
ings bore, especially the house itself. The iron roofs, which 
had once been painted green, looked red with rust, and a 
few sheets of iron were bent back, probably by a storm. 
Some of the planks which covered the house from outside 
were torn away in several places; these were easier to 
get by breaking the rusty nails that held them. Both 
porches, but especially the side porch he remembered so 
well, were rotten and broken ; only the banister remained. 
Some of the windows were boarded up, and the building 
in which the foreman lived, the kitchen, the stables — all 
were grey and decaying. Only the garden had not decayed, 
but had grown, and was in full bloom ; from over the fence 
the cherry, apple, and plum trees looked like white clouds. 
The lilac bushes that formed the hedge were in full bloom, 
as they had been when, 14 years ago, Nekhludoff had 
played gorelki with the 15-year-old Katusha, and had 
fallen and got his hand stung by the nettles behind one of 
those lilac bushes. The larch that his aunt Sophia had 
planted near the house, which then was only a short stick, 
had grown into a tree, the trunk of which would have made 
a beam, and its branches were covered with soft yellow 
green needles as with down. The river, now within its 
banks, rushed noisily over the mill dam. The meadow the 
other side of the river was dotted over by the peasants' 
mixed herds. The foreman, a student, who had left the 
seminary without finishing the course, met Nekhludoff in 

24° Resurrection 

the yard, with a smile on his face, and, still smiling, asked 
him to come into the office, and, as if promising something 
exceptionally good by this smile, he went behind a partition. 
For a moment some whispering was heard behind the parti- 
tion. The isvostchik who had driven Nekhltidoff from the 
station, drove away after receivinj a tip, and all was silent. 
Then a barefooted girl passed the window ; she had on an 
embroidered peasant blouse, and long earrings in her ears ; 
then a man walked past, clattering with his nailed boots 
on the trodden path. 

Nekhltidoff sat down by the little casement, and looked 
out into the garden an 1 listened. A soft, fresh spring breeze, 
smelling of newly-dug earth, streamed in through the win- 
dow, playing with the hair on his damp forehead and the 
papers that lay on the window-sill, which was all cut about 
with a knife. 

" Tra-pa-trop, tra-pa-trop," comes a sound from the river, 
as the women who were washing clothes there slapped them 
in regular measure with their wooden bats, and the sound 
spread over the glittering surface of the mill pond while the 
rhythmical sound o: r the falling water came from the mill, 
and a frightened fly suddenly flew loudly buzzing past his 

And all at once Nekhliidoff remembered how, long ago, 
when he was young and innocent, he had heard the women's 
wooden bats clapping the wet clothes above the rhythmical 
sound from the mill, and in the same way the spring breeze 
had blown about the hair on his wet forehead and the papers 
on the window-sill, which was all cut about with a knife, and 
just in the same way a fly had buzzed loudly past his ear. 
It was not exactly that he remembered himself as a lad of 18, 
but he seemed to feel himself the same as he was then, with 
the same freshness and purity, and full of the same grand 
possibilities for the future, and at the same time, as it hap- 
pens in a dream, he knew that all this could be no more, and 
he felt terribly sad. 

" At what time would you like something to eat? " asked 
the foreman, with a smile. 

" When you like ; I am not hungry. I shall go for a walk 
through the village." 

" Would you not like to come into the house ? Everything 
is in order there. Have the goodness to look in. If the out- 
side " 

Resurrection 24 1 

" Not now ; later on. Tell me, please, have you got a 
woman here called Matrona Kharina? (This was Katusha's 
aunt, the village midwife.) 

" Oh, yes ; in the village she keeps a secret pot-house. I 
know she does, and I accuse her of it and scold her ; but as to 
taking her up, it would be a pity. An old woman, you know ; 
she has grandchildren," said the foreman, continuing to 
smile in the same manner, partly wishing to be pleasant to 
the master, and partly because he was convinced that Nekh- 
ludoff understood all these matters just as well as he did 

" Where does she live? I shall go across and see her." 

" At the end of the village ; the further side, the third from 
the end. To the 1 ^ft there is a brick cottage, and her hut is 
beyond that. But I'd better see you there/' the foreman 
said with a graceful smile. 

" No, thanks, I shall find it ; and you be so good as to call a 
meeting of the peasants, and tell them that I want to speak to 
them about the land," said Nekhludoff, with the intention of 
coming to the same agreement with the peasants here as he 
had done in Kousminski, and, if possible, that same evening. 

242 Resurrection 



When Nekhludoff came out of the gate he met the girl 
with the long earrings on the well-trodden path that lay 
across the pasture ground, overgrown with dock and plan- 
tain leaves. She had a long, brightly-coloured apron on, and 
was quickly swinging her left arm in front of herself as she 
stepped briskly with her fat, bare feet. With her right arm 
she was pressing a fowl to her stomach. The fowl, with red 
comb shaking, seemed perfectly calm ; he only rolled up his 
eyes and stretched out and drew in one black leg, clawing the 
girl's apron. When the girl came nearer to " the master/' 
she began moving more slowly, and her run changed into a 
walk. When she came up to him she stopped, and, after a 
backward jerk with her head, bowed to him; and only when 
he had passed did she recommence to run homeward with 
the cock. As he went down towards the well, he met an old 
woman, who had a coarse, dirty blouse on, carrying two 
pails full of water, that hung on a yoke across her bent back. 
The old woman carefully put down the pails and bowed, 
with the same backward jerk of her head. 

After passing the well Nekhludoff entered the village. It 
was a bright, hot day, and oppressive, though only ten 
o'clock. At intervals the sun was hidden by the gathering 
clouds. An unpleasant, sharp smell of manure filled the air 
in the street. It came from carts going up the hillside, but 
chiefly from the disturbed manure neaps in the yards of the 
huts, by the open gates of which Nekhludoff had to pass. 
The peasants, barefooted, their shirts and trousers soiled 
with manure, turned to look at the tall, stout gentleman with 
the glossy silk ribbon on his grey hat who was walking up 
the village street, touching the ground every other step with 
a shiny, bright-knobbed walking-stick. The peasants re- 
turning from the fields at a trot and jolting in their empty 
carts, took off their hats, and, in their surprise, followed 

Resurrection 243 

with their eyes the extraordinary man who was walking tip 
their street. The women came out of the gates or stood in 
the porches of their huts, pointing him out to each other and 
gazing at him as he passed. 

When Nekhludoff was passing the fourth gate, he was 
stopped by a cart that was coming out, its wheels creaking, 
loaded high with manure, which was pressed down, and was 
covered with a mat ^o sit on. A six-year-old boy, excited by 
the prospect of a drive, followed the cart. A young peasant, 
with shoes plaited out of bark on his feet, led the horse out 
of the yard. A long-legged colt jumped out of the gate ; but, 
seeing Nekhludoff, pressed close to the cart, and scraping its 
legs against the wheels, jumped forward, past its excited, 
gently-neighing mother, as she was dragging the heavy 
load through the gateway. The next horse was led out by a 
barefooted old man, with protruding shoulder-blades, in a 
dirty shirt and striped trousers. 

When the horses got out on to the hard road, strewn over 
with bits of dry, grey manure, the old man returned to the 
gate, and bowed to Nekhludoff. 

" You are our ladies' nephew, aren't you ? " 

*' Yes, I am their nephew." 

" You've kindly come to look us up, eh? " said the garru- 
lous old man. 

" Yes, I have. Well, how are you getting on ? " 

' How do we get on ? We get on very badly/' the old 
man drawled, as if it gave him pleasure. 

" Why so badly?" Nekhludoff asked, stepping inside the 

" What is our life but the very worst life? " said the old 
man, following Nekhludoff into that part of the yard which 
was roofed over. 

Nekhludoff stopped under the roof. 

" I have got 12 of them there," continued the old man, 
pointing to two women on the remainder of the manure 
heap, who stood perspiring with forks in their hands, the 
kerchiefs tumbling off their heads, with their skirts tucked 
up, showing the calves of their dirty, bare legs. " Not a 
month passes but I have to buy six poods * of corn, and 
where's the money to come from ? " 

" Have you not got enough corn of your own? " 

" My own? " repeated the old man, with a smile of con- 
* Pood — 36 English pounds. 

244 Resurrection 

tempt ; " why I have only got land for three, and last year we 
had not enough to last till Christmas." 

" What do you do then? " 

" What do we do ? Why, I hire out as a labourer ; and 
then I borrowed some money from your honour. We spent 
it all before Lent, and the tax is not paid yet." 

" And how much is the tax? " 

" Why, it's 17 roubles for my household. Oh, Lord, such 
a life ! One hardlv knows one's self how one manages to live 

" May I go into your hut?" asked Nekhludoff, stepping 
across the yard over the yellow-brown layers of manure that 
had been raked up by the forks, and were giving off a strong 

"Why not? Come in," said the old man, and stepping 
quickly with his bare feet over the manure, the liquid oozing 
between his toes, he passed Nekhludoff and opened the door 
of the hut. 

The women arranged the kerchiefs on their heads and let 
down their skirts, and stood looking with surprise at the 
clean gentleman with gold studs to his sleeves who was en- 
tering their house. Two little girls, with nothing on but 
coarse chemises, rushed out of the hut. Nekhludoff took off 
his hat, and, stooping to get through the low door, entered, 
through a passage into the dirty, narrow hut, that smelt of 
sour food, and where much space was taken up by two weav- 
ing looms. In the hut an old woman was standing by the 
stove, with the sleeves rolled up over her thin, sinewy brown 

" Here is our master come to see us," said the old man. 

" I'm sure he's very welcome," said the old woman, kindly. 

" I would like to see how you live." 

" Well, you see how we live. The hut is coming down, 
and might kill one any day ; but my old man he says it's 
good enough, and so we live like kings," said the brisk old 
woman, nervously jerking her head. " I'm getting the 
dinner ; going to feed the workers." 

" And what are you going to have for dinner ? " 

" Our food is very good. First course, bread and kvas;* 
second course, kvas and bread," said the old woman, show- 
ing her teeth, which were half worn away. 

" No," seriously; " let me see what you are going to eat." 
* Kvas, a kind of sour, non-intoxicant beer made of rye. 

Resurrection 245 

" To eat ? " said the old man, laughing. " Ours is not 
a very cunning meal. You just show him, wife/' 

" Want to see our peasant food ? Well, you are an in- 
quisitive gentleman, now I come to look at you. He wants 
to know everything. Did I not tell you bread and kvasf 
and then we'll have soup. A woman brought us some fish, 
and that's what the soup is made of, and after that, 

" Nothing more? " 

" What more do you want ? We'll also have a little milk/* 
said the old woman, looking towards the door. The door 
stood open, and the passage outside was full of people — • 
boys, girls, women with babies — thronged together to look 
at the strange gentleman who wanted to see the peasants' 
food. The old woman seemed to pride herself on the way 
she behaved with a gentleman. 

" Yes, it's a miserable life, ours ; that goes without saying, 
sir," said the old man. " What are you doing there ? " he 
shouted to those in the passage. 

" Well, good-bye," said Nekhludoff, feeling ashamed and 
uneasy, though unable to account for the feeling. 

" Thank you kindly for having looked us up," said the 
old man. 

The people in the passage pressed closer together to let 
Nekhludoff pass, and he went out and continued his way up 
the street. 

Two barefooted boys followed him out of the passage — ■ 
the elder in a sjiirt that had once been white, the other in 
a worn and faded pink one. Nekhludoff looked back at 

" And where are you going now ? " asked the boy with 
the white shirt. Nekhludoff answered : 

" To Matrona Kharina. Do you know her? " 

The boy with the pink shirt began laughing at something ; 
but the elder asked, seriously : 

" What Matrona is that ? Is she old ? " 

" Yes, she is old." 

" Oh- — oh," he drawled ; " that one ; she's at the other end 
of the village; we'll show you. Yes, Fedka, we'll go with 
him. Shall we?" 

" Yes, but the horses ? " 

" They'll be all right, I dare say." 

Fedka agreed, and all three went up the street 

246 Resurrection 

maslova's aunt. 

Nekhludoff felt more at ease with the boys than with 
the grown-up people, and he began talking to them as they 
went along. The little one with the pink shirt stopped 
laughing, and spoke as sensibly and as exactly as the elder 

" Can you tell me who are the poorest people you have 
got here ? " asked Nekhludoff. 

"The poorest? Michael is poor, Simon Makaroff, and 
Martha, she is very poor." 

" And Anisia, she is still poorer ; she's not even got a cow. 
They go begging," said little Fedka. 

" She's not got a cow, but they are only three persons, 
and Martha's family are five," objected the elder boy. 

" But thn other's a widow," the pink boy said, standing 
up for Anisia. 

" You say Anisia is a widow, and Martha is no better than 
a widow," said the elder boy ; " she's also no husband." 

" And where is her husband ? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" Feeding vermin in prison," said the elder boy, using this 
expression, common among the peasants. 

" A year ago he cut down two birch trees in the land- 
lord's forest," the little pink boy hurried to say, " so he was 
locked up ; now he's sitting the sixth month there, and the 
wife goes begging. There are three children and a sick 
grandmother," he went on with his detailed account. 

"And where does she live?" Nekhludoff asked. 

" In this very house," answered the boy, pointing to a hut, 
in front of which, on the footpath along which Nekhludoff 
was walking, a tiny, flaxen-headed infant stood balancing 
himself with difficulty on his rickety legs. 

" Vaska ! Where's the little scamp got to ? " shouted a 
woman, with a dirty grey blouse, and a frightened look, as 
she ran out of the house, and, rushing forward, seized the 
baby before Nekhludoff came up to it, and carried it in, just 

Resurrection 247 

as if she were afraid that Nekhliidoff would hurt her 

This was the woman whose husband was imprisoned for 
Nekhliidoff's birch trees. 

" Well, and this Matrona, is she also poor? " Nekhliidoff 
asked, as they came up to Matrona's house. 

" She poor? No. Why, she sells spirits," the thin, pink 
little boy answered decidedly. 

When they reached the house Nekhliidoff left the boys 
outside and went through the passage into the hut. The 
hut was 14 feet long. The bed that stood behind the big 
stove was not long enough for a tall person to stretch out 
on. " And on this very bed," Nekhliidoff thought, " Ka- 
tiisha bore her baby and lay ill afterwards." The greater 
part of the hut was taken up by a loom, on which the old 
woman and her eldest granddaughter were arranging the 
warp when Nekhliidoff came in, striking his forehead 
against the low doorway. Two other grandchildren came 
rushing in after Nekhliidoff, and stopped, holding on to the 
lintels of the door. 

" Whom do you want ? " asked the old woman, crossly. 
She was in a bad temper because she could not manage to 
get the warp right, and, besides, carrying on an illicit trade 
in spirits, she was always afraid when any stranger came in. 

" I am — the owner of the neighbouring estates, and should 
like to speak to you." 

" Dear me ; why, it's you, my honey ; and I, fool, thought 

it was just some passer-by. Dear me, you it's you, my 

precious," said the old woman, with simulated tenderness in 
her voice. 

" I should like to speak to you alone," said Nekhliidoff, 
with a glance towards the door, where the children were 
standing, and behind them a woman holding a wasted, pale 
baby, with a sickly smile on its face, who had a little cap 
made of different bits of stuff on its head. 

" What are you staring at? Til give it you. Just hand 
me my crutch," the old woman shouted to those at the door. 
" Shut the door, will you ! " 

The children went away, and the woman closed the door. 

" And I was thinking, who's that? And it's ' the master ' 
himself. My jewel, my treasure. Just think," said the old 
woman, " where he has deigned to come. Sit down here, 
your honour," she said, wiping the seat with her apron. "And 

248 Resurrection 

I was thinking what devil is it coming in, and it's your 
honour, ' the master ■ himself, the good gentleman, our bene- 
factor. Forgive me, old fool that I am ; I'm getting blind." 

Nekhhidoff sat down, and the old woman stood in front 
of him, leaning her cheek on her right hand, while the left 
held up the sharp elbow of her right arm. 

" Dear me, you have grown old, your honour; and you 
used to be as fresh as a daisy. And now! Cares also, I 
expect? " 

" This is what I have come about: Do you remember 
Katiisha Maslova?" 

" Katerina ? I should think so. Why, she is my niece. 
How could I help remembering ; and the tears I have shed 
because of her. Why, I know all about it. Eh, sir, who has 
not sinned before God? who has not offended against the 
Tsar? We know what youth is. You used to be drinking 
tea and coffee, so the devil got hold of you. He is strong 
at times. What's to be done? Now, if you had chucked 
her; but no, just see how you rewarded her, gave her a 
hundred roubles. And she ? What has she done ? Had she 
but listened to me she might have lived all right. I must say 
the truth, though she is my niece : that girl's no good. What 
a good place I found her ! She would not submit, but 
abused her master. Is it for the likes of us to scold gentle- 
folk ? Well, she was sent away. And then at the forester's. 
She might have lived there ; but no, she would not." 

" I want to know about the child. She was confined at 
your house, was she not? Where's the child? " 

" As to the child, I considered that well at the time. She 
was so bad I never thought she would get up again. Well, 
so I christened the baby quite properly, and we sent it to 
the Foundlings'. Why should one let an innocent soul 
languish when the mother is dying? Others do like this: 
they just leave the baby, don't feed it, and it wastes away. 
But, thinks I, no ; I'd rather take some trouble, and send it 
to the Foundlings'. There was money enough, so I sent 
it off." 

" Did you not get its registration number from the 
Foundlings' Hospital ? " 

" Yes, there was a number, but the baby died," she said. 

It died as soon as she brought it there." 

"Who is she?" 

" That same woman who used to live in Skorodno. She 

Resurrection 249 

made a business of it. Her name was Malania. She's dead 
now. She was a wise woman. What do you think she used 
to do ? They'd bring her a baby, and she'd keep it and feed 
it; and she'd feed it until she had enough of them to take 
to the Foundlings'. When she had three or four, she'd take 
them all at once. She had such a clever arrangement, a 
sort of big cradle — a double one — she could put them in 
one way or the other. It had a handle. So she'd put four 
of them in, feet to feet and the heads apart, so that they 
should not knock against each other. And so she took four 
at once. She'd put some pap in a rag into their mouths to 
keep 'em silent, the pets." 

" Well, go on." 

" Well, she took Katerina's baby in the same way, after 
keeping it a fortnight, I believe. It was in her house it 
began to sicken." 

" And was it a fine baby? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" Such a baby, that if you wanted a finer you could not find 
one. Your very image," the old woman added, with a wink. 

" Why did it sicken? Was the food bad? " 

" Eh, what food ? Only just a pretence of food. Naturally, 
when it's not one's own child. Only enough to get it there 
alive. She said she just managed to get it to Moscow, and 
there it died. She brought a certificate — all in order. She 
was such a wise woman." 

That was all Nekhludoff could find out concerning his 

250 Resurrection 



Again striking his head against both doors, Nekhludoff 
went out into the street, where the pink and the white boys 
were waiting for him. A few newcomers were standing with 
them. Among the women, of whom several had babies in 
their arms, was the thin woman with the baby who had the 
patchwork cap on its head. She held lightly in her arms 
the bloodless infant, who kept strangely smiling all over its 
wizened little face, and continually moving its crooked 

Nekhludoff knew the smile to be one of suffering. He 
asked who the woman was. 

" It is that very Anisia I told you about/' said the elder 

Nekhludoff turned to Anisia. 

"How do you live?" he asked. " By what means do 
you gain your livelihood ? " 

" How do I live? I go begging," said Anisia, and began 
to cry. 

Nekhludoff took out his pocket-book, and gave the 
woman a 10-rouble note. He had not had time to take two 
steps before another woman with a baby caught him up, 
then an old woman, then another young one. All of them 
spoke of their poverty, and asked for help. Nekhludoff 
gave them the 60 roubles — all in small notes — which he had 
with him, and, terribly sad at heart, turned home, i.e., to 
the foreman's house. 

The foreman met Nekhludoff with a smile, and informed 
him that the peasants would come to the meeting in the 
evening. Nekhludoff thanked him, and went straight into 
the garden to stroll along the paths strewn over with the 
petals of apple-blossom and overgrown with weeds, and to 
think over all he had seen. 

At first all was quiet, but soon Nekhludoff heard from 
behind the foreman's house two angry women's voices in- 

Resurrection 251 

terrupting each other, and now and then the voice of the 
ever-smiling foreman. Nekhliidoff listened. 

" My strength's at an end. What are you about, dragging 
the very cross* off my neck," said an angry woman's voice. 

" But she only got in for a moment," said another voice. 
Give it her back, I tell you. Why do you torment the beast, 
and the children, too, who want their milk ? " 

" Pay, then, or work it off," said the foreman's voice. 

Nekhliidoff left the garden and entered the porch, near 
which stood two dishevelled women — one of them pregnant 
and evidently near her time. On one of the steps of the 
porch, with his hands in the pockets of his holland coat, 
stood the foreman. When they saw the master, the women 
were silent, and began arranging the kerchiefs on their 
heads, and the foreman took his hands out of his pockets 
and began to smile. 

This is what had happened. From the foreman's words, 
it seemed that the peasants were in the habit of letting their 
calves and even their cows into the meadow belonging to 
the estate. Two cows belonging to the families of these two 
women were found in the meadow, and driven into the 
yard. The foreman demanded from the women 30 copecks 
for each cow or two days' work. The women, however, 
maintained that the cows had got into the meadow of their 
own accord ; that they had no money, and asked that the 
cows, which had stood in the blazing sun since morning 
without food, piteously lowing, should be returned to them, 
even if it had to be on the understanding that the price 
should be worked off later on. 

" How often have I not begged of you," said the smiling 
foreman, looking back at Nekhliidoff as if calling upon 
him to be a witness, " if you drive your cattle home at noon, 
that you should have an eye on them ? " 

" I only ran to my little one for a bit, and they got away." 

" Don't run away when you have undertaken to watch 
the cows." 

" And who's to feed the little one ? You'd not give him 
the breast, I suppose?" said the other woman. "Now, if 
they had really damaged the meadow, one would not take it 
so much to heart; but they only strayed in a moment." 

" All the meadows are damaged," the foreman said, turn- 

* Those baptized in the Russo-Greek Church always wear a cross 
round their necks. 

252 Resurrection 

ing to Nekhltidoff. " If I exact no penalty there will be no 

" There, now, don't go sinning like that ; my cows have 
never been caught there before," shouted the pregnant 

" Now that one has been caught, pay up or work it off." 

" All right, I'll work it off ; only let me have the cow now, 
don't torture her with hunger," she cried, angrily. " As it 
is, I have no rest day or night. Mother-in-law is ill, husband 
taken to drink ; I'm all alone to do all the work, and my 
strength's at an end. I wish you'd choke, you and your 
working it off." 

Nekhludoff asked the foreman to let the women take the 
cows, and went back into the garden to go on thinking out 
his problem, but there was nothing more to think about. 

Everything seemed so clear to him now that he could not 
stop wondering how it was that everybody did not see it, and 
that he himself had for such a long while not seen what was 
so clearly evident. The people were dying out, and had got 
used to the dying-out process, and had formed habits of life 
adapted to this process : there was the great mortality among 
the children, the over-working of the women, the under- 
feeding, especially of the aged. And so gradually had the 
people come to this condition that they did not realise the full 
horrors of it, and did not complain. Therefore, we consider 
their condition natural and as it should be. Now it seemed 
as clear as daylight that the chief cause of the people's great 
want was one that they themselves knew and always pointed 
out, i.e., that the land which alone could feed them had been 
taken from them by the landlords. 

And how evident it was that the children and the aged 
died because they had no milk, and they had no milk because 
there was no pasture land, and no land to grow corn or make 
hay on. It was quite evident that all the misery of the people 
or, at least by far the greater part of it, was caused by the 
fact that the land which should feed them was not in their 
hands, but in the hands of those who, profiting by their 
rights to the land, live by the work of these people. The 
land so much needed by men was tilled by these people, who 
were on the verge of starvation, so that the corn might be 
sold abroad and the owners of the land might buy themselves 
hats and canes, and carriages and bronzes, etc. He under- 
stood this as clearly as he understood that horses when they 

Resurrection 253 

have eaten all the grass in the inclosure where they are kept 
will have to grow thin and starve unless they are put where 
they can get food off other land. 

This was terrible, and must not go on. Means must be 
found to alter it, or at least not to take part in it. " And I 
will find them," he thought, as he walked up and down the 
path under the birch trees. 

In scientific circles, Government institutions, and in the 
papers we talk about the causes of the poverty among the 
people and the means of ameliorating their condition ; but we 
do not talk of the only sure means which would certainly 
lighten their condition, i.e.] giving back to them the land 
they need so much. , 

Henry George's fundamental position recurred vividly to 
his mind and how he had once been carried away by it, and 
he was surprised that he could have forgotten it. The earth 
cannot be any one's property ; it cannot be bought or sold any 
more than water, air, or sunshine. All have an equal right 
to the advantages it gives to men. And now he knew why 
he had felt ashamed to remember the transaction at Kous- 
minski. He had been deceiving himself. He knew that no 
man could have a right to own land, yet he had accepted 
this right as his, and had given the peasants something 
which, in the depth of his heart, he knew he had no right to. 
Now he would not act in this way, and would alter the ar- 
rangement in Kousminski also. And he formed a project in 
his mind to let the land to the peasants, and to acknowledge 
the rent they paid for it to be their property, to be kept to 
pay the taxes and for communal uses. This was, of course, 
not the single-tax system, still it was as near an approach to 
it as could be had under existing circumstances. His chief 
consideration, however, was that in this way he would no 
longer profit by the possession of landed property. 

When he returned to the house the foreman, with a spe- 
cially pleasant smile, asked him if he would not have his 
dinner now, expressing the fear that the feast his wife was 
preparing, with the help of the girl with the earrings, might 
be overdone. 

The table was covered with a coarse, unbleached cloth and 
an embroidered towel was laid on it in lieu of a napkin. A 
vieux-saxe soup tureen with a broken handle stood on the 
table, full of potato soup, the stock made of the fowl that had 
put out and drawn in his black leg, and was now cut, or 

254 Resurrection 

rather chopped, in pieces, which were here and there covered 
with hairs. After the soup more of the same fowl with the 
hairs was served roasted, and then curd pasties, very greasy, 
and with a great deal of sugar. Little appetising as all this 
was, Nekhludoff hardly noticed what he was eating ; he was 
occupied with the thought which had in a moment dispersed 
the sadness with which he had returned from the village. 

The foreman's wife kept looking in at the door, whilst the 
frightened maid with the earrings brought in the dishes; 
and the foreman smiled more and more joyfully, priding 
himself on his wife's culinary skill. After dinner, Nekhlu- 
doff succeeded, with some trouble, in making the foreman sit 
down. In order to revise his own thoughts, and to express 
them to some one, he explained his project of letting the land 
to the peasants, and asked the foreman for his opinion. The 
foreman, smiling as if he had thought all this himself long 
ago, and was very pleased to hear it, did not really under- 
stand it at all. This was not because Nekhludoff did not 
express himself clearly, but because according to this project 
it turned out that Nekhludoff was giving up his own profit 
for the profit of others, and the thought that every one is 
only concerned about his own profit, to the harm of others, 
was so deeply rooted in the foreman's conceptions that he 
imagined he did not understand something when Nekhludoff 
said that all the income from the land must be placed to form 
the communal capital of the peasants. 

" Oh, I see ; then you, of course, will receive the percent- 
ages from that capital," said the foreman, brightening up. 

" Dear me! no. Don't you see, I am giving up the land 

" But then you will not get any income," said the foreman, 
smiling no longer. 

" Yes, I am going to give it up." 

The foreman sighed heavily, and then began smiling 
again. Now he understood. He understood that Nekhlu- 
doff was not quite normal, and at once began to consider 
how he himself could profit by Nekhludoff 's project of giv- 
ing up the land, and tried to see this project in such a way 
that he might reap some advantage from it. But when he 
saw that this was impossible he grew sorrowful, and the 
project ceased to interest him, and he continued to smile 
only in order to please the master. 

Seeing that the foreman did not understand him, Nekh* 

Resurrection 255 

ludoff let him go and sat down by the window-sill, that was 
all cut about and inked over, and began to put his project 
down on paper. 

The sun went down behind the limes, that were covered 
with fresh green, and the mosquitoes swarmed in, stinging 
Nekhliidoff. Just as he finished his notes, he heard the low- 
ing of cattle and the creaking of opening gates from the 
village, and the voices of the peasants gathering together 
for the meeting. He told the foreman not to call the peas- 
ants up to the office, as he meant to go into the village him- 
self and meet the men where they would assemble. Having 
hurriedly drank a cup of tea offered him by the foreman, 
Nekhludoff went to the village. 





From the crowd assembled in front of the house of the 
village elder came the sound of voices ; but as soon as 
Nekhludoff came up the talking ceased, and all the peasants 
took off their caps, just as those in Kousminski had done. 
The peasants here were of a much poorer class than those in 
Kousminski. The men wore shoes made of bark and home- 
spun shirts and coats. Some had come straight from their 
work in their shirts and with bare feet. 

Nekhludoff made an effort, and began his speech by tell- 
ing the peasants of his intention to give up his land to them 
altogether. The peasants were silent, and the expression 
on their faces did not undergo any change. 

" Because I hold," said Nekhludoff, " and believe that 
every one has a right to the use of the land." 

" That's certain. That's so, exactly," said several voices. 

Nekhludoff went on to say that the revenue from the land 
ought to be divided among all, and that he would therefore 
suggest that they should rent the land at a price fixed by 
themselves, the rent to form a communal fund for their own 
use. Words of approval and agreement were still to be 
heard, but the serious faces of the peasants grew still more 
serious, and the eyes that had been fixed on the gentleman 
dropped, as if they were unwilling to put him to shame by 
letting him see that every one had understood his trick, and 
that no one would be deceived by him. 

Nekhludoff spoke clearly, and the peasants were intelli- 
gent, but they did not and could not understand him, for the 
same reason that the foreman had so long been unable to 
understand him. 

They were fully convinced that it is natural for every 
man to consider his own interest. The experience of many 
generations had proved to them that the landlords always 
considered their own interest to the detriment of the peas- 

Resurrection 257 

ants. Therefore, if a landlord called them to a meeting and 
made them some kind of a new offer, it could evidently only 
be in order to swindle them more cunningly than before. 

"Well, then, what are you willing to rent the land at?" 
asked Nekhludoff. 

" How can we fix a price ? We cannot do it. The land 
is yours, and the power is in your hands," answered some 
voices from among the crowd. 

" Oh, not at all. You will yourselves have the use of the 
money for communal purposes." 

" We cannot do it ; the commune is one thing, and this is 

" Don't you understand ? " said the foreman, with a smile 
(he had followed Nekhludoff to the meeting), " the Prince 
is letting the land to you for money, and is giving you the 
money back to form a capital for the commune." 

" We understand very well," said a cross, toothless old 
man, without raising his eyes. " Something like a bank ; 
we should have to pay at a fixed time. We do not wish it ; 
it is hard enough as it is, and that would ruin us completely." 

" That's no go. We prefer to go on the old way," began 
several dissatisfied, and even rude, voices. 

The refusals grew very vehement when Nekhludoff men- 
tioned that he would draw up an agreement which would 
have to be signed by him and by them. 

" Why sign ? We shall go on working as we have done 
hitherto. What is all this for? We are ignorant men." 

" We can't agree, because this sort of thing is not what 
we have been used to. As it was, so let it continue to be. 
Only the seeds we should like to withdraw." 

This meant that under the present arrangement the seeds 
had to be provided by the peasants, and they wanted the 
landlord to provide them. 

" Then am I to understand that yoil refuse to accept the 
land?" Nekhludoff asked, addressing a middle-aged, bare- 
footed peasant, with a tattered coat, and a bright look on his 
face, who was holding his worn cap with his left hand, in 
a peculiarly straight position, in the same way soldiers hold 
theirs when commanded to take them off. 

" Just so," said this peasant, who had evidently not yet rid 
himself of the military hypnotism he had been subjected to 
while serving his time. 

" It means that you have sufficient land," said Nekhludoff. 

258 Resurrection 

" No, sir, we have not/' said the ex-soldier, with an arti- 
ficially pleased look, carefully holding his tattered cap in 
front of him, as if offering it to any one who liked to make 
use of it. 

" Well, anyhow, you'd better think over what I have said." 
Nekhltidoff spoke with surprise, and again repeated his 

" We have no need to think about it ; as we have said, so 
it will be," angrily muttered the morose, toothless old man. 

" I shall remain here another day, and if you change your 
minds, send to let me know." 

The peasants gave no answer. 

So Nekhliidoff did not succeed in arriving at any result 
from this interview. 

" If I might make a remark, Prince," said the foreman, 
when they got home, " you will never come to any agree- 
ment with them ; they are so obstinate. At a meeting these 
people just stick in one place, and there is no moving them. 
It is because they are frightened of everything. Why, these 
very peasants — say that white-haired one, or the dark one, 
who were refusing, are intelligent peasants. When one of 
them comes to the office and one makes him sit down to 
a cup of tea it's like in the Palace of Wisdom — he is quite 
a diplomatist," said the foreman, smiling; " he will consider 
everything rightly. At a meeting it's a different man — he 
keeps repeating one and the same ..." 

" Well, could not some of the more intelligent men be 
asked to come here? " said Nekhliidoff; " I would carefully 
explain it to them." 

" That can be done," said the smiling foreman. 

" Well, then, would you mind calling them here to- 
morrow ? " 

" Oh, certainly I will," said the foreman, and smiled still 
more joyfully. " I shall call them to-morrow." 

" Just hear him ; he's not artful, not he," said a black- 
haired peasant, w T ith an unkempt beard, as he sat jolting 
from side to side on a well-fed mare, addressing an old man 
in a torn coat who rode by his side. The two men were 
driving a herd of the peasants' horses to graze in the night, 
alongside the highroad and secretly, in the landlord's forest. 

" Give you the land for nothing — you need only sign — ■ 
have they not done the likes of us often enough? No, my 
friend, none of your humbug. Nowadays we have a little 

Resurrection 259 

sense," he added, and began shouting at a colt that had 

He stopped his horse and looked round, but the colt had 
not remained behind; it had gone into the meadow by the 

" Bother that son of a Turk; he's taken to getting into 
the landowner's meadows/' said the dark peasant with the 
unkempt beard, hearing the cracking of the sorrel stalks that 
the neighing colt was galloping over as he came running 
back from the scented meadow. 

" Do you hear the cracking? We'll have to send the 
women folk to weed the meadow when there's a holiday," 
said the thin peasant with the torn coat, " or else we'll blunt 
our scythes." 

" Sign," he says. The unkempt man continued giving his 
opinion of the landlord's speech. "'Sign,' indeed, and let 
him swallow you up." 

" That's certain," answered the old man. And then they 
were silent, and the tramping of the horses' feet along the 
highroad was the only sound to be heard. 

26 o Resurrection 

god's peace in the heart. 

When Nekhludoff returned he found that the office had 
been arranged as a bedroom for him. A high bedstead, 
with a feather bed and two large pillows, had been placed 
in the room. The bed was covered with a dark red double- 
bedded silk quilt, which was elaborately and finely quilted, 
and very stiff. It evidently belonged to the trousseau of the 
foreman's wife. The foreman offered Nekhludoff the re- 
mains of the dinner, which the latter refused, and, excusing 
himself for the poorness of the fare and the accommodation, 
he left Nekhludoff alone. 

The peasants' refusal did not at all bother Nekhludoff. 
On the contrary, though at Kousminski his offer had been 
accepted and he had even been thanked for it, and here he 
was met with suspicion and even enmity, he felt contented 
and joyful. 

It was close and dirty in the office. Nekhludoff went out 
into the yard, and was going into the garden, but he re- 
membered: that night, the window of the maid-servant's 
room, the side porch, and he felt uncomfortable, and did not 
like to pass the spot desecrated by guilty memories. He 
sat down on the doorstep, and breathing in the warm air, 
balmy with the strong scent of fresh birch leaves, he sat 
for a long time looking into the dark garden and listening 
to the mill, the nightingales, and some other bird that 
whistled monotonously in the bush close by. The light dis- 
appeared from the foreman's window ; in the east, behind 
the barn, appeared the light of the rising moon, and sheet 
lightning began to light up the dilapidated house, and the 
blooming, over-grown garden more and more frequently. 
It began to thunder in the distance, and a black cloud 
spread over one-third of the sky. The nightingales and the 
other bird were silent. Above the murmur of the water from 
the mill came the cackling of geese, and then in the village 
and in the foreman's yard the first cocks began to crow 
earlier than usual, as they do on warm, thundery nights. 
There is a saying that if the cocks crow early the night will 

- Resurrection 261 

be a merry one. For Nekhhidoff the night was more than 
merry; it was a happy, joyful night. Imagination renewed 
the impressions of that happy summer which he had spent 
here as an innocent lad, and he felt himself as he had been 
not only at that but at all the best moments of his life. He 
not only remembered but felt as he had felt when, at the 
age of 14, he prayed that God would show him the truth; 
or when as a child he had wept on his mother's lap, when 
parting from her, and promising to be always good, and 
never give her pain ; he felt as he did when he and Niko- 
lenka Irtenieff resolved always to support each other in 
living a good life and to try to make everybody happy. 

He remembered how he had been tempted in Kous- 
minski, so that he had begun to regret the house and the 
forest and the farm and the land, and he asked himself 
if he regretted them now, and it even seemed strange to 
think that he could regret them. He remembered all he had 
seen to-day ; the woman with the children, and without her 
husband, who was in prison for having cut down trees in 
his (Nekhludoff's) forest, and the terrible Matrona, who 
considered, or at least talked as if she considered, that 
women of her position must give themselves to the gentle- 
folk ; he remembered her relation to the babies, the way in 
which they were taken to the Foundlings' Hospital, and 
the unfortunate, smiling, wizened baby with the patchwork 
cap, dying of starvation. And then he suddenly remem- 
bered the prison, the shaved heads, the cells*, the disgust- 
ing smells, the chains, and, by the side of it all, the madly 
lavish city life of the rich, himself included. 

The bright moon, now almost full, rose above the barn. 
Dark shadows fell across the yard, and the iron roof of the 
ruined house shone bright. As if unwilling to waste this 
light, the nightingales again began their trills. 

Nekhludoff called to mind how he had begun to consider 
his life in the garden of Kousminski when deciding what 
he was going to do, and remembered how confused he had 
become, how he could not arrive at any decision, how many 
difficulties each question had presented. He asked himself 
j these questions now, and was surprised how simple it all 
was. It was simple because he was not thinking now of 
what would be the results for himself, but only thought of 
what he had to do. And, strange to say, what he had to do 
for himself he could not decide, but what he had to do fpr 

262 Resurrection 

others he knew without any doubt. He had no doubt that 
he must not leave Katusha, but go on helping her. He had 
no doubt that he must study, investigate, clear up, under- 
stand all this business concerning judgment and punish- 
ment, which he felt he saw differently to other people. What 
would result from it all he did not know, but he knew for 
certain that he must do it. And this firm assurance gave 
him joy. 

The black cloud had spread all over the sky ; the lightning 
flashed vividly across the yard and the old house w T ith its 
tumble-down porches, the thunder growled overhead. All 
the birds were silent, but the leaves rustled and the wind 
reached the step where Nekhludoff stood and played with 
his hair. One drop came down, then another; then they 
came drumming on the dock leaves and on the iron of the 
roof, and all the air was filled by a bright flash, and before 
Nekhludoff could count three a fearful crash sounded over- 
head and spread pealing all over the sky, 

Nekhludoff went in. 

" Yes, yes/' he thought. " The work that our life accom- 
plishes, the whole of this work, the meaning of it is not, nor 
can be, intelligible to me. What were my aunts for? Why 
did Nikolenka Irtenieff die? Why am I living?, What was 
Katusha for? And my madness? Why that war? Why 
my subsequent lawless life? To understand it, to under- 
stand the whole of the Master's will is not in my power. 
But to do His will, that is written down in my con- 
science, is in my power ; that I know for certain. And when 
I am fulfilling it I have sureness and peace/' 

The rain came down in torrents and rushed from the roof 
into a tub beneath ; the lightning lit up the house and yard 
less frequently. Nekhludoff went into his room, undressed, 
and lay down, not without fear of the bugs, whose presence 
the dirty, torn wall-papers made him suspect. 

" Yes, to feel one's self not the master but a servant," he 
thought, and rejoiced at the thought. His fears were not 
vain. Hardly had he put out his candle when the vermin 
attacked and stung him. " To give up the land and go to 
Siberia. Fleas, bugs, dirt! Ah, well; if it must be borne, 
I shall bear it." But, in spite of the best of intentions, he 
could not bear it, and sat down by the open window and 
gazed with admiration at the retreating clouds and the re- 
appearing moon. 

Resurrection 263 



It was morning before Nekhludoff could fall asleep, and 
therefore he woke up late. At noon seven men, chosen 
from among the peasants at the foreman's invitation, came 
into the orchard, where the foreman had arranged a table 
and benches by digging posts into the ground, and fixing 
boards on the top, under the apple trees. It took some time 
before the peasants could be persuaded to put on their caps 
and to sit down on the benches. Especially firm was the ex- 
soldier, who to-day had bark shoes on. He stood erect, 
holding his cap as they do at funerals, according to military 
regulation. When one of them, a respectable-looking, 
broad-shouldered old man, with a curly, grizzly beard like 
that of Michael Angelo's " Moses," and grey hair that 
curled round the brown, bald forehead, put on his big cap, 
and, wrapping his coat round him, got in behind the table 
and sat down, the rest followed his example. When all had 
taken their places Nekhludoff sat down opposite them, and 
leaning on the table over the paper on which he had drawn 
up his project, he began explaining it. 

Whether it was that there were fewer present, or that he 
was occupied with the business in hand and not with him- 
self, anyhow, this time Nekhludoff felt no confusion. He 
involuntarily addressed the broad-shouldered old man with 
white ringlets in his grizzly beard, expecting approbation or 
objections from him. But Nekhludoff's conjecture was 
wrong. The respectable-looking old patriarch, though he 
nodded his handsome head approvingly or shook it, and 
frowned when the others raised an objection, evidently 
understood with great difficulty, and only when the others 
repeated what Nekhludoff had said in their own words. A 
little, almost beardless old fellow, blind in one eye, who sat by 
the side of the patriarch, and had a patched nankeen coat 
and old boots on, and, as Nekhludoff found out later, was 

264 Resurrection 

an oven-builder, understood much better. This man moveu 
his brows quickly, attending to Nekhludoff's words with an 
effort, and at once repeated them in his own way. An old, 
thick-set man with a white beard and intelligent eyes under- 
stood as quickly, and took every opportunity to put in an iron- 
ical joke, clearly wishing to show off. The ex-soldier seemed 
also to understand matters, but got mixed, being used to 
senseless soldiers' talk. A tall man with a small beard, a 
long nose, and a bass voice, who wore clean, home-made 
clothes and new bark-plaited shoes, seemed to be the one 
most seriously interested. This man spoke only when there 
was need of it. The two other old men, the same toothless 
one who had shouted a distinct refusal at the meeting the 
day before to every proposal of Nekhludoff's, and a tall, white 
lame old man with a kind face, his thin legs tightly wrapped 
round with strips of linen, said little, though they listened 
attentively. First of all Nekhludoff explained his views in 
regard to personal property in land. " The land, according 
to my idea, can neither be bought nor sold, because if it could 
be he who has got the money could buy it all, and exact any- 
thing he liked for the use of the land from those who have 

'' That's true," said the long-nosed man, in a deep bass. 

" Just so/' said the ex-soldier. 

" A woman gathers a little grass for her cow ; she's caught 
and imprisoned," said the white-bearded old man. 

" Our own land is five versts away, and as to renting any 
it's impossible ; the price is raised so high that it won't pay," 
added the cross, toothless old man. " They twist us into 
ropes, worse than during serfdom." 

" I think as you do, and I count it a sin to possess land, so 
I wish to give it away," said Nekhludoff. 

" Well, that's a good thing," said the old man, with curls 
like Angelo's " Moses," evidently thinking that Nekhludoff 
meant to let the land. 

" I have come here because I no longer wish to possess any 
land, and now we must consider the best way of dividing it." 

" Just give it to the peasants, that's all," said the cross, 
toothless old man. 

Nekhludoff was abashed for a moment, feeling a suspicion 
of his not being honest in these words, but he instantly re- 
covered, and made use of the remark, in order to express 
what w r as in his mind, in reply. 

Resurrection 265 

r I should be glad to give it them," he said, " but to 
whom, and how ? To which of the peasants ? Why, to your 
commune, and not to that of Deminsk." (That was the 
name of a neighbouring village with very little land.) 

All were silent. Then the ex-soldier said, " Just so." 

" Now, then, tell me how would you divide the land among 
the peasants if you had to do it? " said Nekhludoff. 

" We should divide it up equally, so much for every man," 
said the oven-builder, quickly raising and lowering his 

" How else? Of course, so much per man," said the good- 
natured lame man with the white strips of linen round his 

le £ s - 

Every one confirmed this statement, considering it satis- 

" So much per man ? Then are the servants attached to 
the house also to have a share ? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" Oh, no/' said the ex-soldier, trying to appear bold and 
merry. But the tall, reasonable man would not agree with 

" If one is to divide, all must share alike," he said, in his 
deep bass, after a little consideration. 

" It can't be done," said Nekhludoff, who had already pre- 
pared his reply. " If all are to share alike, then those who 
do not work themselves — do not plough — will sell their 
shares to the rich. The rich will again get at the land. 
Those who live by working the land will multiply, and land 
will again be scarce. Then the rich will again get those who 
need land into their power." 

" Just so," quickly said the ex-soldier. 

" Forbid to sell the land ; let only him who ploughs it have 
it," angrily interrupted the oven-builder. 

To this Nekhludoff replied that it was impossible to know 
who was ploughing for himself and who for another. 

The tall, reasonable man proposed that an arrangement be 
made so that they should all plough communally, and those 
who ploughed should get the produce and those who did 
not should get nothing. 

To this communistic project Nekhludoff had also an 
answer ready. He said that for such an arrangement it 
would be necessary that all should have ploughs, and that 
all the horses should be alike, so that none should be left be- 
hind, and that ploughs and horses and all the implements 

266 Resurrection 

would have to be communal property, and that in order to 
get that, all the people would have to agree. 

" Our people could not be made to agree in a lifetime," 
said the cross old man. 

" We should have regular fights/' said the white-bearded 
old man with the laughing eyes. 

" So that the thing is not as simple as it looks," said Nekh- 
ludoff, " and this is a thing not only we but many have been 
considering. There is an American, Henry George. This is 
what he has thought out, and I agree with him." 

" Why, you are the master, and you give it as you like. 
What's it to you ? The power is yours," said the cross old 

This confused Nekhludoff, but he was pleased to see that 
not he alone was dissatisfied with this interruption. 

" You wait a bit, Uncle Simon ; let him tell us about it," 
said the reasonable man, in his imposing bass. 

This emboldened Nekhludoff, and he began to explain 
Henry George's single-tax system. " The earth is no man's ; 
it is God's," he began. 

" Just so ; that it is," several voices replied. 

" The land is common to all. All have the same right to it, 
but there is good land and bad land, and every one would 
like to take the good land. How is one to do in order to get 
it justly divided? In this way: he that will use the good 
land must pay those who have got no land the value of the 
land he uses," Nekhludoff went on, answering his own ques- 
tion. " As it would be difficult to say who should pay whom, 
and money is needed for communal use, it should be ar- 
ranged that he who uses the good land should pay the 
amount of the value of his land to the commune for its 
needs. Then every one would share equally. If you want 
to use land pay for it — more for the good, less for the bad 
land. If you do not wish to use land, don't pay anything, 
and those who use the land will pay the taxes and the com- 
munal expenses for you." 

" Well, he had a head, this George," said the oven-builder, 
moving his brows. " He who has good land must pay 
more." » 

" If only the payment is according to our strength," said 
the tall man with the bass voice, evidently foreseeing how 
the matter would end. 

" The payment should be not too high and not too low. 

Resurrection 267 

If it is too high it will not get paid, and there will be a loss ; 
and if it is too low it will be bought and sold. There would 
be a trading in land. This is what I wished to arrange 
among you here." 

" That is just, that is right; yes, that would do," said the 

" He has a head, this George," said the broad-shouldered 
old man with the curls. " See what he has invented." 

" Well, then, how would it be if I wished to take some 
land? " asked the smiling foreman. 

" If there is an allotment to spare, take it and work it," 
said Nekhludoff. 

" What do you want it for? You have sufficient as it is," 
said the old man with the laughing eyes. 

With this the conference ended. 

Nekhludoff repeated his offer, and advised the men to talk 
it over with the rest of the commune and to return with the 

The peasants said they would talk it over and bring an 
answer, and left in a state of excitement. Their loud talk 
was audible as they went along the road, and up to late in 
the night the sound of voices came along the river from the 

The next day the peasants did not go to work, but spent it 
in considering the landlord's offer. The commune was di- 
vided into two parties — one which regarded the offer as a 
profitable one to themselves and saw no danger in agreeing 
with it, and another which suspected and feared the offer it 
did not understand. On the third day, however, all agreed^ 
and some were sent to Nekhludoff to accept his offer. They 
were influenced in their decision by the explanation some of 
the old men gave of the landlord's conduct, which dfid away 
with all fear of deceit. They thought the gentleman had be- 
gun to consider his soul, and was acting as he did for its sal- 
vation. The alms which Nekhludoff had given away while 
in Panovo made his explanation seem likely. The fact that 
Nekhludoff had never before been face to face with such 
great poverty and so bare a life as the peasants had come to 
in this place, and was so appalled by it, made him give away 
money in charity, though he knew that this was not reason- 
able. He could not help giving the money, of which he now 
had a great deal, having received a large sum for the forest 
he had sold the year before, and also the hand money for the 

268 Resurrection 

implements and stock in Kousminski. As soon as it wa* 
known that the master was giving money in charity, crowds 
of people, chiefly women, began to come to ask him for 
help. He did not in the least know how to deal with them, 
how to decide, how much, and whom to give to. He felt that 
to refuse to give money, of which he had a great deal, to 
poor people was impossible, yet to give casually to those who 
asked was not wise. The last day he spent in Panovo, Nekh- 
ludoff looked over the things left in his aunts' house, and in 
the bottom drawer of the mahogany wardrobe, with the 
brass lions' heads with rings through them, he found many 
letters, and amongst them a photograph of a group, con- 
sisting of his aunts, Sophia Ivanovna and Mary Ivanovna, a 
student, and Katusha. Of all the things in the house he 
took only the letters and the photograph. The rest he left 
to the miller who, at the smiling foreman's recommendation, 
had bought the house and all it contained, to be taken down 
and carried away, at one-tenth of the real value. 

Recalling the feeling of regret at the loss of his property 
which he had felt in Kousminski, Nekhliidoff was surprised 
how he could have felt this regret. Now he felt nothing but 
unceasing joy at the deliverance, and a sensation of newness 
something like that which a traveller must experience when 
discovering ne*Y countries. 

Resurrection 269 



The town struck Nekhludoff in a new and peculiar light 
on his return. He came back in the evening, when the gas 
was lit, and drove from the railway station to his house, 
where the rooms still smelt of naphthaline. Agraphena Pe- 
trovna and Corney were both feeling tired and dissatisfied, 
and had even had a quarrel over those things that seemed 
made only to be aired and packed away. Nekhludoff 's room 
was empty, but not in order, and the way to it was blocked 
up with boxes, so that his arrival evidently hindered the busi- 
ness which, owing to a curious kind of inertia, was going on 
in this house. The evident folly of these proceedings, in 
which he had once taken part, was so distasteful to Nekh- 
ludoff after the impressions the misery of the life of the 
peasants had made on him, that he decided to go to a hotel 
the next day, leaving Agraphena Petrovna to put away the 
things as she thought fit until his sister should come and 
finally dispose of everything in the house. 

Nekhludoff left home early and chose a couple of rooms 
in a very modest and not particularly clean lodging-house 
within easy reach of the prison, and, having given orders 
that some of his things should be sent there, he went to see 
the advocate. It was cold out of doors. After some rainy 
and stormy weather it had turned out cold, as it often does 
in spring. It was so cold that Nekhludoff felt quite chilly in 
his light overcoat, and walked fast hoping to get warmer. 
His mind was filled with thoughts of the peasants, the women, 
children, old men, and all the poverty and weariness which 
he seemed to have seen for the first time, especially the smil- 
ing, old-faced infant writhing with his calfless little legs, and 
he could not help contrasting what was going on in the town. 
Passing by the butchers', fishmongers', and clothiers' shops, 
he was struck, as if he saw them for the first time, by the 

270 Resurrection 

appearance of the clean, well-fed shopkeepers, like whom 
you could not find one peasant in the country. These men 
were apparently convinced that the pains they took to de- 
ceive the people who did not know much about their goods 
was not a useless but rather an important business. The 
coachmen with their broad hips and rows of buttons down 
their sides, and the door-keepers with gold cords on their 
caps, the servant-girls with their aprons and curly fringes, 
and especially the smart isvostchiks with the nape of their 
necks clean shaved, as they sat lolling back in their traps, 
and examined the passers-by with dissolute and contemp- 
tuous air, looked well fed. In all these people Nekhludoff 
could not now help seeing some of these very peasants who 
had been driven into the town by lack of land. Some of the 
peasants driven to the town had found means of profiting by 
the conditions of town life and had become like the gentle- 
folk and were pleased w r ith their position ; others were in a 
worse position than they had been in the country and were 
more to be pitied than the country people. 

Such seemed the bootmakers Nekhludoff saw in the cel- 
lar ; the pale, dishevelled washerwomen with their thin, bare 
arms ironing at an open window, out of which streamed 
soapy steam ; such the two house-painters with their aprons, 
stockingless feet, all bespattered and smeared with paint, 
whom Nekhludoff met — their weak, brown arms bared to 
above the elbows — carrying a pailful of paint, and quarrel- 
ling with each other. Their faces looked haggard and cross. 
The dark faces of the carters jolting along in their carts 
bore the same expression, and so did the faces of the tattered 
men and women who stood begging at the street corners. 
The same kind of faces were to be seen at the open windows 
of the eating-houses which Nekhludoff passed. By the 
dirty tables on which stood tea things and bottles, and be- 
tween which waiters dressed in white shirts were rushing 
hither and thither, sat shouting and singing red, perspiring 
men with stupefied faces. One sat by the window with lifted 
brows and pouting lips and fixed eyes as if trying to remem- 
ber something. 

" And why are they all gathered here ? " Nekhludoff 
thought, breathing in together with the dust which the cold 
wind blew towards him the air filled with the smell of rank 
oil and fresh paint. 

In one street he met a row of carts loaded with something 

Resurrection 271 

made of iron, that rattled so on the uneven pavement that it 
made his ears and head ache. He started walking still faster 
in order to pass the row of carts, when he heard himself 
called by name. He stopped and saw an officer with sharp- 
pointed moustaches and shining face who sat in the trap of a 
swell isvostchik and waved his hand in a friendly manner, 
his smile disclosing unusually long, white teeth. 

" Nekhliidoff ! Can it be you ? " 

NekhludofFs first feeling was one of pleasure. " Ah, 
Schonbock !" he exclaimed joyfully; but he knew the next 
moment that there was nothing to be joyful about. 

This was that Schonbock who had been in the house of 
Nekhliidoff s aunts that day, and whom Nekhliidoff had 
quite lost out of sight, but about whom he had heard that 
in spite of his debts he had somehow managed to remain in 
the cavalry, and by some means or other still kept his place 
among the rich. His gay, contented appearance corrobo- 
rated this report. 

" What a good thing that I have caught you. There is 
no one in town. Ah, old fellow ; you have grown old," he 
said, getting out of the trap and moving his shoulders about. 
" I only knew you by your walk. Look here, we must dine 
together. Is there any place where they feed one de- 

" I don't think I can spare the time," Nekhliidoff 
answered, thinking only of how he could best get rid of his 
companion without hurting him. 

" And what has brought you here ? " he asked. 

" Business, old fellow. Guardianship business. I am a 
guardian now. I am managing Samanoff's affairs — the mil- 
lionaire, you know. He has softening of the brain, and 
he's got fifty-four thousand desiatins of land," he said, with 
peculiar pride, as if he had himself made all these desiatins. 
" The affairs were terribly neglected. All the land was let 
to the peasants. They did not pay anything. There were 
more than eighty thousand roubles debts. I changed it all 
in one year, and have got 70 per cent, more out of it. What 
do you think of that ? " he asked proudly. 

Nekhliidoff remembered having heard that this Schon- 
bock, just because he had spent all he had, had attained by 
some special influence the post of guardian to a rich old 
man who was squandering his property — and was now 
evidently living by this guardianship. " JIow am I to get 

272 Resurrection 

rid of him without offending him?" thought Nekhludoff, 
looking at this full, shiny face with the stiffened moustache 
and listening to his friendly, good-humoured chatter about 
where one gets fed best, and his bragging about his doings 
as a guardian. 

" Well, then, where do we dine? " 

" Really, I have no time to spare/' said Nekhludoff, 
glancing at his watch. 

" Then, look here. To-night, at the races — will you be 

" No, I shall not be there." 

" Do come. I have none of my own now, but I back 
Grisha's horses. You remember ; he has a fine stud. You'll 
come, won't you? And we'll have some supper together." 

" No, I cannot have supper with you either," said Nekh- 
ludoff with a smile. 

" Well, that's too bad ! And where are you off to now? 
Shall I give you a lift ? " 

" I am going to see an advocate, close to here — round the 

" Oh, yes, of course. You have got something to do with 
the prisons — have turned into a prisoners' mediator, I 
hear," said Schonbock, laughing. " The Korchagins told 
me. They have left town already. What does it all mean ? 
Tell me." 

" Yes, yes, it is quite true," Nekhludoff answered ; " but I 
cannot tell you about it in the street." 

" Of course ; you always were a crank. But you will 
come to the races ? " 

" No. I neither can nor wish to come. Please do not be 
angry with me." 

"Angry? Dear me, no. Where do you live?" And 
suddenly his face became serious, his eyes fixed, and he 
drew up his brows. He seemed to be trying to remember 
something, and Nekhludoff noticed the same dull expres- 
sion as that of the man with the raised brows and pout- 
ing lips whom he had seen at the window of the eating- 

" How cold it is ! Is it not ? Have you got the parcels ? " 
said Schonbock, turning to the isvostchik. 

" All right. Good-bye. I am very glad indeed to have 
met you," and warmly pressing Nekhludoff's hand, he 
jumped into the trap and waved his white-gloved hand in 

Resurrection 2^3 

front of his shiny face, with his usual smile, showing his 
exceptionally white teeth. 

" Can I have also been like that?" Nekhludoff thought, 
as he continued his way to the advocate's. " Yes, I wished 
to be like that, though I was not quite like it. And I 
'liought of living my life in that way." 

274 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff was admitted by the advocate before his 
turn. The advocate at once commenced to talk about the 
Menshoffs' case, which he had read with indignation at the 
inconsistency of the accusation. 

"This case is peifectly revolting/' he said; "it is very 
likely that the owner himself set fire to the building in order 
to get the insurance money, and the chief thing is that there 
is no evidence to prove the Menshoffs' guilt. There are no 
proofs whatever. It is all owing to the special zeal of the 
examining magistrate and the carelessness of the prose- 
cutor. If they are tried here, and not in a provincial court, 
I guarantee that they will be acquitted, and I shall charge 
nothing. Now then, the next case, that of Theodosia Biru- 
koff. The appeal to the Emperor is written. If you go to 
Petersburg, you'd better take it with you, and hand it in 
yourself, with a request of your own, or else they will only 
make a few inquiries, and nothing will come of it. You 
must try and get at some of the influential members of the 
Appeal Committee." 

"Well, is this all?" 

" No ; here I have a letter ... I see you have turned 
into a pipe — a spout through which all the complaints of 
the prison are poured," said the advocate, with a smile. " It 
is too much ; you'll not be able to manage it." 

" No, but this is a striking case," said Nekhludoff, and 
gave a brief outline of the case of a peasant who began to 
read the Gospels to the peasants in the village, and to dis- 
cuss them with his friends. The priests regarded this as a 
crime and informed the authorities. The magistrate ex- 
amined him and the public prosecutor drew up an act of 
indictment, and the law courts committed him for trial. 

" This is really too terrible," Nekhludoff said. " Can it 
be true?" 

" What are you surprised at ? " 

Resurrection 275 

" Why, everything. I can understand the police-officer, 
who simply obeys orders, but the prosecutor drawing up an 
act of that kind. An educated man . . ." 

" That is where the mistake lies that we are in the habit 
of considering that the prosecutors and the judges in gen- 
eral are some kind of liberal persons. There was a time 
when they were such, but now it is quite different. They 
are just officials, only troubled about pay-day. They re- 
ceive their salaries and want them increased, and there 
their principles end. They will accuse, judge, and sentence 
any one yGu like." 

" Yes ; but do laws really exist that can condemn a man 
to Siberia for reading the Bible with his friends ? " 

" Not only to be exiled to the less remote parts of Siberia, 
but even to the mines, if you can only prove that reading 
the Bible they took the liberty of explaining it to others not 
according to orders, and in this way condemned the ex- 
planations given by the Church. Blaming the Greek ortho- 
dox religion in the presence of the common people means, 
according to Statute . . . the mines." 


" I assure you it is so. I always tell these gentlemen, the 
judges," the advocate continued, " that I cannot look at 
them without gratitude, because if I am not in prison, and 
you, and all of us, it is only owing to their kindness. To 
deprive us of our privileges, and send us all to the less re- 
mote parts of Siberia, would be an easy thing for them." 

" Well, if it is so, and if everything depends on the 
Procureur and others who can, at will, either enforce the 
laws or not, what are the trials for ? " 

The advocate burst into a merry laugh. " You do put 
strange questions. My dear sir, that is philosophy. Well, 
we might have a talk about that, too. Could you come on 
Saturday ? You will meet men of science, literary men, and 
artists at my house, and then we might discuss these gen- 
eral questions," said the advocate, pronouncing the words 
" general questions " with ironical pathos. " You have met 
my wife ? Do come." 

" Thank you ; I will try to," said Nekhludoff, and felt 
that he was saying an untruth, and knew that if he tried to 
do anything it would be to keep away from the advocate's 
literary evening, and the circle of the men of science, art, 
and literature. 

276 Resurrection 

The laugh with which the advocate met Nekhludoff's 
remark that trials could have no meaning if the judges 
might enforce the laws or not, according to their notion, 
and the tone with which he pronounced the words " philoso- 
phy " and " general questions " proved to Nekhludoff how 
very differently he and the advocate and, probably, the advo- 
cate's friends, looked at things ; and he felt that in spite of 
the distance that now existed between himself and his 
former companions, Schonbock, etc., the difference between 
himself and the circle of the advocate and his friends was 
Still greater. 

Resurrection 277 



The prison was a long way off and it was getting late, so 
Nekhludoff took an isvostchik. The isvostchik, a middle- 
aged man with an intelligent and kind face, turned round 
towards Nekhludoff as they were driving along one of the 
streets and pointed to a huge house that was being built 

" Just see what a tremendous house they have begun to 
build," he said, as if he was partly responsible for the build- 
ing of the house and proud of it. 

The house was really immense and was being built in 
a very original style. The strong pine beams of the scaffold- 
ing were firmly fixed together with iron bands and a plank 
wall separated the building from the street. 

On the boards of the scaffolding workmen, all bespattered 
with plaster, moved hither and thither like ants. Some were 
laying bricks, some hewing stones, some carrying up the 
heavy hods and pails and bringing them down empty. A 
fat and finely-dressed gentleman — probably the architect — 
stood by the scaffolding, pointing upward and explaining 
something to a contractor, a peasant from the Vladimir 
Government, who was respectfully listening to him. Empty 
carts were coming out of the gate by which the architect 
and the contractor were standing, and loaded ones were 
going in. " And how sure they all are— -those that do the 
work as well as those that make them do it — that it ought 
to be; that while their wives at home, who are with child, 
are labouring beyond their strength, and their children with 
the patchwork caps, doomed soon to the cold grave, smile 
with suffering and contort their little legs, they must be 
building this stupid and useless palace for some stupid and 
useless person — one of those who spoil and rob them," 
Nekhludoff thought, while looking at the house. 

" Yes, it is a stupid house," he said, uttering his though? 
out aloud. 

lj8 Resurrection 

"Why stupid ?" replied the isvostchik, in an offended 
tone. " Thanks to it, the people get work ; it's not stupid. " 

" But the work is useless/' 

" It can't be useless, or why should it be done? " said the 
isvostchik. " The people get bread by it." 

Nekhludoff was silent, and it would have been difficult 
to talk because of the clatter the wheels made. 

When they came nearer the prison, and the isvostchik 
turned off the paved on to the macadamised road, it became 
easier to talk, and he again turned to Nekhludoff. 

" And what a lot of these people are flocking to the town 
nowadays ; it's awful," he said, turning round on the box 
and pointing to a party of peasant workmen who were 
coming towards them, carrying saws, axes, sheepskins, 
coats, and bags strapped to their shoulders. 

" More than in other years ? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" By far. This year every place is crowded, so that it's 
just terrible. The employers just fling the workmen about 
like chaff. Not a job to be got." 

"Why is that?" 

" They've increased. There's no room for them." 

"Well, what if they have increased? Why do not they 
stay in the village ? " / 

" There's nothing for them to do in the village — no land 
to be had." 

Nekhludoff felt as one does when touching a sore place. 
It feels as if the bruised part was always being hit ; yet it is 
only because the place is sore that the touch is felt. 

" Is it possible that the same thing is happening every- 
where ? " he thought, and began questioning the isvostchik 
about the quantity of land in his village, how much land 
the man himself had, and why he had left the country. 

" We have a desiatin per man, sir," he said. " Our family 
have three men's shares of the land. My father and a 
brother are at home, and manage the land, and another 
brother is serving in the army. But there's nothing to 
manage. My brother has had thoughts of coming to Mos- 
cow, too." 

" And cannot land be rented ? " 

" How's one to rent it nowadays ? The gentry, such as 
they were, have squandered all theirs. Men of business 
have got it all into their own hands. One can't rent it from 
them. They farm it themselves, We have a Frenchman 

Resurrection 279 

ruling in our place ; he bought the estate from our former 
landlord, and won't let it — -and there's an end of it." 

" Who's that Frenchman ? " 

" Dufour is the Frenchman's name. Perhaps you've 
heard of him. He makes wigs for the actors in the big 
theatre ; it is a good business, so he's prospering. He bought 
it from our lady, the whole of the estate, and now he has us 
in his power; he just rides on us as he pleases. The Lord 
be thanked, he is a good man himself; only his wife, a 
Russian, is such a brute that — God have mercy on us. She 
robs the people. It's awful. Well, here's the prison. Am 
I to drive you to the entrance? I'm afraid they'll not let us 
do it, though." 

28 o Resurrection 



When he rang the bell at the front entrance Nekhludoff' s 
heart stood still with horror as he thought of the state he 
might find Maslova in to-day, and at the mystery that he felt to> 
be in her and in the people that were collected in the prison. 
He asked the jailer who opened the door for Maslova. After 
making the necessary inquiry the jailer informed him that 
she was in the hospital. Nekhludoff went there. A kindly 
old man, the hospital doorkeeper, let him in at once and, 
after asking Nekhludoff whom he wanted, directed him to the 
children's ward. A young doctor saturated with carbolic 
acid met Nekhludoff in the passage and asked him severely 
what he wanted. This doctor was always making all sorts 
of concessions to the prisoners, and was therefore continu- 
ally coming into conflict with the prison authorities and 
even with the head doctor. Fearing lest Nekhludoff should 
demand something unlawful, and wishing to show that he 
made no exceptions for any one, he pretended to be cross. 
" There are no women here ; it is the children's ward," he 

" Yes, I know ; but a prisoner has been removed here to 
be an assistant nurse." 

" Yes, there are two such here. Then whom do you 

" I am closely connected with one of them, named Mas- 
lova," Nekhludoff answered, " and should like to speak to 
her. I am going to Petersburg to hand in an appeal to the 
Senate about her case and should like to give her this. It is 
only a photo," Nekhludoff said, taking an envelope out of 
his pocket. 

" All right, you may do that," said the doctor, relenting, 
and turning to an old woman with a white apron, he told 
her to call the prisoner — Nurse Maslova. 

" Will you take a seat, or go into the waiting-room ? " 

Resurrection 281 

" Thanks,'' said Nekhltidoff, and profiting by the favour- 
able change in the manner of the doctor towards him, he 
asked how they were satisfied with Maslova in the hospital. 

" Oh, she is all right. She works fairly well, if you take 
the conditions of her former life into account. But here she 

The old nurse came in at one of the doors, followed by 
Maslova, who wore a blue striped dress, a white apron, and 
a kerchief that quite covered her hair. When she saw 
Nekhltidoff her face flushed, and she stopped as if hesitating, 
then frowned, and with downcast eyes went quickly towards 
him along the strip of carpet in the middle of the passage. 
When she came up to Nekhltidoff she did not wish to give 
him her hand, and then gave it, growing redder still. Nekh- 
ltidoff had not seen her since the day when she begged his 
forgiveness for having been in a passion, and he expected 
to find her the same as she was then. But to-day she was 
quite different. There was something new in the expres- 
sion of her face, reserve and shyness, and, as it seemed to 
him, animosity towards him. He told her what he had al- 
ready said to the doctor, i.e., that he was going to Peters- 
burg, and he handed her the envelope with the, photograph 
which he had brought from Panovo. 

" I found this in Panovo — it's an old photo ; perhaps you 
would like it. Take it." 

Lifting her dark eyebrows, she looked at him with sur- 
prise in her squinting eyes, as if asking, " What is this for? " 
took the photo silently and put it in the bib of her apron, 

" I saw your aunt there," said "Nekhltidoff. 

" Did you ? " she said, indifferently. 

" Are you all right here ? " Nekhltidoff asked. 

" Oh, yes, it's all right," she said. 

"Not too difficult?" 

" Oh, no. But I am not used to it yet." 

" I am glad, for your sake. Anyhow, it is better than 

"Than where — there?" she asked, her face flushing 

" There — in the prison," Nekhltidoff hurriedly answered, 

" Why better? " she asked. 

" I think the people are better. Here are none such as 
there must be there." 

" There are many good ones there," she said. 

282 Resurrection 

4k I have been seeing about the Menshoffs, and hope they 
will be liberated," said Nekhliidoff. 

tk God grant they may. Such a splendid old woman," she 
said, again repeating her opinion of the old woman, and 
slightly smiling. 

" I am going to Petersburg to-day. Your case will come 
on soon, and I hope the sentence will be repealed." 

" Whether it is repealed or not won't matter now," she 

"Why not now?" 

" So," she said, looking with a quick, questioning glance 
into his eyes. 

Nekhliidoff understood the word and the look to mean 
that she wished to know whether he still kept firm to his 
decision or had accepted her refusal. 

" I do not know why it does not matter to you," he said. 
" It certainly does not matter as far as I am concerned 
whether you are acquitted or not. I am ready to do what I 
told you in any case," he said decidedly. 

She lifted her head and her black squinting eyes remained 
fixed on him and beyond him, and her face beamed with joy. 
But the words she spoke were very different from what her 
eyes said. 

" You should not speak like that," she said. 

" I am saying it so that you should know." 

" Everything has been said about that, and there is no use 
speaking," she said, with difficulty repressing a smile. 

A sudden noise came from the hospital ward, and the 
sound of a child crying. 

" I think they are calling me," she said, and looked round 

" Well, good-bye, then," he said. She pretended not to 
see his extended hand, and, without taking it, turned away 
and hastily walked along the strip of carpet, trying to hide 
the triumph she felt. 

" What is going on in her? What is she thinking? What 
does she feel ? Does she mean to prove me, or can she really 
not forgive me? Is it that she cannot or that she will not 
express what she feels and thinks? Has she softened or 
hardened?" he asked himself, and could find no answer. 
He only knew that she had altered and that an important 
change was going on in her soul, and this change united him 
not only to her but also to Him for whose sake that change 

Resurrect! on 283 

was befog wrought. And this union brought on a state of 
joyful animation and tenderness. 

When she returned to the ward, in which there stood eight 
small beds, Maslova began, in obedience to the nurse's order, 
to arrange one of the beds ; and, bending over too far with 
the sheet, she slipped and nearly fell down. 

A little convalescent boy with a bandaged neck, who was 
looking at her, laughed. Maslova could no longer contain 
herself and burst into loud laughter, and such contagious 
laughter that several of the children also burst out laughing, 
and one of the sisters rebuked her angrily. 

" What are you giggling at? Do you think you are where 
you used to be ? Go and fetch the food." 

Maslova obeyed and went where she was sent ; but, catch- 
ing the eye of the bandaged boy who was not allowed to 
laugh, she again burst out laughing. 

Whenever she was alone Maslova again and again pulled 
the photograph partly out of the envelope and looked at it 
admiringly; but only in the evening when she was off duty 
and alone in the bedroom which she shared with a nurse, did 
she take it quite out of the envelope and gaze long at the 
faded yellow photograph, caressing with her eyes every de- 
tail of faces and clothing, the steps of the veranda, and the 
bushes which served as a background to his and hers and his 
aunts' faces, and could not cease from admiring especially 
herself — her pretty young face with the curly hair round the 
forehead. She was so absorbed that she did not hear her 
fellow-nurse came into the room. 

" What is it that he's given you ? " said the good-natured, 
fat nurse, stooping over the photograph. " Who's this ? 

Who else ? " said Maslova, looking into her companion's 
face with a smile. 

"And who's this?" 

" Himself." 

" And is this his mother? " 

" No, his aunt. Would you not have known me ? " 

" Never. The whole face is altered. Why, it must be 10 
years since then." 

(i Not years, but a lifetime," said Maslova. And suddenly 
her animation went, her face grew gloomy, and a deep line 
appeared between her brows, 

284 Resurrection 

"Why so? Your way of life must have been an easy 

" Easy, indeed," Maslova reiterated, closing her eyes and 
shaking her head. " It is hell." 

" Why, what makes it so? " 

" What makes it so ! From eight till four in the morning, 
and every night the same ! " 

" Then why don't they give it up ? " 

"They can't give it up if they want to. But what's the 
use of talking?" Maslova said, jumping up and throwing 
the photograph into the drawer of the table. And with dif- 
ficulty repressing angry tears, she ran out into the passage 
and slammed the door. 

While looking at the group she imagined herself such as 
she was there and dreamt of her happiness then and of the 
possibility of happiness with him now. But her companion's 
words reminded her of what she was now and what she had 
been, and brought back all the horrors of that life, which she 
had felt but dimly, and not allowed herself to realise. 

It was only now that the memory of all those terrible nights 
came vividly back to her, especially one during the carnival, 
when she was expecting a student who had promised to buy 
her out. She remembered how she — wearing her low- 
necked silk dress stained with wine, a red bow in her untidy 
hair, wearied, weak, half tipsy, having seen her visitors off, 
sat down during an interval in the dancing by the piano be- 
side the bony pianiste with the blotchy face, who played the 
accompaniments to the violin, and began complaining of her 
hard fate ; and how this pianiste said that she, too, was feeling* 
how heavy her position was and would like to change it ; and 
how Clara suddenly came up to them ; and how they all three 
decided to change their life. They thought that the night 
was over, and were about to go away, when suddenly the 
noise of tipsy voices was herd in the ante-room. The vio- 
linist played a tune and the pianiste began hammering the 
first figure of a quadrille on the piano, to the tune of a most 
merry Russian song. A small, perspiring man, smelling of 
spirits, with a white tie and swallow-tail coat, which he took 
off after the first figure, came up to her, hiccoughing, and 
caught her up, while another fat man, with a beard, and also 
wearing a dress-coat (they had come straight from a ball) 
caught Clara up, and for a long time they turned, danced, 
screamed, drank. . . . And so it went on for another 

Resurrection 285 

year, and another, and a third. How could she help chang- 
ing? And he was the cause of it all. And, suddenly, all her 
former bitterness against him reawoke ; she wished to scold, 
to reproach him. She regretted having neglected the oppor- 
tunity of repeating to him once more that she knew him, and 
would not give in to him — would not let him make use of her 
spiritually as he had done physically. And she longed for 
drink in order to stifle the feeling of pity to herself and the 
useless feeling of reproach to him. And she would have 
broken her word if she had been inside the prison. Here she 
could not get any spirits except by applying to the medical 
assistant, and she was afraid of him because he made up to 
her, and intimate relations with men were disgusting to her 
now. After sitting a while on a form in the passage she re- 
turned to her little room, and without paying any heed to her 
companion's words, she wept for a long time over her 
wrecked life. 

286 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff had four matters to attend to in Petersburg-. 
The first was the appeal to the Senate in Maslova's case ; the 
second, to hand in Theodosia BirukofFs petition to the com- 
mittee ; the third, to comply with Vera Doukhova's requests 
— i.e., try to get her friend Shoustova released from prison, 
and get permission for a mother to visit her son in prison. 
Vera Dotikhova had written to him about this, and he was 
going to the Gendarmerie Office to attend to these two mat- 
ters, which he counted as one. 

The fourth matter he meant to attend to was the case of 
some sectarians who had been separated from their families 
and exiled to the Caucasus because they read and discussed 
the Gospels. It was not so much to them as to himself he 
had promised to do all he could to clear up this affair. 

Since his last visit to Maslennikoff, and especially since he 
had been in the country, Nekhludoff had not exactly formed 
a resolution, but felt with his whole nature a loathing for 
that society in which he had lived till then, that society 
which so carefulry hides the sufferings of millions in order to 
assure ease and pleasure to a small number of people, that 
the people belonging to this society do not and cannot see 
these sufferings, nor the cruelty and wickedness of their life. 
Nekhludoff could no longer move in this society without 
feeling ill at ease and reproaching himself. And yet all the 
ties of relationship and friendship, and his own habits, were 
drawing him back into this society. Besides, that which 
alone interested him now, his desire to help Maslova and the 
other sufferers, made it necessary to ask for help and ser- 
vice from persons belonging to that society, persons whom 
he not only could not respect, but who often aroused in him 
indignation and a feeling of contempt. 

When he came to Petersburg and stopped at his aunt's — 
his mother's sister, the Countess Tcharsky, wife of a former 
minister — Nekhludoff at once found himself in the very 

Resurrection 287 

midst of that aristocratic circle which had grown so foreign 
to him. This was very unpleasant, but there was no pos- 
sibility of getting out of it. To put up at an hotel instead 
of at his aunt's house would have been to offend his aunt, 
and, besides, his aunt had important connections and might 
be extremely useful in all these matters he meant to at- 
tend to. 

" What is this I hear about you ? All sorts of marvels/' 
said the Countess Katerina Ivanovna Tcharsky, as she gave 
him his coffee immediately after his arrival. " Vous poses 
pour un Howard. Helping criminals, going the round of 
prisons, setting things right/' 

" Oh, no. I never thought of it." 

" Why not ? It is a good thing, only there seems to be 
some romantic story connected with it. Let us hear all 
about it." 

Nekhludoff told her the whole truth about his relations 
to Maslova. 

" Yes, yes, I remember your poor mother telling me 
about it. That was when you were staying with those old 
women. I believe they wished to marry you to their ward 
(the Countess Katerina Ivanovna had always despised 
Nekhludoff's aunts on his father' side). So it's she. Elle 
est encore jolie? " 

Katerina Ivanovna was a strong, bright, energetic, talka- 
tive woman of 60. She was tall and very stout, and had a de- 
cided black moustache on her lip. Nekhludoff was fond of 
her and had even as a child been infected by her energy 
and mirth. 

" No, ma tante, that's at an end. I only wish to help her, 
because she is innocently accused. I am the cause of it and 
the cause of her fate being what it is. I feel it my duty to 
do all I can for her." 

" But what is this I have heard about your intention of 
marrying her ? " 

" Yes, it was my intention, but she does not wish it." 

Katerina Ivanovna looked at her nephew with raised 
brows and drooping eyeballs, in silent amazement. Sud- 
denly her face changed, and with a look of pleasure she 
said : " Well, she is wiser than you. Dear me, you are a 
fool And you would have married her ? " 

" Most certainly." 

" After her having been what she was ? " 

288 Resurrection 

" All the more, since I was the cause of it. ,% 

" Well, you are a simpleton/' said his aunt, repressing a 
smile, " a terrible simpleton ; but it is just because you are 
such a terrible simpleton that I love you." She repeated 
the word, evidently liking it, as it seemed to correctly con- 
vey to her mind the idea of her nephew's moral state. " Do 
you know What a lucky chance. Aline has a won- 
derful home — the Magdalene Home. I went there once. 
They are terribly disgusting. After that I had to pray con- 
tinually. But Aline is devoted to it, body and soul, so we 
shall place her there — yours, I mean." 

M But she is condemned to Siberia. I have come on pur- 
pose to appeal about it. This is one of my requests to you." 

" Dear me, and where do you appeal to in this case ? " 

" To the Senate." 

" Ah, the Senate ! Yes, my dear Cousin Leo is in the 
Senate, but he is in the heraldry department, and I don't 
know any of the real ones. They are all some kind of Ger- 
mans — Gay, Fay, Day — tout V alphabet, or else all sorts of 
Ivanoffs, Simenoffs, Nikitines, or else Ivanenkos, Si- 
monenkos, Nikitenkos, pour varier. Des gens de l' autre 
monde. Well, it is all the same. I'll tell my husband, he 
knows them. He knows all sorts of people. I'll tell him, 
but you will have to explain, he never understands me. 
Whatever I may say, he always maintains he does not un- 
derstand it. C'est un parti pris, every one understands but 
only not he." 

At this moment a footman with stockinged legs came in 
with a note on a silver platter. 

" There now, from Aline herself. You'll have a chance 
of hearing Kiesewetter." 

" Who is Kiesewetter? " 

" Kiesewetter? Come this evening, and you will find out 
who he is. He speaks in such a way that the most hardened 
criminals sink on their knees and weep and repent." 

The Countess Katerina Ivanovna, however strange it 
may seem, and however little it seemed in keeping with the 
rest of her character, was a staunch adherent to that teach- 
ing which holds that the essence of Christianity lies in the 
belief in redemption. She went to meetings where this 
teaching, then in fashion, was being preached, and as- 
sembled the " faithful " in her own house. Though this 
teaching repudiated all ceremonies, icons, and sacraments, 

Resurrection 289 

Katerina Ivanovna had icons in every room, and one on 
the wall above her bed, and she kept all that the Church 
prescribed without noticing any contradiction in that. 

" There now ; if your Magdalene could hear him she 
would be converted," said the Countess. "Do stay at home 
to-night ; you will hear him. He is a wonderful man." 

" It does not interest me, ma tante!' 

" But I tell you that it is interesting, and you must come 
home. Now you may go. What else do you want of me? 
Videz voire sac." 

" The next is in the fortress." 

" In the fortress ? I can give you a note for that to the 
Baron Kriegsmuth. C'est un tres brave homme. Oh, but 
you know him; he was a comrade of your father's. 
// donne dans le spiritisme. But that does not matter, he is 
a good fellow. What do you want there ? " 

I want to get leave for a mother to visit her son who is 
imprisoned there. But I was told that this did not depend 
on Kriegsmuth but on Tcherviansky." 

" I do not like Tcherviansky, but he is Mariette's hus- 
band ; we might ask her. She will do it for me. Elle est 
tres gentille." 

" I have also to petition for a woman who is imprisoned 
there without knowing what for." 

" No fear ; she knows well enough. They all know it very 
well, and it serves them right, those short-haired* ones." 

" We do not know whether it serves them right or not. 
But they suffer. You are a Christian and believe in the 
Gospel teaching and yet you are so pitiless." 

" That has nothing to do with it. The Gospels are the 
Gospels, but what is disgusting remains disgusting. It 
would be worse if I pretended to love Nihilists, especially 
short-haired women Nihilists, when I cannot bear them." 

" Why can you not bear them ? " 
You ask why, after the 1st of March? "f 

" They did not all take part in it on the 1st of March." 

" Never mind ; they should not meddle with what is no 
business of theirs. It's not women's business." 

" Yet you consider that Mariette may take part in busi- 

* Many advanced women wear their hair short, like men. 
t The Emperor Alexander U. was killed on the first of March, 
old style. 

290 Resurrection 

" Mariette? Mariette is Mariette, and these are goodness 
knows what. Want to teach everybody/' 

" Not to teach but simply to help the people." 

" One knows whom to help and whom not to help with- 
out them." 

" But the peasants are in great need. I have just returned 
from the country. Is it necessary that the peasants should 
work to the very limits of their strength and never have 
sufficient to eat while we are living in the greatest luxury? " 
said Nekhludoff, involuntarily led on by his aunt's good 
nature into telling her what he was in his thoughts. 

" What do you want, then ? That I should work and not 
eat anything ? " 

" No, I do not wish you not to eat. I only wish that we 
should all work and all eat." He could not help smiling as 
he said it. 

Again raising her brow and drooping her eyeballs his 
aunt look at him curiously. " Mon cher vous finirez mal" 
she said. 

Just then the general, and former minister, Countess 
Tcharsky's husband, a tall, broad-shouldered man, came 
into the room. 

"Ah, Dmitri, how d'you do?" he said, turning his 
freshly-shaved cheek to Nekhludoff to be kissed. " When 
did you get here ? ' ; And he silently kissed his wife on the 

'' Non il est impayable" the Countess said, turning to 
her husband. " He wants me to go and wash clothes and 
live on potatoes. He is an awful fool, but all the same do 
what he is going to ask of you. A terrible simpleton," she 
added. " Have you heard? Kamenskaya is in such despair 
that they fear for her life," she said to her husband. " You 
should go and call there." 

il Yes ; it is dreadful," said her husband. 

" Go along, then, and talk to him. I must write some 

Hardly had Nekhludoff stepped into the room next the 
drawing-room than she called him back. 

" Shall I write to Mariette, then? " 

" Please, ma tante" 

" I shall leave a blank for what you want to say about the 
short-haired one, and she will give her husband his orders, 
and he'll do it. Do not think me wicked; they are all so 

Resurrection 2qi 

disgusting, your protegees, but je ne leur veux pas de mal, 
bother them. Well, go, but be sure to stay at home this 
evening to hear Kiesewetter, and we shall have some pray- 
ers. And if only you do not resist cela vous fera beaucoup 
de bien. I know your poor mother and all of you wer^ 
always very backward in these things." 

292 Resurrection 



Count Ivan Michaelovitch had been a minister, and 
was a man of strong convictions. The convictions of Count 
Ivan Michaelovitch consisted in the belief that, just as it 
was natural for a bird to feed on worms, to be clothed in 
feathers and down, and to fly in the air, so it was natural 
for him to feed on the choicest and most expensive food, 
prepared by highly-paid cooks, to wear the most comfortable 
and most expensive clothing, to drive with the best and 
fastest horses, and that, therefore, all these things should be 
ready found for him. Besides this, Count Ivan Michaelo- 
vitch considered that the more money he could get out of 
the treasury by all sorts of means, the more orders he had, 
including different diamond insignia of something or other, 
and the oftener he spoke to highly-placed individuals of both 
sexes, so much the better it was. 

All the rest Count Ivan Michaelovitch considered insig- 
nificant and uninteresting beside these dogmas. All the rest 
might be as it was, or just the reverse. Count Ivan 
Michaelovitch lived and acted according to these lights for 
40 years, and at the end of 40 years reached the position of 
a Minister of State. The chief qualities that enabled Count 
Ivan Michaelovitch to reach this position were his capacity 
of understanding the meaning of documents and laws and 
of drawing up, though clumsily, intelligible State papers, 
and of spelling them correctly; secondly, his very stately 
appearance, which enabled him, when necessary, to seem not 
only extremely proud, but unapproachable and majestic, while 
at other times he could be abjectly and almost passionately 
servile; thirdly, the absence of any general principles or rules, 
either of personal or administrative morality, which made it 
possible for him either to agree or disagree with anybody 
according to what was wanted at the time. When acting thus 
his only endeavour was to sustain the appearance of good 
breeding and not to seem too plainly inconsistent. As for 

Resurrection 293 

his actions being moral or not, in themselves, or whether 
they were going to result in the highest welfare or greatest 
evil for the whole of the Russian Empire, or even the entire 
world, that was quite indifferent to him. When he became 
a minister, not only those dependent on him (and there were 
a great many of them) and people connected with him, but 
many strangers and even he himself were convinced that he 
was a very clever statesman. But after some time had elapsed 
and he had done nothing and had nothing to show, and 
when in accordance with the law of the struggle for existence 
others, like himself, who had learnt to write and understand 
documents, stately and unprincipled officials, had displaced 
him, he turned out to be not only far from clever but very 
limited and badly educated. Though self-assured, his views 
hardly reaching the level of those in the leading articles of 
the Conservative papers, it became apparent that there was 
nothing in him to distinguish him from those other badly- 
educated and self-assured officials who had pushed him out, 
and he himself saw it. But this did not shake his conviction 
that he had to receive a great deal of money out of the Treas- 
ury every year, and new decorations for his dress clothes. 
This conviction was so firm that no one had the pluck to 
refuse these things to him, and he received yearly, partly in 
form of a pension, partly as a salary for being a member in 
a Government institution and chairman of all sorts of com- 
mittees and councils, several tens of thousands of roubles, 
besides the right — highly prized by him — of sewing all sorts 
of new cords to his shoulders and trousers, and ribbons to 
wear under and enamel stars to fix on to his dress coat. In 
consequence of this Count Ivan Michaelovitch had very high 

Count Ivan Michaelovitch listened to Nekhludoff as he 
was wont to listen to the reports of the permanent secretary 
of his department, and, having heard him, said he would 
give him two notes, one to the Senator Wolff, of the Appeal 
Department. " All sorts of things are reported of him, but 
dans tons les cos c'est un homme tres comme il faut," he 
said. " He is indebted to me, and will do all that is possible." 
The other note Count Ivan Michaelovitch gave Nekhludoff 
was to an influential member of the Petition Committee. 
The story of Theodosia Birukoff as told by Nekhludoff 
interested him very much. When Nekhludoff said that he 
thought of writing to the Empress, the Count replied that it 

294 Resurrection 

certainly was a very touching story, and might, if occasion 
presented itself, be told her, but he could not promise. Let 
the petition be handed in in due form. 

Should there be an opportunity, and if a petit comite were 
called on Thursday, he thought he would tell her the story. 
As soon as Nekhludoff had received these two notes, and 
a note to Mariette from his aunt, he at once set off to these 
different places. 

First he went to Mariette's. He had known her as a half- 
grown girl, the daughter of an aristocratic but not wealthy 
family, and had heard how she had married a man who was 
making a career, whom Nekhludoff had heard badly spoken 
of; and, as usual, he felt it hard to ask a favour of a man 
he did not esteem. In these cases he always felt an inner 
dissension and dissatisfaction, and wavered whether to ask 
the favour or not, and always resolved to ask. Besides feel- 
ing himself in a false position among those to whose set he 
no longer regarded himself as belonging, who yet regarded 
him as belonging to them, he felt himself getting into the old 
accustomed rut, and in spite of himself fell into the thought- 
less and immoral tone that reigned in that circle. He felt 
that from the first, with his aunt, he involuntarily fell into 
a bantering tone while talking about serious matters. 

Petersburg in general affected him with its usual physi- 
cally invigorating and mentally dulling effect. 

Everything so clean, so comfortably well-arranged and 
the people so lenient in moral matters, that life seemed very 

A fine, clean, and polite isvostchik drove him past fine, 
clean, polite policemen, along the fine, clean, watered streets, 
past fine, clean houses to the house in which Mariette lived. 
At the front door stood a pair of English horses, with Eng- 
lish harness, and an English-looking coachman on the box, 
with the lower part of his face shaved, proudly holding a 
whip. The doorkeeper, dressed in a wonderfully clean 
livery, opened the door into the hall, where in still cleaner 
livery with gold cords stood the footman with his splendid 
whiskers well combed out, and the orderly on duty in a 
brand-new uniform. " The general does not receive, and 
the generaless does not receive either. She is just going to 
drive out." 

Nekhludoff took out Katerina Ivanovna's letter, and going 
up to a table on which lay a visitors' book, began to write 

Resurrection 295 

that he was sorry not to have been able to see any one ; when 
the footman went up the staircase the doorkeeper went out 
and shouted to the coachman, and the orderly stood up rigid 
with his arms at his sides following with his eyes a little, 
slight lady, who was coming down the stairs with rapid 
steps not in keeping with all the grandeur. 

Mariette had a large hat on, with feathers, a black dress 
and cape, and new black gloves. Her face was covered by 
a veil. 

When she saw Nekhludoff she lifted the veil off a very 
pretty face with bright eyes that looked inquiringly at him. 

" Ah, Prince Dmitri Ivanovitch Nekhludoff," she said, 
with a soft, pleasant voice. " I should have known " 

" What ! you even remember my name? " 

" I should think so. Why, I and my sisters have even 
been in love with you/' she said, in French. " But, dear me, 
how you have altered. Oh, what a pity I have to go out. 
But let us go up again," she said and stopped hesitatingly. 
Then she looked at the clock. " No, I can't. I am going to 
Kamenskaya's to attend a mass for the dead. She is terribly 

" Who is this Kamenskaya ? " 

" Have you not heard? Her son was killed in a duel. He 
fought Posen. He was the only son. Terrible ! The mother 
is very much afflicted." 

" Yes. I have heard of it." 

" No, I had better go, and you must come again, to-night 
or to-morrow," she said, and went to the door with quick, 
light steps. 

" I cannot come to-night," he said, going out after her ; 
" but I have a request to make you," and he looked at the 
pair of bays that were drawing up to the front door. 

"What is this?" 

" This is a letter from aunt to you," said Nekhludoff, 
handing her a narrow envelope, with a large crest. " You'll 
find all about it in there." 

" I know Countess Katerina Ivanovna thinks I have some 
influence with my husband in business matters. She is mis- 
taken. I can do nothing and do not like to interfere. But, 
of course, for you I am willing to be false to my principle. 
What is this business about ? " she said, searching in vain 
for her pocket with her little black gloved hand. 

296 Resurrection 

il There is a girl imprisoned in the fortress, and she is ill 
and innocent/' 

" What is her name ? " 

" Lydia Shotistova. It's in the note.'' 

" All right ; I'll see what I can do," she said, and lightly 
jumped into her little, softly upholstered, open carriage, its 
brightly-varnished splash-guards glistening in the sunshine, 
and opened her parasol. The footman got on the box and 
gave the coachman a sign. The carriage moved, but at that 
moment she touched the coachman with her parasol and the 
slim-legged beauties, the bay mares, stopped, bending their 
beautiful necks and stepping from foot to foot. 

" But you must come, only, please, without interested 
motives," and she looked at him with a smile, the force of 
which she well knew, and, as if the performance over and she 
were drawing the curtain, she dropped the veil over her 
face again. " All right," and she again touched the coach- 

Nekhludoff raised his hat, and the well-bred bays, slightly 
snorting, set off, their shoes clattering on the pavement, and 
the carriage rolled quickly and smoothly on its new rubber 
tyres, giving a jump only now and then over some uneven- 
ness of the road. 

Resurrection 297 



When Nekhludoff remembered the smiles that Had 
passed between him and Mariette, he shook his head. 

" You have hardly time to turn round before you are 
again drawn into this life," he thought, feeling that discord 
and those doubts which the necessity to curry favour from 
people he did not esteem caused. 

After considering where to go first, so as not to have to 
retrace his steps, Nekhludoff set off for the Senate. There 
he was shown into the office where he found a great many 
very polite and very clean officials in the midst of a magnifi- 
cent apartment. Maslova's petition was received and handed 
on to that Wolf, to whom Nekhludoff had a letter from his 
uncle, to be examined and reported on. 

" There will be a meeting of the Senate this week," the 
official said to Nekhludoff, " but Maslova's case will hardly 
come before that meeting." t 

" It might come before the meeting on Wednesday, by 
special request," one of the officials remarked. 

During the time Nekhludoff waited in the office, while 
some information was being taken, he heard that the con- 
versation in the Senate was all about the duel, and he heard 
a detailed account of how a young man, Kaminski, had been 
killed. It was here he first heard all the facts of the case 
which was exciting the interest of all Petersburg. The story 
was this : Some officers were eating oysters and, as usual, 
drinking very much, when one of them said something ill- 
natured about the regiment to which Kaminski belonged, 
and Kaminski called him a liar. The other hit Kaminski. 
The next day they fought. Kaminski was wounded in the 
stomach and died two hours later. The murderer and the 
seconds were arrested, but it was said that though they were 
arrested and in the guardhouse they would be set free in 
a fortnight. 

From the Senate Nekhludoff drove to see an influential 

298 Resurrection 

member of the Petition Committee, Baron Vorobioff, who 
lived in a splendid house belonging to the Crown. The 
doorkeeper told Nekhludoff in a severe tone that the Baron 
could not be seen except on his reception days ; that he was 
with His Majesty the Emperor to-day, and the next day he 
would again have to deliver a report. Nekhludoff left his 
uncle's letter with the doorkeeper and went on to see the 
Senator Wolf. Wolf had just had his lunch, and was as 
usual helping digestion by smoking a cigar and pacing 
up and down the room, when Nekhludoff came in. Vladimir 
Vasilievitch Wolf was certainly un homme tres comme il 
faut, and prized this quality very highly, and from that 
elevation he looked down at everybody else. He could not 
but esteem this quality of his very highly, because it was 
thanks to it alone that he had made a brilliant career, the 
very career he desired, i.e., by marriage he obtained a for- 
tune which brought him in 18,000 roubles a year, and by his 
own exertions the post of a senator. He considered himself 
not only un homme tres comme il faut, but also a man of 
knightly honour. By honour he understood not accepting 
secret bribes from private persons. But he did not consider 
it dishonest to beg money for payment of fares and all sorts 
of travelling expenses from the Crown, and to do anything 
the Government might require of him in return. To ruin 
hundreds of innocent people, to cause them to be imprisoned, 
to be exiled because of their love for their people and the 
religion of their fathers, as he had done in one of the govern- 
ments of Poland when he was governor there. He did not 
consider it dishonourable, but even thought it a noble, manly 
and patriotic action. Nor did he consider it dishonest to rob 
his wife and sister-in-law, as he had done, but thought it 
a wise way of arranging his family life. His family con- 
sisted of his common-place wife, his sister-in-law, whose 
fortune he had appropriated by selling her estate and putting 
the money to his account, and his meek, frightened, plain 
daughter, who lived a lonely, weary life, from which she 
had lately begun to look for relaxation in evangelicism, 
attending meetings at Aline's, and the Countess Katerina 
Ivanovna. Wolf's son, who had grown a beard at the age 
of 15, and had at that age begun to drink and lead a depraved 
life, which he continued to do till the age of 20, when he 
was turned out by his father because he never finished his 
studies, moved in a low set and made debts which committed 

Resurrection 299 

the father. The father had once paid a debt of 250 roubles 
for his son, then another of 600 roubles, but warned the son 
that he did it for the last time, and that if the son did not 
reform he would be turned out of the house and all further 
intercourse between him and his family would be put a stop 
to. The son did not reform, but made a debt of a thousand 
roubles, and took the liberty of telling his father that life 
at home was a torment anyhow. Then Wolf declared to 
his son that he might go where he pleased — that he was 
no son of his any longer. Since then Wolf pretended he 
had no son, and no one at home dared speak to him about 
his son, and Vladimir Vasilievitch Wolf was firmly con- 
vinced that he had arranged his family life in the best way. 
Wolf stopped pacing up and down his study, and greeted 
Nekhludoff with a friendly though slightly ironical smile. 
This was his way of showing how comme il faut he was, 
and how superior to the majority of men. He read the note 
which Nekhludoff handed to him. 

" Please take a seat, and excuse me if I continue to walk 
up and down, with your permission/' he said, putting his 
hands into his coat pockets, and began again to walk with 
light, soft steps across his large, quietly and stylishly fur- 
nished study. 

" Very pleased to make your acquaintance and of course 
very glad to do anything that Count Ivan Michaelovitch 
wishes/' he said, blowing the fragrant blue smoke out of 
his mouth and removing his cigar carefully so as not to drop 
the ash. 

" I should only like to ask that the case might come on 
soon, so that if the prisoner has to go to Siberia she might 
set off early," said Nekhludoff. 

" Yes, yes, with one of the first steamers from Nijni. I 
know/' said Wolf, with his patronising smile, always know- 
ing in advance whatever one wanted to tell him. 

" What is the prisoner's name? " 

" Maslova." 

Wolf went up to the table and looked at a paper that lay 
on a piece of cardboard among other business papers. 

" Yes, yes. Maslova. All right, I will ask the others. 
We shall hear the case on Wednesday." 

" Then may I telegraph to the advocate ? " 

" The advocate ! What's that for ? But if you like, why 

300 Resurrection 

" The causes for appeal may be insufficient," said Nekhlu- 
doff, " but I think the case will show that the sentence was 
passed owing to a misunderstanding." 

" Yes, yes ; it may be so, but the Senate cannot decide the 
case on its merits," said Wolf, looking seriously at the ash 
of his cigar. " The Senate only considers the exactness 
of the application of the laws and their right interpretation." 

" But this seems to me to be an exceptional case." 

" I know, I know ! All cases are exceptional. We shall 
do our duty. That's all." The ash was still holding on, 
but had began breaking, and was in danger of falling. 

" Do you often come to Petersburg? " said Wolf, holding 
his cigar so that the ash should not fall. But the ash began 
to shake, and Wolf carefully carried it to the ashpan, into 
which it fell. 

- What a terrible thing this is with regard to Kaminski," 
he said. " A splendid young man. The only son. Espe- 
cially the mother's position," he went on, repeating almost 
word for word what every one in Petersburg was at that 
time saying- about Kaminski. Wolf spoke a little about the 
Countess Katerina Ivanovna and her enthusiasm for the 
new religious teaching, which he neither approved nor dis- 
approved of, but which was evidently needless to him who 
was so comme il faut, and then rang the bell. 

Nekhludoff bowed. 

" If it is convenient, come and dine on Wednesday, and 
I will give you a decisive answer," said Wolf, extending 
his hand. 

It was late, and Nekhludoff returned to his aunt's. 

Resurrection 301 



Countess Katerina Ivanovna's dinner hour was half- 
past seven, and the dinner was served in a new manner that 
Nekhludoff had not yet seen anywhere. After they had 
placed the dishes on the table the waiters left the room and 
the diners helped themselves. The men would not let the 
ladies take the trouble of moving, and, as befitted the 
stronger sex, they manfully took on themselves the burden of 
putting the food on the ladies' plates and of filling their 
glasses. When one course was finished, the Countess pressed 
the button of an electric bell fitted to the table and the waiters 
stepped in noiselessly and quickly -carried away the dishes, 
changed the plates, and brought in the next course. The din- 
ner was very refined, the wines very costly. A French chef 
was working in the large, light kitchens, with two white-clad 
assistants. There were six persons at dinner, the Count and 
Countess, their son (a surly officer in the Guards who sat 
with his elbows on the table), Nekhludoff, a French lady 
reader, and the Count's chief steward, who had come up 
from the country. Here, too, the conversation was about 
the duel, and opinions were given as to how the Emperor 
regarded the case. It was known that the Emperor was very 
much grieved for the mother's sake, and all were grieved for 
her, and as it was also known that the Emperor did not mean 
to be very severe to the murderer, who defended the honour 
of his uniform, all were also lenient to the officer who had 
defended the honour of his uniform. Only the Countess 
Katerina Ivanovna, with her free thoughtlessness, expressed 
her disapproval. 

" They get drunk, and kill unobjectionable young men. 
I should not forgive them on any account," she said. 

" Now, that's a thing I cannot understand," said the Count. 

" I know that you never can understand what I say," the 
Countess began, and turning to Nekhludoff, she added: 
" Everybody understands except my husband. I say I zm 

302 Resurrection 

sorry for the mother, and I do not wish him to be con- 
tented, having killed a man." Then her son, who had been 
silent up to then, took the murderer's part, and rudely at- 
tacked his mother, arguing that an officer could not behave 
in any other way, because his fellow-officers would con- 
demn him and turn him out of the regiment. Nekhludoff 
listened to the conversation without joining in. Having 
been an officer himself, he understood, though he did not 
agree with, young Tcharsky's arguments, and at the same 
time he could not help contrasting the fate of the officer with 
that of a beautiful young convict whom he had seen in the 
prison, and who was condemned to the mines for having 
killed another in a fight. Both had turned murderers through 
drunkenness. The peasant had killed a man in a moment of 
irritation, and he was parted from his wife and family, had 
chains on his legs, and his head shaved, and was going to 
hard labour in Siberia, while the officer was sitting in a fine 
room in the guardhouse, eating a good dinner, drinking good 
wine, and reading books, and would be set free in a day or 
two to live as he had done before, having only become more 
interesting by the affair. 'Nekhludoff said what he had been 
thinking, and at first his aunt, Katerina Ivanovna, seemed to 
agree with him, but at last she became silent as the rest had 
done, and Nekhludoff felt that he had committed something 
akin to an impropriety. In the evening, soon after dinner, 
the large hall, with high-backed carved chairs arranged in 
rows as for a meeting, and an armchair next to a little table, 
with a bottle of water for the speaker, began to fill with peo- 
ple come to hear the foreigner, Kiesewetter, preach. El- 
egant equipages stopped at the front entrance. In the hall 
sat richly-dressed ladies in silks and velvets and lace, with 
false hair and false busts and drawn-in waists, and among 
them men in uniform and evening dress, and about five per- 
sons of the common class, i.e., two men-servants, a shop- 
keeper, a footman, and a coachman. Kiesewetter, a thick- 
set, grisly man, spoke English, and a thin young girl, with a 
pince-nez, translated it into Russian promptly and well. He 
was saying that our sins were so great, the punishment for 
them so great and so unavoidable, that it was impossible to 
live anticipating such punishment. " Beloved brothers and 
sisters, let us for a moment consider what we are doing, how 
we are living, how we have offended against the all-loving 
Lord, and how we make Christ suffer, and we cannot but 

Resurrection 303 

understand that there is no forgiveness possible for us, no 
escape possible, that we are all doomed to perish. A terrible 
fate awaits us — everlasting torment," he said, with tears in 
his trembling voice. " Oh, how can we be saved, brothers? 
How can we be saved from this terrible, unquenchable fire ? 
The house is in flames ; there is no escape." 

He was silent for a while, and real tears flowed down his 
cheeks. It was for about eight years that each time when he 
got to this part of his speech, which he himself liked so well, 
he felt a choking in his throat and an irritation in his nose, 
and the tears came in his eyes, and these tears touched him 
still more. Sobs were heard in the room. The Countess 
Katerina Ivanovna sat with her elbows on an inlaid table, 
leaning her head on her hands, and her shoulders were shak- 
ing. The coachman looked with fear and surprise at the for- 
eigner, feeling as if he was about to run him down with the 
pole of his carriage and the foreigner would not move out of 
his way. All sat in positions similar to that Katerina Ivan- 
ovna had assumed. Wolf's daughter, a thin, fashionably- 
dressed girl, very like her father, knelt with her face in her 

The orator suddenly uncovered his face, and smiled a very 
real-looking smile, such as actors express joy with, and be- 
gan again with a sweet, gentle voice : 

" Yet there is a way to be saved. Here it is — a joyful, easy 
way. The salvation is the blood shed for us by the only son 
of God, who gave himself up to torments for our sake. His 
sufferings, His blood, will save us. Brothers and sisters," he 
said, again with tears in his voice, " let us praise the Lord, 
who has given His only begotten son for the redemption of 
mankind. His holy blood. ..." 

Nekhliidoff felt so deeply disgusted that he rose silently, 
and frowning and keeping back a groan of shame, he left on 
tiptoe, and went to his room. 

304 Resurrection 



Hardly had Nekhludoff finished dressing the next morn- 
ing, just as he was about to go down, the footman brought 
him a card from the Moscow advocate. The advocate had 
come to St. Petersburg on business of his own, and was going 
to be present when Maslova's case was examined in the Sen- 
ate, if that would be soon. The telegram sent by Nekhludoff 
crossed him on the way. Having found out from Nekhlu- 
doff when the case was going to be heard, and which senators 
were to be present, he smiled. " Exactly, all the three types of 
senators," he said. " Wolf is a Petersburg official ; Skovo- 
rodnikoff is a theoretical, and Bay a practical, lawyer, and 
therefore the most alive of them all/' said the advocate. 
" There is most hope of him. Well, and how about the Peti- 
tion Committee? " 

" Oh, I'm going to Baron Vorobioff to-day. I could not 
get an audience with him yesterday. 

" Do you know why he is Baron Vorobioff? ?' said the ad- 
vocate, noticing the slightly ironical stress that Nekhludoff 
put on this foreign title, followed by so very Russian a sur- 

" That was because the Emperor Paul rewarded the 
grandfather — I think he was one of the Court footmen — by 
giving him this title. He managed to please him in some 
way, so he made him a baron. ' It's my wish, so don't gain- 
say me 5 v And so there's a Baron Vorobioff, and very proud 
of the title. He is a dreadful old humbug." 

" Well, I'm going to see him," said Nekhludoff. 

" That's good ; we can go together. I shall give you a 

As they were going to start, a footman met Nekhludoff in 
the ante-room, and handed him a note from Mariette : 

Pour vous faire plaisir, j'ai agi tout a fait contre mes principes 
et j'ai intercede aupres de mon mari pour voire protegee. II se 
trouve que cette personne peut Hre relaxee immediate ment. Mon 
mari a ecrit au commandant, Venez done disinterestedly. Je vous 
attends. M. 

Resurrection 305 

" Just fancy ! " said Nekhliidoff to the advocate. " Is 
this not dreadful? A woman whom they are keeping in 
solitary confinement for seven months turns out to be quite 
innocent, and only a word was needed to get her released." 

" That's always so. Well, anyhow, you have succeeded in 
getting what you wanted." 

" Yes, but this success grieves me. Just think what must 
be going on there. Why have they been keeping her? " 

" Oh, it's best not to look too deeply into it. Well, then, 
I shall give you a lift, if I may," said the advocate, as they 
left the house, and a fine carriage that the advocate had hired 
drove up to the door. " It's Baron Vorobioff you are going 
to see?" 

The advocate gave the driver his directions, and the two 
good horses quickly brought Nekhliidoff to the house in 
which the Baron lived. The Baron was at home. A young 
official in uniform, with a long, thin neck, a much protrud- 
ing Adam's apple, and an extremely light walk, and two 
ladies were in the first room. 

" Your name, please? " the young man with the Adam's 
apple asked, stepping with extreme lightness and grace 
across from the ladies to Nekhliidoff. 

Nekhliidoff gave his name. 

" The Baron was just mentioning you," said the young 
man, the Baron's adjutant, and went out through an inner 
door. He returned, leading a weeping lady dressed in 
mourning. With her bony fingers the lady was trying 
to pull her tangled veil over her face in order to hide her 

" Come in, please," said the young man to Nekhliidoff, 
lightly stepping up to the door of the study and holding it 
open. When Nekhliidoff came in, he saw before him a 
thick-set man of medium height, with short hair, in a frock- 
coat, who was sitting in an armchair opposite a large writ- 
ing-table, and looking gaily in front of himself. 

The kindly, rosy red face, striking by its contrast with 
the white hair, moustaches, and beard, turned towards 
Nekhliidoff with a friendly smile. 

" Very glad to see you. Your mother and I were old 
acquaintances and friends. I have seen you as a boy, and 
later on as an officer. Sit down and tell me what I can do 
for you. Yes, yes," he said, shaking his cropped white head, 
while Nekhliidoff was telling him Theodosia's story. " Go 

3 o6 


on, go on. I quite understand. It is certainly very touch- 
ing. And have you handed in the petition ? " 

" I have got the petition ready/' Nekhludoff said, getting 
it out of his pocket ; " but I thought of speaking to you first 
in hopes that the case would then get special attention paid 
to it." 

" You have done very well. I shall certainly report it 
myself/' said the Baron, unsuccessfully trying to put an 
expression of pity on his merry face. " Very touching ! It 
is clear she was but a child ; the husband treated her 
roughly, this repelled her, but as time went on they fell in 
love with each other. Yes, I will report the case." 

" Count Ivan Michaelovitch was also going to speak 
about it." 

Nekhludoff had hardly got these words out when the 
Baron's face changed. 

" You had better hand in the petition into the office, after 
all, and I shall do what I can/' he said. 

At this moment the young official again entered the 
room, evidently showing off his elegant manner of walking. 

" That lady is asking if she may say a few words more." 

" Well, ask her in. Ah, mon cher, how many tears we 
have to see shed ! If only we could dry them all. One does 
all that lies within one's power/ , 

The lady entered. 

" I forgot to ask you that he should not be allowed to 
give up the daughter, because he is ready . . ." 

" But I have alreadv told you that I should do all I 

" Baron, for the love of God ! You will save the mother? " 

She seized his hand, and began kissing it. 

" Everything shall be done." 

When the lady went out Nekhludoff also began to take 

" We shall do what we can. I shall speak about it at the 
Ministry of Justice, and when we get their answer we shall 
do what we can." 

Nekhludoff left the study, and went into the office again. 
Just as in the Senate office, he saw, in a splendid apartment, 
a number of very elegant officials, clean, polite, severely 
correct and distinguished in dress and in speech. 

" How many there are of them ; how very many and how 
well fed they all look! And what clean shirts and hands 

Resurrection 307 

they all have, and how well all their boots are polished! 
Who does it for them? How comfortable they all are, as 
compared not only with the prisoners, but even with the 
peasants ! " These thoughts again involuntarily came to 
Nekhludoff s mind. 

joS Resurrection 



The man on whom depended the easing of the fate of the 
Petersburg prisoners was an old General of repute — a 
baron of German descent, who, as it was said of him, had 
outlived his wits. He had received a profusion of orders, 
but only wore one of them, the Order of the White Cross. 
He had received this order, which he greatly valued, while 
serving in the Caucasus, because a number of Russian peas- 
ants, with their hair cropped, and dressed in uniform and 
armed with guns and bayonets, had killed at his command 
more than a thousand men who were defending their liberty, 
their homes, and their families. Later on he served in Poland, 
and there also made Russian peasants commit many dif- 
ferent crimes, and got more orders and decorations for his 
uniform. Then he served somewhere else, and now that he 
was a weak, old man he had this position, which insured 
him a good house, an income and respect. He strictly ob- 
served all the regulations which were prescribed " from 
above," and was very zealous in the fulfilment of these 
regulations, to which he ascribed a special importance, con- 
sidering that everything else in the world might be changed 
except the regulations prescribed " from above." His duty 
was to keep political prisoners, men and women, in solitary 
confinement in such a way that half of them perished in 10 
years' time, some going out of their minds, some dying of 
consumption, some committing suicide by starving them- 
selves to death, cutting their veins with bits of glass, hang- 
ing, or burning themselves to death. 

The old General was not ignorant of this ; it all happened 
within his knowledge ; but these cases no more touched his 
conscience than accidents brought on by thunderstorms, 
floods, etc. These cases occurred as a consequence of the 
fulfilment of regulations prescribed " from above " by His 
Imperial Majesty. These regulations had to be carried out 
without fail, and therefore it was absolutely useless to think 

Resurrection 309 

of the consequences of their fulfilment. The old General 
did not even allow himself to think of such things, counting 
it his patriotic duty as a soldier not to think of them for fear 
of getting weak in the carrying out of these, according to 
his opinion, very important obligations. Once a week the 
old General made the round of the cells, one of the duties 
of his position, and asked the prisoners if they had any re- 
quests to make. The prisoners had all sorts of requests. He 
listened to them quietly, in impenetrable silence, and never 
fulfilled any of their requests, because they were all in dis- 
accord with the regulations. Just as Nekhludoff drove up 
to the old General's house, the high notes of the bells on 
the belfry clock chimed " Great is the Lord," and then 
struck two. The sound of these chimes brought back to 
Nekhludoff s mind what he had read in the notes of the 
Decembrists* about the way this sweet music repeated 
every hour re-echoes in the hearts of those imprisoned for 

Meanwhile the old General was sitting in his darkened 
drawing-room at an inlaid table, turning a saucer on a piece 
of paper with the aid of a young artist, the brother of one of 
his subordinates. The thin, weak, moist fingers of the artist 
were pressed against the wrinkled and stiff-jointed fingers 
of the old General, and the hands joined in this manner were 
moving together with the saucer over a paper that had all the 
letters of the alphabet written on it. The saucer was answer- 
ing the questions put by the General as to how souls will rec- 
ognise each other after death. 

When Nekhludoff sent in his card by an orderly acting as 
footman, the soul of Joan of Arc was speaking by the aid of 
the saucer. The soul of Joan of Arc had already spelt letter 
by letter the words : " They well knew each other," and these 
words had been written down. When the orderly came in 
the saucer had stopped first on b, then on y, and began jerk- 
ing hither and thither. This jerking was caused by the 
General's opinion that the next letter should be b, i.e., Joan 
of Arc ought to say that the souls will know each other by 
being cleansed of all that is earthly, or something of the 
kind, clashing with the opinion of the artist, who thought 
the next letter should be /, i.e., that the souls should know 

* The Decembrists were a group who attempted, but failed, to put 
an end to absolutism in Russia at the time, pf the accession oi 
Nicholas the First, 

3 1 o Resurrection 

each other by light emanating from their astral bodies. The 
General, with his bushy grey eyebrows gravely contracted, 
sat gazing at the hands on the saucer, and, imagining that it 
was moving of its own accord, kept pulling the saucer 
towards w. The pale-faced young artist, with his thin hair 
combed back behind his ears, was looking with his lifeless 
blue eyes into a dark corner of the drawing-room, nervously 
moving his lips and pulling the saucer towards /. 

The General made a wry face at the interruption, but after 
a moment's pause he took the card, put on his pince-nez, and, 
uttering a groan, rose, in spite of the pain in his back, to his 
full height, rubbing his numb fingers. 

" Ask him into the study." 

" With your excellency's permission I will finish it alone," 
said the artist, rising. " I feel the presence." 

" All right, finish alone," the General said, severely and de- 
cidedly, and stepped quickly, with big, firm, and measured 
strides, into his study. 

" Very pleased to see you," said the General to Nekhlu- 
doff, uttering the friendly words in a gruff tone, and point- 
ing to an armchair by the side of the writing-table. " Have 
you been in Petersburg long ? " 

Nekhludoff replied that he had only lately arrived. 

" Is the Princess, your mother, well ? " 

" My mother is dead." 

" Forgive me ; I am very sorry. My son told me he had 
met you." 

The General's son was making the same kind of career for 
himself that the father had done, and, having passed the Mil- 
itary Academy, was now serving in the Inquiry Office, and 
was very proud of his duties there. His occupation was the 
management of Government spies. 

" Why, I served with your father. We were friends — 
comrades. And you ; are vou also in the Service ? " 

" No, I am not." 

The General bent his head disapprovingly. 

" I have a request to make, General." 

" Ve — ery pleased. In what way can I be of service to 

" If my request is out of place pray pardon me. But I am 
obliged to make it." 

"What is it?" 

" There is a certain Gourkevitch imprisoned in the fort- 

Resurrection 311 

ress ; his mother asks for an interview with him, or at least 
to be allowed to send him some books." 

The General expressed neither satisfaction nor dissatisfac- 
tion at Nekhludoffs request, but bending his head on one 
side he closed his eyes as if considering. In reality he was 
not considering anything, and was not even interested in 
NekhludofFs questions, well knowing that he would answer 
tjiem according to the law. He was simply resting mentally 
and not thinking at all. 

" You see," he said at last, " this does not depend on me. 
There is a regulation, confirmed by His Majesty, concerning 
interviews ; and as to books, we have a library, and they may 
have what is permitted." 

" Yes, but he wants scientific books ; he wishes to study." 

" Don't you believe it," growled the General. " It's not 
study he wants ; it is just only restlessness." 

" But what is to be done ? They must occupy their time 
somehow in their hard condition," said Nekhludoff. 

" They are always complaining," said the General. " We 
know them." 

He spoke of them in a general way, as if they were all a 
specially bad race of men. " They have conveniences here 
which can be found in few places of confinement," said the 
General, and he began to enumerate the comforts the pris- 
oners enjoyed, as if the aim of the institution was to give the 
people imprisoned there a comfortable home. 

" It is true it used to be rather rough, but now they are 
very well kept here," he continued. " They have three 
courses for dinner — and one of them meat — cutlets, or ris- 
soles ; and on Sundays they get a fourth — a sweet dish. God 
grant every Russian may eat as well as they do." 

Like all old people, the General, having once got on to a 
familiar topic, enumerated the various proofs he had often 
given before of the prisoners being exacting and ungrateful. 

" They get books on spiritual subjects and old journals. 
We have a library. Only they rarely read. At first they 
seem interested, later on the new books remain uncut, and 
the old ones with their leaves unturned. We tried them/' 
said the old General, with the dim likeness of a smile. " We 
put bits of p&per in on purpose, which remained just as they 
had been placed. Writing is also not forbidden," he con- 
tinued. " A slate is provided, and a slate pencil, so that they 
can write as a pastime. They can wipe the slate and write 

312 Resurrection 

again. But they don't write, either. Oh, they very soon get 
quite tranquil. At first they seem restless, but later on they 
even grow fat and become very quiet." Thus spoke the Gen- 
eral, never suspecting the terrible meaning of his words. 

Nekhludoff listened to the hoarse old voice, looked at the 
stiff limbs, the swollen eyelids under the grey brows, at the 
old, clean-shaved, flabby jaw, supported by the collar of the 
military uniform, at the white cross that this man was so 
proud of, chiefly because he had gained it by exceptionally 
cruel and extensive slaughter, and knew that it was useless 
to reply to the old man or to explain the meaning of his own 
words to him. 

He made another effort, and asked about the prisoner 
Shoustova, for whose release, as he had been informed that 
morning, orders were given. 

"Shoustova — Shoustova? I cannot remember all their 
names, there are so many of them/' he said, as if reproach- 
ing them because there were so many. He rang, and ordered 
the secretary to be called. While waiting for the latter, he 
began persuading Nekhludoff to serve, saying that " honest 
noblemen," counting himself among the number, ' were par- 
ticularly needed by the Tsar and — the country," he added, 
evidently only to round off his sentence. " I am old, yet I 
am serving still, as well as my strength allows." 

The secretary, a dry, emaciated man, with restless, intelli- 
gent eyes, came in and reported that Shoustova was impris- 
oned in some queer, fortified place, and that he had received 
no orders concerning her. 

" When we get the order we shall let her out the same day. 
We do not keep them ; we do not value their visits much," 
said the General, with another attempt at a playful smile, 
which only distorted his old face. 

Nekhludoff rose, trying to keep from expressing the mixed 
feelings of repugnance and pity which he felt towards this 
terrible old man. The old man on his part considered that he 
should not be too severe on the thoughtless and evidently 
misguided son of his old comrade, and should not leave him 
without advice, 

" Good-bye, my dear fellow ; do not take it amiss. It is 
my affection that makes me say it. Do not keep company 
with such people as we have at our place here. There are no 
innocent ones among them. All these people are most im- 
moral. We know them," he said, in a tone that admitted no 



possibility of doubt. And he did not doubt, not because the 
thing was so, but because if it was not so, he would have to 
admit himself to be not a noble hero living out the last days 
of a good life, but a scoundrel, who sold, and still continued 
in his old age to sell, his conscience. 

" Best of all, go and serve/' he continued ; " the Tsar 
needs honest men — and the country," he added. " Well, 
supposing I and the others refused to serve, as you are 
doing? Who would be left? Here we are, finding fault with 
the order of things, and yet not wishing to help the Govern- 

With a deep sigh Nekhludoff made a low bow, shook 
the large, bony hand condescendingly stretched out to him 
and left the room. 

The General shook his head reprovingly, and rubbing 
his back, he again went into the drawing-room where the 
artist was waiting for him. He had already written down 
the answer given by the soul of Joan of Arc. The General 
put on his pince-nez and read, " Will know one another by 
light emanating from their astral bodies." 

" Ah," said the General, with approval, and closed his 
eyes. " But how is one to know if the light of all is alike? " 
he asked, and again crossed fingers with the artist on the 

The isvostchik drove Nekhludoff out of the gate. 

" It is dull here, sir," he said, turning to Nekhludoff. " I 
almost wished to drive off without waiting for you." 

Nekhludoff agreed. " Yes, it is dull," and he took a deep 
breath, and looked up with a sense of relief at the grey 
clouds that were floating in the sky, and at the glistening 
ripples made by the boats and steamers on the Neva. 

314 Resurrection 



The next day Maslova's case was to be examined at the 
Senate, and Nekhludoff and the advocate met at the ma- 
jestic portal of the building, where several carriages were 
waiting. Ascending the magnificent and imposing stair- 
case to the first floor, the advocate, who knew all the ins 
and outs of the place, turned to the left and entered through 
a door which had the date of the introduction of the Code 
of Laws above it. 

After taking off his overcoat in the first narrow room, he 
found out from the attendant that the Senators had all ar- 
rived, and that the last had just come in. Fanarin, in his 
swallow-tail coat, a white tie above the white shirt-front, 
and a self-confident smile on his lips, passed into the next 
room. In this room there were to the right a large cup- 
board and a table, and to the left a winding staircase, which 
an elegant official in uniform was descending with a port- 
folio under his arm. In this room an old man with long, 
white hair and a patriarchal appearance attracted every one's 
attention. He wore a short coat and grey trousers. Two 
attendants stood respectfully beside him. The old man with 
white hair entered the cupboard and shut himself in. 

Fanarin noticed a fellow-advocate dressed in the same 
way as himself, with a white tie and dress coat, and at once 
entered into an animated conversation with him. 

Nekhludoff was meanwhile examining the people in the 
room. The public consisted of about 15 persons, of whom 
two were ladies — a young one with a pince-nez, and an old, 
grey-haired one. 

A case of libel was to be heard that day, and therefore 
the public were more numerous than usual — chiefly persons 
belonging to the journalistic world. 

The usher, a red-cheeked, handsome man in a fine uni- 
form, came up to Fanarin and asked him what his business 

Resurrection 3 1 5 

was. When he heard that it was the case of Maslova, he 
noted something down and walked away. Then the cup- 
board door opened and the old man with the patriarchal ap- 
pearance stepped out, no longer in a short coat but in a 
gold-trimmed attire, which made him look like a bird, and 
with metal plates on his breast. 

This funny costume seemed to make the old man himself 
feel uncomfortable, and, walking faster than his wont, he 
hurried out of the door opposite the entrance. 

" That is Bay, a most estimable man," Fanarin said to 
Nekhludoff, and then having introduced him to his col- 
league, he explained the case that was about to be heard, 
which he considered very interesting. 

The hearing of the case soon commenced, and Nekh- 
ludoff, with the public, entered the left side of the Senate 
Chamber. They all, including Fanarin, took their places 
behind a grating. Only the Petersburg advocate went up 
to a desk in front of the grating. 

The Senate Chamber was not so big as the Criminal 
Court; and was more simply furnished, only the table in 
front of the senators was covered with crimson, gold- 
trimmed velvet, instead of green cloth ; but the attributes of 
all places of judgment, i.e., the mirror of justice, the icon, 
the emblem of hypocrisy, and the Emperor's portrait, the 
emblem of servility, were there. 

The usher announced, in the same solemn manner : " The 
Court is coming/' Every one rose in the same way, and the 
senators entered in their uniforms and sat down on high- 
backed chairs and leant on the table, trying to appear nat- 
ural, just in the same way as the judges in the Court of Law. 
There were four senators present — Nikitin, who took the 
chair, a clean-shaved man with a narrow face and steely 
eyes ; Wolf, with significantly compressed lips, and little 
white hands, with which he kept turning over the pages of 
the business papers ; Skovorodnikoff, a heavy, fat, pock- 
marked man — the learned lawyer ; and Bay, the patriarchal- 
looking man who had arrived last. 

With the advocates entered the chief secretary and pub- 
lic prosecutor, a lean, clean-shaven young man of medium 
height, a very dark complexion, and sad, black eyes. Nekh- 
ludoff knew him at once, in spite of his curious uniform and 
the fact that he had not seen him for six years. He had 
been one of his best friends in NekhludofFs student days. 



"The public prosecutor Selenin?" Nekhludoff asked, 
turning to the advocate. 

"Yes. Why?" 

" I know him well. He is a fine fellow." 

" And a good public prosecutor ; business-like. Now he 
is the man you should have interested." 

" He will act according to his conscience in any case,'* 
said Nekhludoff, recalling the intimate relations and friend*' 
ship between himself and Selenin, and the attractive quali^ 
ties of the latter — purity, honesty, and good breeding in its k 
best sense. 

" Yes, there is no time now," whispered Fanarin, whol 
was listening to the report of the case that had commenced. 

The Court of Justice was accused of having left a deci- 
sion of the Court of Law unaltered. 

Nekhludoff listened and tried to make out the meaning 
of what was going on ; but, just as in the Criminal Court, 
his chief difficulty w r as that not the evidently chief point, but 
some side issues, were being discussed. The case was that 
of a newspaper which had published the account of a 
swindle arranged by a director of a limited liability com- 
pany. It seemed that the only important question was 
whether the director of the company really abused his trust, 
and how to stop him from doing it. But the questions under 
consideration were whether the editor had a right to pub- 
lish this article of his contributor, and what he had been 
guilty of in publishing it : slander or libel, and in what way 
slander included libel, or libel included slander, and some- 
thing rather incomprehensible to ordinary people about all 
sorts of statutes and resolutions passed by some General 

The only thing clear to Nekhludoff was that, in spite of 
what Wolf had so strenuously insisted on, the day before, 
i.e., that the Senate could not try a case on its merits, in this 
case he was evidently strongly in favour of repealing the 
decision of the Court of Justice, and that Selenin, in spite of 
his characteristic reticence, stated the opposite opinion with 
quite unexpected warmth. The warmth, which surprised 
Nekhludoff, evinced by the usually self-controlled Selenin, 
was due to his knowledge of the director's shabbiness in 
money matters, and the fact, which had accidentally come to 
his ears, that Wolf had been to a swell dinner party at the 
swindler's house only a few days before. 

Resurrection 317 

Now that Wolf spoke on the case, guardedly enough, but 
with evident bias, Selenin became excited, and expressed 
his opinion with too much nervous irritation for an ordinary 
business transaction. It was clear that Selenin's speech 
had offended Wolf. He grew red, moved in his chair, made 
silent gestures of surprise, and at last rose, with a very 
dignified and injured look, together with the other senators, 
and went out into the debating-room. 

" What particular case have you come about ? " the ushet 
asked again, addressing Fanarin. 

" I have already told you : Maslova's case." 

" Yes, quite so. It is to be heard to-day, but " 

" But what? " the advocate asked. 

" Well, you see, this case was to be examined without 
taking sides, so that the senators will hardly come out again 
after passing the resolution. But I will inform them." 

" What do you mean ? " 

" I'll inform them ; I'll inform them." And the usher 
again put something down on his paper. 

The Senators really meant to pronounce their decision 
concerning the libel case, and then to finish the other busi- 
ness, Maslova's case among it, over their tea and cigarettes, 
without leaving the debating-room. 

1 8 Resurrection 



As soon as the Senators were seated round the table in 
the debating-room, Wolf began to bring forward with great 
animation all the motives in favour of a repeal. The chair- 
man, an ill-natured man at best, was in a particularly bad 
humour that day. His thoughts were concentrated on the 
words he had written down in his memoranda on the occa- 
sion when not he but Viglanoff was appointed to the impor- 
tant post he had long coveted. It was the chairman, Nikitin's, 
honest conviction that his opinions of the officials of the 
two upper classes with which he was in connection would 
furnish valuable material for the historians. He had written 
a chapter the day before in which the officials of the upper 
classes got it hot for preventing him, as he expressed it, 
from averting the ruin towards which the present rulers 
of Russia were drving it, which simply meant that they had 
prevented his getting a better salary. And now he was 
considering what a new light to posterity this chapter would 
shed on events. 

" Yes, certainly," he said, in reply to the words addressed 
to him by Wolf, without listening to them. 

Bay was listening to Wolf with a sad face and drawing 
a garland on the paper that lay before him. Bay was a 
Liberal of the very first water. He held sacred the Liberal 
traditions of the sixth decade of this century, and if he ever 
overstepped the limits of strict neutrality it was always in 
the direction of Liberalism. So in this case ; beside the fact 
that the swindling director, who was prosecuting for libel, 
was a bad lot, the prosecution of a journalist for libel in 
itself tending, as it did, to restrict the freedom of the press, 
inclined Bay to reject the appeal. 

When Wolf concluded his arguments Bay stopped draw- 
ing his garland and began in a sad and gentle voice (he was 
sad because he was obliged to demonstrate such truisms) 
concisely, simply and convincingly to show how unfounded 

Resurrection 3 1 9 

the accusation was, and then, bending his white head, he 
continued drawing his garland. 

Skovorodnikoff, who sat opposite Wolf, and, with his 
fat fingers, kept shoving his beard and moustaches into his 
mouth, stopped chewing his beard as soon as Bay was silent, 
and said with a loud, grating voice, that, notwithstanding 
the fact of the director being a terrible scoundrel, he would 
have been for the repeal of the sentence if there were any 
legal reasons for it ; but, as there were none, he was of Bay's 
opinion. He was glad to put this spoke in Wolf's wheel. 

The chairman agreed with Skovorodnikoff, and the appeal 
was rejected. 

Wolf was dissatisfied, especially because it was like being 
caught acting with dishonest partiality; so he pretended to 
be indifferent, and, unfolding the document which contained 
Maslova's case, he became engrossed in it. Meanwhile the 
Senators rang and ordered tea, and began talking about the 
event that, together with the duel, was occupying the Peters- 
burgers. It was the case of the chief of a Government 
department, who was accused of the crime provided for in 
Statute 995. 

" What nastiness," said Bay, with disgust. 

" Why ; where is the harm of it ? I can show you a 
Russian book containing the project of a German writer, 
who openly proposes that it should not be considered a 
crime/' said Skovorodnikoff, drawing in greedily the fumes 
of the crumpled cigarette, which he held between his fingers 
close tc the palm, and he laughed boisterously. 

" Impossible ! " said Bay. 

" I shall show it you," said Skovorodnikoff, giving the 
full title of the book, and even its date and the name of its 

" I hear he has been appointed governor to some town in 

" That's fine. The archdeacon will meet him with a 
crucifix. They ought to appoint an archdeacon of the same 
sort," said Skovorodnikoff. " I could recommend them one," 
and he threw the end of his cigarette into his saucer, and 
again shoved as much of his beard and moustaches as he 
could into his mouth and began chewing them. 

The usher came in and reported the advocate's and Nekh- 
ludofFs desire to be present at the examination of Maslova's 

320 Resurrection 

" This case/' Wolf said, " is quite romantic," and he told 
them what he knew about NekhludofFs relations with Mas- 
lova. When they had spoken a little about it and finished 
their tea and cigarettes, the Senators returned into the Senate 
Chamber and proclaimed their decision in the libel case, 
and began to hear Maslova's case. 

Wolf, in his thin voice, reported Maslova's appeal very 
fully, but again not without some bias and an evident wish 
for the repeal of the sentence. 

" Have you anything to add? " the chairman said, turning 
to Fanarin. Fanarin rose, and standing with his broad 
w r hite chest expanded, proved point by point, with w r onderful 
exactness and persuasiveness, how the Court had in six 
points strayed from the exact meaning of the law ; and 
besides this he touched, though briefly, on the merits of 
the case, and on the crying injustice of the sentence. The 
tone of his speech was one of apology to the Senators, who, 
with their penetration and judicial wisdom, could not help 
seeing and understanding it all better than he could. He 
was obliged to speak only because the duty he had under- 
taken forced him to do so. 

After Fanarin's speech one might have thought that there 
could not remain the least doubt that the Senate ought to 
repeal the decision of the Court. When he had finished his 
speech, Fanarin looked round with a smile of triumph, 
seeing which Nekhludoff felt certain that the case was won. 
But when he looked at the Senators he saw that Fanarin 
smiled and triumphed all alone. The Senators and the Public 
Prosecutor did not smile nor triumph, but looked like people 
wearied, and who were thinking " We have often heard 
the like of you ; it is all in vain," and were only too glad 
when he stopped and ceased uselessly detaining them there. 
Immediately after the end of the advocate's speech the 
chairman turned to the Public Prosecutor. Selenin briefly 
and clearly expressed himself in favour of leaving the deci- 
sion of the Court unaltered, as he considered all the reasons 
for appealing inadequate. After this the Senators went out 
into the debating-room. They were divided in their opin- 
ions, Wolf was in favour of altering the decision. Bay, 
when he had understood the case, took up the same side 
with fervour, vividly presenting the scene at the court to 
his companions as he clearly saw it himself. Nikitin, who 

always was on ths M§ of severity and formality, took up 

Resurrection 32: 

;the other side. All depended on Skovorodnikoff's vote, and 
he voted for rejecting the appeal, because Nekhludoff's 
determination to marry the woman on moral grounds was 
extremely repugnant to him. 

Skovorodnikoff was a materialist, a Darwinian, and 
x counted every manifestation of abstract morality, or, worse 
still, religion, not only as a despicable folly, but as a per- 
sonal affront to himself. All this bother about a prostitute, 
and the presence of a celebrated advocate and Nekhludoff in 
the Senate were in the highest degree repugnant to him. So 
he shoved his beard into his mouth and made faces, and very 
skilfully pretended to know nothing of this case, excepting 
that the reasons for an appeal were insufficient, and that he. 
therefore, agreed with the chairman to leave the decision of 
the Court unaltered. 

So the sentence remained unrepealed. 

■22 Resurrection 



" Terrible," said Nekhludoff, as he went out into the 
waiting-room with the advocate, who was arranging the 
papers in his portfolio. " In a matter which is perfectly 
clear they attach all the importance to the form and reject the 
appeal. Terrible ! " 

" The case was spoiled in the Criminal Court, " said the 

" And Selenin, too, was in favour of the rejection. Terri- 
ble ! terrible ! " Nekhludoff repeated. " What is to be done 
now ? " 

" We will appeal to His Majesty, and you can hand in the 
petition yourself while you are here. I will write it for you." 

At this moment little Wolf, with his stars and uniform, 
came out into the waiting-room and approached Nekhludoff. 
" It could not be helped, dear Prince. The reasons for an 
appeal were not sufficient," he said, shrugging his narrow 
shoulders and closing his eyes, and then he went his way. 

After Wolf, Selenin came out too, having heard from the 
Senators that his old friend Nekhludoff was there. 

" Well, I never expected to see you here," he said, coming 
up to Nekhludoff, and smiling only with his lips while his 
eyes remained sad. " I did not know vou were in Peters- 

" And I did not know you were Public Prosecutor-in- 

" How is it you are in the Senate? " asked Selenin. " I 
had heard, by the way, that you were in Petersburg. But 
what are you doing here ? " 

"Here? I am here because I hoped to find justice and 
save a woman innocently condemned." 

" What woman?" 

" The one whose case has just been decided." 

" Oh ! Maslova's case," said Selenin, suddenly remember- 
ing it. " The appeal had no grounds whatever." 

Resurrection 323 

" It is not the appeal ; it's the woman who is innocent, and 
is being punished." 

Selenin sighed. " That may well be, but-—" 

" Not may be, but is." 

" How do you know ? " 

" Because I was on the jury. I know how we made the 

Selenin became thoughtful. " You should have made a 
statement at the time," he said. 

" I did make the statement." 

" It should have been put down in an official report. If 
this had been added to the petition for the appeal " 

" Yes, but still, as it is, the verdict is evidently absurd." 

" The Senate has no right to say so. If the Senate took 
upon itself to repeal the decision of the law courts according 
to its own views as to the justice of the decisions in them- 
selves, the verdict of the jury would lose all its meaning, not 
to mention that the Senate would have no basis to go upon, 
and would run the risk of infringing justice rather than up- 
holding it," said Selenin, calling to mind the case that had 
just been heard. 

" All I know is that this woman is quite innocent, and 
that the last hope of saving her from an unmerited punish- 
ment is gone. The grossest injustice has been confirmed by 
the highest court." 

" It has not been confirmed. The Senate did not and can- 
not enter into the merits of the case in itself," said Selenin. 
Always busy and rarely going out into society, he had evi- 
dently heard nothing of NekhludofFs romance. Nekhludoff 
noticed it, and made up his mind that it was best to say noth- 
ing about his special relations with Maslova. 

" You are probably staying with your aunt," Selenin re- 
marked, apparently wishing to change the subject. " She 
told me you were here yesterday, and she invited me to meet 
you in the evening, when some foreign preacher was to lec- 
ture," and Selenin again smiled only with his lips. 

" Yes, I was there, but left in disgust," said Nekhludoff 
angrily, vexed that Selenin had changed the subject. 

"Why with disgust? After all, it is a manifestation of 
religious feeling, though one-sided and sectarian," said Sel- 

" Why, it's only some kind of whimsical folly." 

" Oh, dear, no. The curious thing is that we know the 

3 24 Resurrection 

teaching of our church so little that we see some new kind 
of revelation in what are, after all, our own fundamental 
dogmas," said Selenin, as if hurrying to let his old friend 
know his new views. 

Nekhludoff looked at Selenin scrutinisingly and with sur- 
prise, and Selenin dropped his eyes, in which appeared an 
expression not only of sadness but also of ill-will. 

44 Do you, then, believe in the dogmas of the church ?" 
Nekhludoff asked. 

" Of course I do," replied Selenin, gazing straight into 
NekhludofFs eyes with a lifeless look. 

Nekhludoff sighed. " It is strange," he said. 

" However, we shall have a talk some other time," said 
Selenin. " I am coming," he added, in answer to the usher, 
who had respectfully approached him. " Yes, we must meet 
again," he went on with a sigh. " But will it be possible for 
me to find you ? You will always find me in at seven o'clock. 
My address is Nadejdinskaya, and he gave the number. 
" Ah, time does not stand still," and he turned to go, smiling 
only with his lips. 

" I will come if I can," said Nekhludoff, feeling that a man 
once near and dear to him had, by this brief conversation 
suddenly become strange, distant, and incomprehensible, if 
not hostile to him. 

Resurrection 325 



When Nekhliidoff knew Selenin as a student, he was a 
good son, a true friend, and for his years an educated man 
of the world, with much tact ; elegant, handsome, and at the 
same time truthful and honest. He learned well, without 
much exertion and with no pedantry, receiving gold medals 
for his essays. He considered the service of mankind, not 
only in words but in acts, to be the aim of his young life. He 
saw no other way of being useful to humanity than by serv- 
ing the State. Therefore, as soon as he had completed his 
studies, he systematically examined all the activities to which 
he might devote his life, and decided to enter the Second 
Department of the Chancellerie, where the laws are drawn 
up, and he did so. But, in spite of the most scrupulous and 
exact discharge of the duties demanded of him, this service 
gave no satisfaction to his desire of being useful, nor could 
he awake in himself the consciousness that he was doing " the 
right thing." 

This dissatisfaction was so much increased by the friction 
with his very small-minded and vain fellow officials that he 
left the Chancellerie and entered the Senate. It was better 
there, but the same dissatisfaction still pursued him ; he felt 
it to be very different from what he had expected, and from 
what ought to be. 

And now that he was in the Senate his relatives obtained 
for him the post of Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and he 
had to go in a carriage, dressed in an embroidered uniform 
and a white linen apron, to thank all sorts of people for hav- 
ing placed him in the position of a lackey. However much 
he tried he could find no reasonable explanation for the exist- 
ence of this post, and felt, more than in the Senate, that it 
was not " the right thing," and yet he could not refuse it for 
fear of hurting those who felt sure they were giving him 
much pleasure by this appointment, and because it flattered 
the lowest part of his nature. It pleased him to see himself 
in a mirror in his gold-embroidered uniform^ and to accept 

326 Resurrection 

the deference paid him by some people because of his posi- 

Something of the same kind happened when he married. 
A very brilliant match, from a worldly point of view, was ar- 
ranged for him, and he married chiefly because by refusing 
he would have had to hurt the young lady who wished to be 
married to him, and those who arranged the marriage, and 
also because a marriage with a nice young girl of noble birth 
flattered his vanity and gave him pleasure. But this mar- 
riage very soon proved to be even less " the right thing " 
than the Government service and his position at Court. 

After the birth of her first child the wife decided to have 
no more, and began leading that luxurious worldly life in 
which he now had to participate whether he liked or not. 

She was not particularly handsome, and was faithful to 
him, and she seemed, in spite of all the efforts it cost her, 
to derive nothing but weariness from the life she led, yet she 
perseveringly continued to live it, though it was poisoning 
her husband's life. And all his efforts to alter this life was 
shattered, as against a stone wall, by her conviction, which 
all her friends and relatives supported, that all was as it 
should be. 

The child, a little girl with bare legs and long golden 
curls, was a being perfectly foreign to him, chiefly because 
she was trained quite otherwise than he wished her to be. 
There sprung up between the husband and wife the usual 
misunderstanding, without even the wish to understand 
each other, and then a silent warfare, hidden from outsiders 
and tempered by decorum. All this made his life at home a 
burden, and became even less " the right thing " than his 
service and his post. 

But it was above all his attitude towards religion which 
was not " the right thing." Like every one of his set and his 
time, by the growth of his reason he broke without the least 
effort the nets of the religious superstitions in which he was 
brought up, and did not himself exactly know when it was 
that he freed himself of them. Being earnest and upright, 
he did not, during his youth and intimacy with Nekhludoff 
as a student, conceal his rejection of the State religion. But 
as years went on and he rose in the service, and especially 
at the time of the reaction towards conservatism in society, 
his spiritual freedom stood in his way. 

At home, when his father died, he had to be .present at 

Resurrection 327 

the masses said for his soul, and his mother wished him to 
go to confession or to communion, and it was in a way ex- 
pected, by public opinion, but above all, Government ser- 
vice demanded that he should be present at all sorts of ser- 
vices, consecrations, thanksgivings, and the like. Hardly a 
day passed without some outward religious form having to 
be observed. 

When present at these services he had to pretend that he 
believed in something which he did not believe in, and 
being truthful he could not do this. The alternative was, 
having made up his mind that all these outward signs were 
deceitful, to alter his life in such a way that he would not 
have to be present at such ceremonials. But to do what 
seemed so simple would have cost a great deal. Besides 
encountering the perpetual hostility of all those who were 
near to him, he would have to give up the service and his 
position, and sacrifice his hopes of being useful to human- 
ity by his service, now and in the future. To make such a 
sacrifice one would have to be firmly convinced of being 

And he was firmly convinced he was right, as no educated 
man of our time can help being convinced who knows a 
little history and how the religions, and especially Church 
Christianity, originated. 

But under the stress of his daily life he, a truthful man, 
allowed a little falsehood to creep in. He said that in order 
to do justice to an unreasonable thing one had to study the 
unreasonable thing. It was a little falsehood, but it sunk 
him into the big falsehood in which he was now caught. 

Before putting to himself the question whether the ortho- 
doxy in which he was born and bred, and which every one 
expected him to accept, and without which he could not 
continue his useful occupation, contained the truth, he had 
already decided the answer. And to clear up the question 
he did not read Voltaire, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, 
or Comte, but the philosophical works of Hegel and the 
religious works of Vinet and Khomyakoff, and naturally 
found in them what he wanted, i.e., something like peace of 
mind and a vindication of that religious teaching in which 
he was educated, which his reason had long ceased to ac- 
cept, but without which his whole life was filled with un- 
pleasantness which could all be removed by accepting the 

328 Resurrection 

And so he adopted all the usual sophistries which go to 
prove that a single human reason cannot know the truth, 
that the truth is only revealed to an association of men, and 
can only be known by revelation, that revelation is kept by 
the church, etc. And so he managed to be present at 
prayers, masses for the dead, to confess, make signs of the 
cross in front of icons, with a quiet mind, without being 
conscious of the lie, and to continue in the service which 
gave him the feeling of being useful and some comfort in 
his joyless family life. Although he believed this, he felt 
with his entire being that this religion of his, more than 
all else, was not " the right thing," and that is why his eyes 
always looked sad. 

And seeing Nekhhidoff, whom he had known before all 
these lies had rooted themselves within him, reminded him 
of what he then was. It was especially after he had hurried 
to hint at his religious views that he had most strongly felt 
all this " not the right thing/' and had become painfully 
sad. Nekhltidoff felt it also after the first joy of meeting 
his old friend had passed, and therefore, though they prom- 
ised each other to meet, they did not take any steps towards 
an interview, and did not again see each other during this 
stay of NekhludofFs in Petersburg. 

Resurrection 3 29 



When they left the Senate, Nekhludoff and the advocate 
walked on together, the advocate having given the driver 
of his carriage orders to follow them. The advocate told 
Nekhludoff the story of the chief of a Government depart- 
ment, about whom the Senators had been talking : how the 
thing was found out, and how the man, who according to 
law should have been sent to the mines, had been appointed 
Governor of a town in Siberia. Then he related with par- 
ticular pleasure how several high-placed persons stole a lot 
of money collected for the erection of the still unfinished 
monument which they had passed that morning ; also, how 
the mistress of So-and-so got a lot of money at the Stock 
Exchange, and how So-and-so agreed with So-and-so to 
sell him his wife. The advocate began another story about 
a swindle, and all sorts of crimes committed by persons in 
high places, who, instead of being in prison, sat on presi- 
dential chairs in all sorts of Government institutions. These 
tales, of which the advocate seemed to have an unending 
supply, gave him much pleasure, showing as they did, with 
perfect clearness, that his means of getting money were 
quite just and innocent compared to the means which the 
highest officials in Petersburg made use of. The advocate 
was therefore surprised when Nekhludoff took an isvostchik 
before hearing the end of the story, said good-bye, and left 
him. Nekhludoff felt very sad. It was chiefly the rejection 
of the appeal by the Senate, confirming the senseless tor- 
ments that the innocent Maslova was enduring, that sad- 
dened him, and also the fact that this rejection made it still 
harder for him to unite his fate with hers. The stories about 
existing evils, which the advocate recounted with such 
relish, heightened his sadness, and so did the cold, unkind 
look that the once sweet-natured, frank, noble Selenin had 
given him, and which kept recurring to his mind. 

On his return the doorkeeper handed him a note, and 
said # rather scornfully, that some kind of woman had writ- 

330 Resurrection 

ten it in the hall. It was a note from Shoiistova's mother. 
She wrote that she had come to thank her daughter's bene- 
factor and saviour, and to implore him to come to see them 
on the Vasilievsky, 5th Line, house No. ■ — . This was very 
necessary because of Vera Doukhova. He need not be 
afraid that they would weary him with expressions of grati- 
tude. They would not speak their gratitude, but be simply 
glad to see him. Would he not come next morning, if he 
could ? 

There was another note from Bogotyreff, a former fellow- 
officer, aide-de-camp to the Emperor, whom Nekhludoff had 
asked to hand personally to the Emperor his petition on 
behalf of the sectarians. Bogotyreff wrote, in his large, 
firm hand, that he would put the petition into the Emperor's 
own hands, as he had promised ; but that it had occurred to 
him that it might be better for Nekhludoff first to go and 
see the person on whom the matter depended. 

After the impressions received during the last few days, 
Nekhludoff felt perfectly hopeless of getting anything done. 
The plans he had formed in Moscow seemed now something 
like the dreams of youth, which are inevitably followed by 
disillusion when life comes to be faced. Still, being now in 
Petersburg, he considered it his duty to do all he had in- 
tended, and he resolved next day, after consulting Bogo- 
tyreff, to act on his advice and see the person on whom the 
case of the sectarians depended. 

He got out the sectarians' petition from his portfolio, and 
began reading it over, when there was a knock at his door, 
and a footman came in with a message from the Countess 
Katerina Ivanovna, who asked him to come up and have 
a cup of tea with her. 

Nekhludoff said he would come at once, and having put 
the papers back into the portfolio, he went up to his aunt's. 
He looked out of a window on his way, and saw Mariette's 
pair of bays standing in front of the house, and he suddenly 
brightened and felt inclined to smile. 

Mariette, with a hat on her head, not in black but with 
a light dress of many shades, sat with a cup in her hand 
beside the Countess's easy chair, prattling about something 
while her beautiful, laughing eyes glistened. She had said 
something funny — something indecently funny — just as 
Nekhludoff entered the room. He knew it bv the way she 
laughed, and by the way the good-natured Countess Kate 

Resurrection 331 

r?na Ivanovna's fat body was shaking with laughter ; while 
Mariette, her smiling mouth slightly drawn to one side, her 
head a little bent, a peculiarly mischievous expression in 
her merry, energetic face, sat silently looking at her com- 
panion. From a few words which he overheard, Nekhludoff 
guessed that they were talking of the second piece of Peters- 
burg news, the episode of the Siberian Governor, and that 
it was in reference to this subject that Mariette had said 
something so funny that the Countess could not control 
herself for a long time. 

" You will kill me," she said, coughing. 

After saying How d'you do ? " Nekhludoff sat down. 
He was about to censure Mariette in his mind for her 
levity when, noticing the serious and even slightly dissatis- 
fied look in his eyes, she suddenly, to please him, changed 
not only the expression of her face, but also the attitude 
of her mind ; for she felt the wish to please him as soon as 
she looked at him. She suddenly turned serious, dissatisfied 
with her life, as if seeking and striving after something; 
it was not that she pretended, but she really reproduced in 
herself the very same state of mind that he was in, al- 
though it would have been impossible for her to express 
in words what was the state of Nekhludoff's mind at that 

She asked him how he had accomplished his tasks. He 
told her about his failure in the Senate and his meeting 

" Oh, what a pure soul ! He is, indeed, a chevalier sans 
penr et sans reproche. A pure soul ! " said both ladies, using 
the epithet commonly applied to Selenin in Petersburg 

" What is his wife like? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" His wife? Well, I do not wish to judge, but she does 
not understand him." 

" Is it possible that he, too, was for rejecting the appeal? " 
Mariette asked with real sympathy. " It is dreadful. How 
sorry I am for her," she added with a sigh. 

He frowned, and in order to change the subject began 
to speak about Shoustova, who had been imprisoned in 
the fortress and was now set free through the influence 
of Mariette's husband. He thanked her for her trouble, 
and was going on to say how dreadful he thought it, that 
this woman and the whole of her family had suffered merely 

332 Resurrection 

because no one had reminded the authorities about them, 
but Mariette interrupted him and expressed her own indig- 

" Say nothing* about it to me," she said. " When my 
husband told me she could be set free, it was this that struck 
me, * What was she kept in prison for if she is innocent? ' " 
She went on expressing what Nekhludoff was about to sayr 
" It is revolting — revolting." 

Countess Katerina Ivanovna noticed that Mariette was 
coquetting with her nephew, and this amused her. " What 
do you think ? " she said, when they were silent. " Suppos- 
ing you come to Aline's to-morrow night. Kiesewetter will 
be there. And you, too," she said, turning to Mariette. " // 
vous a remarque/' she went on to her nephew. " He told 
me that what you say (I repeated it all to him) is a very 
good sign, and that you will certainly come to Christ. You 
must come absolutely. Tell him to, Mariette, and come 

" Countess, in the first place, I have no right whatever 
to give any kind of advice to the Prince," said Mariette, 
and gave Nekhludoff a look that somehow established a full 
comprehension between them of their attitude in relation 
to the Countess's words and evangelicalism in general. 
" Secondly, I do not much care, you know." 

" Yes, I know you always do things the wrong way round, 
and according to your own ideas." 

" My own ideas ? I have faith like the most simple peas- 
ant woman," said Mariette with a smile. " And, thirdly. 
I am going to the French Theatre to-morrow night." 

" Ah ! And have you seen that What's her name ? " 

asked Countess Katerina Ivanovna. Mariette gave the name 
of a celebrated French actress. 

** You must go, most decidedly ; she is wonderful." 

" Whom am I to see first, ma tante — the actress or the 
preacher? " Nekhludoff said with a smile. 

" Please don't catch at my words." 

" I should think the preacher first and then the actress, 
or else the desire for the sermon might vanish altogether," 
said Nekhludoff. 

" No ; better begin with the French Theatre, and do pen- 
ance afterwards." 

" Now, then, you are not to hold me up for ridicule. The 
preacher is the preacher and the theatre is the theatre. 

Resurrection • 333 

One need not weep in order to be saved. One must have 
faith, and then one is sure to be gay." 

" You, ma tante, preach better than any preacher." 

"Do you know what?" said Mariette. " Come into my 
box to-morrow." 

" I am afraid I shall not be able to." 

The footman interrupted the conversation by announcing 
a visitor. It was the secretary of a philanthropic society of 
which the Countess was president. 

" Oh, that is the dullest of men. I think I shall receive 
him out there, and return to you later on. Mariette, give 
him his tea," said the Countess, and left the room, with her 
quick, wriggling walk. 

Mariette took the glove off her firm, rather flat hand, the 
fourth finger of which was covered with rings. 

" Want any?" she said, taking hold of the silver teapot, 
under which a spirit lamp was burning, and extending her 
little finger curiously. Her face looked sad and serious. 

" It is always terribly painful to me to notice that people 
whose opinion I value confound me with the position I am 
placed in." She seemed ready to cry as she said these last 
words. And though these words had no meaning, or at any 
rate a very indefinite meaning, they seemed to be of excep- 
tional depth, meaning, or goodness to Nekhludoff, so much 
was he attracted by the look of the bright eyes which accom- 
panied the words of this young, beautiful, and well-dressed 

Nekhludoff looked at her in silence, and could not take 
his eyes from her face. 

" You think I do not understand you and all that goes 
on in you. Why, everybody knows what you are doing. 
C'est le secret de polichinelle. And I am delighted with 
your work, and think highly of you." 

" Really, there is nothing to be delighted with ; and I have 
done so little as yet." 

" No matter. I understand your feelings, and I under- 
stand her. All right, all right. I will say nothing more 
about it," she said, noticing displeasure on his face. " But I 
also understand that after seeing all the suffering and the 
horror in the prisons," Mariette went on, her only desire 
that of attracting him, and guessing with her woman's in- 
stinct what was dear and important to him, " you wish to 
help the sufferers, those who are made to suffer so terribly 

334 Resurrection 

by other men, and their cruelty and indifference. I under* 
stand the willingness to give one's life, and could give mine 
in such a cause, but we each have our own fate." 

" Are you, then, dissatisfied with your fate? " 

" I ? " she asked, as if struck with surprise that such a 
question could be put to her. " I have to be satisfied, and am 
satisfied. But there is a worm that wakes up " 

" And he must not be allowed to fall asleep again. It is a 
voice that must be obeyed," Nekhludoff said, falling into the 

Many a time later on Nekhludoff remembered with shame 
his talk with her. He remembered her words, which were 
not so much lies as imitations of his own, and her face, which 
seemed looking at him with sympathetic attention when he 
told her about the terrors of the prison and of his impres- 
sions in the country. 

When the Countess returned they were talking not merely 
like old, but like exclusive friends who alone understood one 
another. They were talking about the injustice of power, 
of the sufferings of the unfortunate, the poverty of the peo- 
ple, yet in reality in the midst of the sound of their talk their 
eyes, gazing at each other, kept asking, " Can you love me ? " 
and answering, " I can," and the sex-feeling, taking the most 
unexpected and brightest forms, drew them to each other. 
As she was going away she told him that she would always 
be willing to serve him in any way she could, and asked him 
to come and see her, if only for a moment, in the theatre next 
day, as she had a very important thing to tell him about. 

" Yes, and when shall I see you again ? " she added, with 
a sigh, carefully drawing the glove over her jewelled hand. 
" Say you will come." 

Nekhludoff promised. 

That night, when Nekhludoff was alone in his room, and 
lay down after putting out his candle, he could not sleep. He 
thought of Maslova, of the decision of the Senate, of his re- 
solve to follow her in any case, of his having given up the 
land. The face of Mariette appeared to him as if in answer 
to those thoughts — her look, her sigh, her words, " When 
shall I see you again ? " and her smile seemed vivid as if he 
really saw her, and he also smiled. " Shall I be doing right 
in going to Siberia ? And have I done right in divesting my- 
self of my wealth? " And the answers to the questions on 
this Petersburg night, on which the daylight streamed into 

Resurrection 335 

the window £rom under the blind, were quite indefinite. All 
seemed mixed in his head. He recalled his former state of 
mind, and the former sequence of his thoughts, but they had 
no longer their former power or validity. 

" And supposing I have invented all this, and am unable to 
live it through — supposing I repent of having acted right," 
he thought ; and unable to answer he was seized with such 
anguish and despair as he had long not felt. Unable to free 
himself from his perplexity, he fell into a heavy sleep, such as 
he had slept after a heavy loss at cards. 

336 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff awoke next morning feeling as if he had 
been guilty of some iniquity the day before. He began con- 
sidering. He could not remember having done anything 
wrong; he had committed no evil act, but he had had evil 
thoughts. He had thought that all his present resolutions to 
marry Katusha and to give up his land were unachievable 
dreams ; that he should be unable to bear it ; that it was arti- 
ficial, unnatural ; and that he w r ould have to go on living as 
he lived. 

He had committed no evil action, but, what was far worse 
than an evil action, he had entertained evil thoughts whence 
all evil actions proceed. An evil action may not be repeated, 
and can be repented of; but evil thoughts generate all evil 

An evil action only smooths the path for other evil acts ; 
evil thoughts uncontrollably drag one along that path. 

When Nekhludoff repeated in his mind the thoughts of the 
day before, he was surprised that he could for a moment 
have believed these thoughts. However new and difficult 
that which he had decided to do might be, he knew that it 
was the only possible way of life for him now, and however 
easy and natural it might have been to return to his former 
state, he knew that state to be death. 

Yesterday's temptation seemed like the feeling when one 
awakes from deep sleep, and, without feeling sleepy, wants 
to lie comfortably in bed a little longer, yet knows that it is 
time to rise and commence the glad and important work that 
awaits one. 

On that, his last day in Petersburg, he went in the morn- 
ing to the Vasilievski Ostrov to see Shoustova. Shoustova 
lived on the second floor, and having been shown the back 
stairs, Nekhludoff entered straight into the hot kitchen, 
which smelt strongly of food. An elderly woman, with 
tttrned-up sleeves, with an apron and spectacles, stood by the 
fire stirring something in a steaming pan, 

Resurrection 337 

" Whom do you want ? " she asked severely, looking- at 
him over her spectacles. 

Before Nekhliidoff had time to answer, an expression of 
fright and joy appeared on her face. 

" Oh, Prince ! " she exclaimed, wiping her hands on her 
apron. " But why have you come the back way ? Our Ben- 
efactor ! I am her mother. They have nearly killed my little 
girl. You have saved us," she said, catching hold of Nekh- 
liidoff's hand and trying to kiss it. 

" I went to see you yesterday. My sister asked me to. She 
is here. This way, this way, please," said Shoustova's 
mother, as she led the way through a narrow door, and a 
dark passage, arranging her hair and pulling at her tucked- 
up skirt. " My sister's name is Kornilova. You must have 
heard of her," she added, stopping before a closed door. 
" She was mixed up in a political affair. An extremely clever 
woman ! " 

Shoiistova's mother opened the door and showed Nekh- 
liidoff into a little room where on a sofa with a table before 
it sat a plump, short girl with fair hair that curled round her 
pale, round face, which was very like her mother's. She had 
a striped cotton blouse on. 

Opposite her, in an armchair, leaning forward, so that he 
was nearly bent double, sat a young fellow with a slight, 
black beard and moustaches. 

" Lydia, Prince Nekhliidoff ! " he said. 

The pale girl jumped up, nervously pushing back a lock 
of hair behind her ear, and gazing at the newcomer with a 
frightened look in her large, grey eyes. 

" So you are that dangerous woman whom Vera Doiik- 
hova wished me to intercede for?" Nekhliidoff asked, with 
a smile. 

" Yes, I am," said Lydia Shoiistova, her broad, kind, child- 
like smile disclosing a row of beautiful teeth. " It was aunt 
who was so anxious to see you. Aunt ! " she called out, in a 
pleasant, tender voice through a door. 

" Your imprisonment grieved Vera Doiikhova very 
much," said Nekhliidoff. 

" Take a seat here, or better here," said Shoiistova, point- 
ing, to the battered easy-chair from which the young man 
had just risen. 

" My cousin, Zakharov," she said, noticing that Nekhlii- 
doff looked at the young: man. 

33 8 


The young man greeted the visitor with a smile as kindly 
as Shoiistova's, and when Nekhludoff sat down he brought 
himself another chair, and sat by his side. A fair-haired 
schoolboy of about 16 also came into the room and silently 
sat down on the window-sill. 

"Vera Doiikhova is a great friend of my aunt's, but I 
hardly know her," said Shoiistova. 

Then a woman with a very pleasant face, with a white 
blouse and leather belt, came in from the next room. 

"How do you do? Thanks for coming," she began as 
soon as she had taken the place next Shoiistova's on the 

"Well, and how is Vera. You have seen her? How 
does she bear her fate ? " 

" She does not complain," said Nekhludoff. " She says 
she feels perfectly happy." 

" Ah, that's like Vera. I know her," said the aunt, smiling 
and shaking her head. " One must know her. She has a 
fine character. Everything for others ; nothing for herself." 

" No, she asked nothing for herself, but only seemed con- 
cerned about your niece. What seemed to trouble her most 
was, as she said, that your niece was imprisoned for noth- 

" Yes, that's true," said the aunt. " It is a dreadful busi- 
ness. She suffered, in reality, because of me." 

" Not at all, aunt. I should have taken the papers with- 
out you all the same/ 1 

" Allow me to know better," said the aunt. " You see," 
she went on to Nekhludoff, " it all happened because a cer- 
tain person asked me to keep his papers for a time ; and I, 
having no house at the time, brought them to her. And 
that very night the police searched her room and took her 
and the papers, and have kept her up to now, demanding 
that she should say from whom she had them." 

" But I never told them," said Shoiistova quickly, pulling 
nervously at a lock that was not even out of place. 

" I never said you did," answered the aunt. 

" If they took Mitin up, it was certainly not through me," 
said Shoiistova, blushing, and looking round uneasily. 

" Don't speak about it, Lydia dear," said her mother. 

K Why not ? I should like to relate it," said Shoiistova, 
no longer smiling nor pulling her lock, but twisting it rou^4 
her finger and getting redder. 

Resurrection 339 

" Don't forget what happened yesterday when you began 
talking about it." 

" Not at all Leave me alone, mamma. I did not 

tell, I only kept quiet. When he examined me about Mitin 
and about aunt, I said nothing, and told him I would not 

" Then this— Petrov " 

" Petrov is a spy, a gendarme, and a blackguard/* put in 
the aunt, to explain her niece's words to Nekhludofr. 

" Then he began persuading/' continued Shoustova, ex- 
citedly and hurriedly. " ' Anything you tell me/ he said, 
1 can harm no one ; on the contrary, if you tell me, we may 
be able to set free innocent people whom we may be use- 
lessly tormenting.' Well, I still said I would not tell. Then 
he said, ' All right, don't tell, but do not deny what I am 
going to say/ And he named Mitin." 

" Don't talk about it," said the aunt. 

" Oh, aunt, don't interrupt," and she went on pulling the 
lock of hair and looking round. " And then, only fancy, 
the next day I hear — they let me know by knocking at trk 
wall — that Mitin is arrested. Well, I think I have betrayed 
him, and this tormented me so — it tormented me so that l 
nearly went mad." 

" And it turned out that it was not at all because of you 
he was taken up ? " 

" Yes, but I didn't know. I think, ' There, now, I have 
betrayed him/ I walk and walk up and down from wall to 
wall, and cannot help thinking. I think, ' I have betrayed 
him/ I lie down and cover myself up, and hear something 
whispering, ' Betrayed ! betrayed Mitin ! Mitin betrayed ! ' 
I know it is an hallucination, but cannot help listening. I 
wish to fall asleep, I cannot. I wish not to think, and can- 
not cease. That is terrible ! " and as Shoustova spoke she 
got more and more excited, and twisted and untwisted the 
lock of hair round her finger. 

" Lydia, dear, be calm," the mother said, touching her 

But Shoustova could not stop herself. 

" It is all the more terrible " she began again, but 

did not finish, and jumping up with a cry rushed out of the 

Her mother turned to follow her. 

34^ Resurrection 

" They ought to be hanged, the rascals ! " said the school- 
boy who was sitting on the window-sill. 

u What's that? w said the mother. 

" I only said Oh, it's nothing," the schoolboy 

answered, and taking a cigarette that lay on the table, he 
began to smoke. 

Resurrection 341 


lydia's aunt, 

" Yes, that solitary confinement is terrible for the young," 
said the aunt, shaking her head and also lighting a cigarette. 

" I should say for every one/' Nekhludoff replied. 

" No, not for all," answered the aunt. " For the real rev- 
olutionists, I have been told, it is rest and quiet. A man 
who is wanted by the police lives in continual anxiety, 
material want, and fear for himself and others, and for his 
cause, and at last, when he is taken up and it is all over, and 
all responsibility is off his shoulders, he can sit and rest. I 
have been told they actually feel joyful when taken up. But 
the young and innocent (they always first arrest the inno- 
cent, like Lydia), for them the first shock is terrible. It is 
not that they deprive you of freedom ; and the bad food and 
bad air — all that is nothing. Three times as many priva- 
tions would be easily borne if it were not for the moral 
shock when one is first taken." 

" Have you experienced it? " 

" I ? I was twice in prison," she answered, with a sad, 
gentle smile. " When I was arrested for the first time I had 
done nothing. I was 22, had a child, and was expecting 
another. Though the loss of freedom and the parting with 
my child and husband were hard, they were nothing when 
compared with what I felt when I found out that I had 
ceased being a human creature and had become a thing. I 
wished to say good-bye to my little daughter. I was told to 
go and get into the trap. I asked where I was being taken 
to. The answer was that I should know when I got there. 
I asked what I was accused of, but got no reply. After I 
had been examined, and after they had undressed me and 
put numbered prison clothes on me, they led me to a vault, 
opened a door, pushed me in, and left me alone ; a sentinel, 
with a loaded gun, paced up and down in front of my door, 
and every now and then looked in through a crack — I felt 
terribly depressed. What struck me most at the time was 
that the gendarme officer who examined me offered me a 

342 Resurrection 

cigarette. So he knew that people liked smoking, and must 
know that they liked freedom and light ; and that mothers 
love their children, and children their mothers. Then how 
could they tear me pitilessly from all that was dear to me, 
and lock me up in prison like a wild animal? That sort of 
thing could not be borne without €vil effects. Any one who 
believes in God and men, and believes that men love one 
another, will cease to believe it after all that. I have ceased 
to believe in humanity since then, and have grown embit- 
tered," she finished, with a smile. 

Shoustova's mother came in at the door through which 
her daughter had gone out, and said that Lydia was very 
much upset, and would not come in again. 

" And what has this young life been ruined for? " said the 
aunt. " What is especially painful to me is that I am the 
involuntary cause of it." 

" She will recover in the country, with God's help," said 
the mother. " We shall send her to her father." 

" Yes, if it were not for you she would have perished al- 
together," said the aunt. " Thank you. But what I wished 
to see you for is this : I wished to ask you to take a letter to 
Vera Doukhova," and she got the letter out of her pocket. 
" The letter is not closed ; you may read and tear it up, or 
hand it to her, according to how far it coincides with your 
principles," she said. " It contains nothing compromising." 

Nekhludoff took the letter, and, having promised to give 
it to Vera Doukhova, he took his leave and went away. He 
sealed the letter without reading it, meaning to take it to its 

Resurrection 343 



The last thing that kept Nekhludoff in Petersburg was 
the case of the sectarians, whose petition he intended to get 
his former fellow-officer, Aide-de-camp Bogatyreff, to hand 
to the Tsar. He came to Bogatyreff in the morning, and 
found him about to go out, though still at breakfast. Boga- 
tyreff was not tall, but firmly built and wonderfully strong 
(he could bend a horseshoe), a kind, honest, straight, and 
even liberal man. In spite of these qualities, he was intimate 
at Court, and very fond of the Tsar and his family, and by 
some strange method he managed, while living in that high- 
est circle, to see nothing but the good in it and to take no 
part in the evil and corruption. He never condemned any- 
body nor any measure, and either kept silent or spoke in a 
bold, loud voice, almost shouting what he had to say, and 
often laughing in the same boisterous manner. And he did 
not do it for diplomatic reasons, but because such was his 

" Ah, that's right that you have come. Would you like 
some breakfast ? Sit down, the beefsteaks are fine ! I always 
begin with something substantial — begin and finish, too. 
Ha ! ha ! ha ! Well, then, have a glass of wine," he shouted, 
pointing to a decanter of claret. " I have been thinking of 
you. I will hand on the petition. I shall put it into his own 
hands. You may count on that, only it occurred to me that 
it would be best for you to call on Toporoff." 

Nekhludoff made a wry face at the mention of Toporoff. 

" It all depends on him. He will be consulted, anyhow. 
And perhaps he may himself meet your wishes." 

" If you advise it I shall go." 

" That's right. Well, and how does Petersburg agree with 
you ? " shouted Bogatyreff. " Tell me. Eh ? " 

" I feel myself getting hypnotised," replied Nekhludoff. 

" Hypnotised ! " Bogatyreff repeated, and burst out laugh- 
ing. " You won't have anything? Well, just as you please," 
and he wiped his moustaches with his napkin. " Then you'll 

344 Resurrection 

go ? Eh ? If he does not do it, give the petition to me, and 
I shall hand it on to-morrow. " Shouting these words, he 
rose, crossed himself just as naturally as he had wiped his 
mouth, and began buckling on his sword. 

" And now good-bye ; I must go. We are both going out," 
said Nekhludoff, and shaking BogatyrefFs strong, broad 
hand, and with the sense of pleasure which the impression of 
something healthy and unconsciously fresh always gave him, 
Nekhludoff parted from Bogatyreff on the door-steps. 

Though he expected no good result from his visit, still 
Nekhludoff, following BogatyrefFs advice, went to see To- 
poroff, on whom the sectarians' fate depended. 

The position occupied by Toporoff, involving as it did an 
incongruity of purpose, could only be held by a dull man 
devoid of moral sensibility. Toporoff possessed both these, 
negative qualities. The incongruity of the position he oc- 
cupied was this : It was his duty to keep up and to defend, 
by external measures, not excluding violence, that Church 
which, by its own declaration, was established by God Him- 
self and could not be shaken by the gates of hell nor by any- 
thing human. This divine and immutable God-established 
institution had to be sustained and defended by a human in- 
stitution — the Holy Synod, managed by Toporoff and his 
officials. Toporoff did not see this contradiction, nor did 
he wish to see it, and he was therefore much concerned lest 
some Romish priest, some pastor, or some sectarian should 
destroy that Church which the gates of hell could not con- 

Toporoff, like all those who are quite destitute of the fun- 
damental religious feeling that recognises the equality and 
brotherhood of men, was fully convinced that the common 
people were creatures entirely different from himself, and 
that the people needed what he could very well do without, 
for at the bottom of his heart he believed in nothing, and 
found such a state very convenient and pleasant. Yet he 
feared lest the people might also come to such a state, and 
looked upon it as his sacred duty, as he called it, to save the 
people therefrom. 

A certain cookery book declares that some crabs like to be 
boiled alive. In the same way he thought and spoke as if 
the people liked being kept in superstition ; only he meant 
this in a literal sense, whereas the cookery book did not mean 
its words literally. 

Resurrection 345 

His feelings towards the religion he was keeping up were 
the same as those of the poultry-keeper towards the carrion 
he fed his fowls on. Carrion was very disgusting, but the 
fowls liked it ; therefore it was right to feed the fowls on car- 
rion. Of course all this worship of the images of the Iberian, 
Kasan and Smolensk Mothers of God was a gross supersti- 
tion, but the people liked it and believed in it, and therefore 
the superstition must be kept up. 

Thus thought Toporoff, not considering that the people 
only liked superstition because there always have been, and 
still are, men like himself who, being enlightened, instead of 
using their light to help others to struggle out of their dark 
ignorance, use it to plunge them still deeper into it. 

When Nekhludoff entered the reception-room Toporoff 
was in his study talking with an abbess, a lively and aristo- 
cratic lady, who wag spreading the Greek orthodox faith in 
Western Russia among the Uniates (who acknowledge the 
Pope of Rome), and who have the Greek religion enforced 
on them. An official who was in the reception-room inquired 
what Nekhludoff wanted, and when he heard that Nekhlu- 
doff meant to hand in a petition to the Emperor, he asked 
him if he would allow the petition to be read first. Nekhlu- 
doff gave it him, and the official took it into the study. The 
abbess, with her hood and flowing veil and her long train 
trailing behind, left the study and went out, her white hands 
(with their well-tended nails) holding a topaz rosary. Nekh- 
ludoff was not immediately asked to come in. Toporoff was 
reading the petition and shaking his head. He was unpleas- 
antly surprised by the clear and emphatic wording of it. 

" If it gets into the hands of the Emperor it may cause 
misunderstandings, and unpleasant questions may be asked," 
he thought as he read. Then he put the petition on the table, 
rang, and ordered Nekhludoff to be asked in. 

He remembered the case of the sectarians ; he had had a 
petition from them before. The case was this : These Chris- 
tians, fallen away from the Greek Orthodox Church, were 
first exhorted and then tried by law, but were acquitted. 
Then the Archdeacon and the Governor arranged, on the 
plea that their marriages were illegal, to exile these sec- 
tarians, separating the husbands, wives, and children. These 
fathers and wives were now petitioning that they should not 
be parted. Toporoff recollected the first time the case came 
to hi£ notice ; he had at that time hesitated whether he had 

34^ Resurrection 

not better put a stop to it. But then he thought no harm 
could result from his confirming the decision to separate and 
exile the different members of the sectarian families, whereas 
allowing the peasant sect to remain where it was might have 
a bad effect on the rest of the inhabitants of the place and 
cause them to fall away from Orthodoxy. And then the 
affair also proved the zeal of the Archdeacon, and so he let 
the case proceed along the lines it had taken. But now that 
they had a defender such as Nekhliidoff, who had some in- 
fluence in Petersburg, the case might be specially pointed out 
to the Emperor as something cruel, or it might get into the 
foreign papers. Therefore he at once took an unexpected 

" How do you do ? " he said, with the air of a very busy 
man, receiving Nekhliidoff standing, and at once starting on 
the business. " I know this case. As soon as I saw the 
names I recollected this unfortunate business," he said, tak- 
ing up the petition and showing it to Nekhliidoff. " And I 
am much indebted to you for reminding me of it. It is the 
over-zealousness of the provincial authorities." 

Nekhliidoff stood silent, looking with no kindly feelings 
at the immovable, pale mask of a face before him. 

" And I shall give orders that these measures should be 
revoked and the people reinstated in their homes." 

" So that I need not make use of this petition ? " 

" / promise you most assuredly," answered Toporoff, 
laying a stress on the word I, as if quite convinced that his 
honesty, his word was the best guarantee. " It will be best 
if I write at once. Take a seat, please." 

He went up to the table and began to write. As Nekh- 
liidoff sat down he looked at the narrow, bald skull, at the 
fat, blue-veined hand that was swiftly guiding the pen, and 
wondered why this evidently indifferent man was doing 
what he did and why he was doing it with such care. 

" Well, here you are," said Toporoff, sealing the en- 
velope ; " you may let your clients know," and he stretched 
his lips to imitate a smile. 

"Then what did these people suffer for?" Nekhliidoff 
asked, as he took the envelope. 

Toporoff raised his head and smiled, as if Nekhliidoff's 
question gave him pleasure. " That I cannot tell. All I 
can say is that the interests of the people guarded by us are 
$o important that too great a zeal in matters of religion is 

Resurrection 347 

not so dangerous or so harmful as the indifference which is 
now spreading " 

" But how is it that in the name of religion the very first 
demands of righteousness are violated — families are sep- 

Toporoff continued to smile patronisingly, evidently 
thinking what Nekhludoff said very pretty. Anything that 
Nekhludoff could say he would have considered very pretty 
and very one-sided, from the height of what he considered 
his far-reaching office in the State. 

" It may seem so from the point of view of a private in- 
dividual/' he said, " but from an administrative point of 
view it appears in a rather different light. However, I must 
bid you good-bye, now," said Toporoff, bowing his head and 
holding out his hand, which Nekhludoff pressed. 

" The interests of the people ! Your interests is what you 
mean ! " thought Nekhludoff as he went out. And he ran 
over in his mind the people in whom is manifested the activ- 
ity of the institutions that uphold religion and educate the 
people. He began with the woman punished for the illicit 
sale of spirits, the boy for theft, the tramp for tramping, the 
incendiary for setting a house on fire, the banker for fraud, 
and that unfortunate Lydia Shoustova imprisoned only be- 
cause they hoped to get such information as they required 
from her. Then he thought of the sectarians punished for 
violating Orthodoxy, and Gourkevitch for wanting con- 
stitutional government, and Nekhludoff clearly saw that all 
these people were arrested, locked up, exiled, not really be- 
cause they transgressed against justice or behaved unlaw- 
fully, but only because they were an obstacle hindering the 
officials and the rich from enjoying the property they had 
taken away from the people. And the woman who sold 
wine without having a license, and the thief knocking about 
the town, and Lydia Shoustova hiding proclamations, and 
the sectarians upsetting superstitions, and Gourkevitch de- 
siring a constitution, were a real hindrance. It seemed per- 
fectly clear to Nekhludoff that all these officials, beginning 
with his aunt's husband, the Senators, and Toporoff, down 
to those clean and correct gentlemen who sat at the tables 
in the Ministry Office, were not at all troubled by the fact 
that in such a state of things the innocent had to suffer, but 
were only concerned how to get rid of the really dangerous, 
so that the rule that ten guilty should escape rather than 

348 Resurrection 

that one innocent should be condemned was not observed, 
but, on the contrary, for the sake of getting rid of one really 
dangerous person, ten who seemed dangerous were pun- 
ished, as, when cutting a rotten piece out of anything, one 
has to cut away some that is good. 

This explanation seemed very simple and clear to Nekh- 
ludoff ; but its very simplicity and clearness made him hesi- 
tate to accept it. Was it possible that so complicated a 
phenomenon could have so simple and terrible an explana- 
tion ? Was it possible that all these words about justice, law, 
religion, and God, and so on, were mere words, hiding the 
coarsest cupidity and cruelty ? 

Resurrection 349 



Nekhludoff would have left Petersburg on the evening 
of the same day, but he had promised Mariette to meet her 
at the theatre, and though he knew that he ought not to 
keep that promise, he deceived himself into the belief that 
it would not be right to break his word. 

" Am I capable of withstanding these temptations ? " he 
asked himself, not quite honestly. " I shall try for the last 

He dressed in his evening clothes, and arrived at the 
theatre during the second act of the eternal Dame aux 
Camelias, in which a foreign actress once again, and in a 
novel manner, showed how women die of consumption. 

The theatre was quite full. Mariette's box was at once, 
and with great deference, shown to Nekhludoff at his re- 
quest. A liveried servant stood in the corridor outside ; he 
bowed to Nekhludoff as to one whom he knew, and opened 
the door of the box. 

All the people who sat and stood in the boxes on the op- 
posite side, those who sat near and those who were in the 
parterre, with their grey, grizzly, bald, or curly heads — all 
were absorbed in watching the thin, bony actress who, 
dressed in silks and laces, was wriggling before them, and 
speaking in an unnatural voice. 

Some one called " Hush ! " when the door opened, and 
two streams, one of cool, the other of hot, air touched Nekh- 
liidofFs face. 

Mariette and a lady whom he did not know, with a red 
cape and a big, heavy head-dress, were in the box, and two 
men also, Mariette's husband, the General, a tall, handsome 
man with a severe, inscrutable countenance, a Roman nose, 
and a uniform padded round the chest, and a fair man, with 
a bit of shaved chin between pompous whiskers. 

Mariette, graceful, slight, elegant, her low-necked dress 
showing her firm, shapely, slanting shoulders, with a little 

3 50 Resurrection 

black mole where they joined her neck, immediately turned, 
and pointed with her face to a chair behind her in an engag- 
ing manner, and smiled a smile that seemed full of meaning 
to Nekhludoff. 

The husband looked at him in the quiet way in which he 
did everything, and bowed. In the look he exchanged with 
his wife, the master, the owner of a beautiful woman, was 
to be seen at once. 

When the monologue was over the theatre resounded 
with the clapping of hands. Mariette rose, and holding up 
her rustling silk skirt, went into the back of the box and in- 
troduced Nekhludoff to her husband. 

The General, without ceasing to smile with his eyes, said 
he was very pleased, and then sat inscrutably silent. 

" I ought to have left to-day, had I not promised,'' said 
Nekhludoff to Mariette. 

" If you do not care to see me," said Mariette, in answer 
to what his words implied, " you will see a wonderful ac- 
tress. Was she not splendid in the last scene? " she asked, 
turning to her husband. 

The husband bowed his head. 

" This sort of thing does not touch me," said Nekhludoff. 
" I have seen so much real suffering lately that " 

" Yes, sit down and tell me." 

The husband listened, his eyes smiling more and more 
ironically. " I have been to see that woman whom they 
have set free, and who has been kept in prison for so long ; 
she is quite broken down." 

" That is the woman I spoke to you about," Mariette 
said to her husband. 

" Oh, yes, I was very pleased that she could be set free," 
said the husband quietly, nodding and smiling under his 
moustache with evident irony, so it seemed to Nekhludoff. 
" I shall go and have a smoke." 

Nekhludoff sat waiting to hear what the something was 
that Mariette had to tell him. She said nothing, and did 
not even try to say anything, but joked and spoke about 
the performance, which she thought ought to touch Nekhlu- 
doff. Nekhludoff saw that she had nothing to tell, but 
only wished to show herself to him in all the splendour of 
her evening toilet, with her shoulders and little mole; and 
this was pleasant and yet repulsive to him. 

The charm that had veiled all this sort of thing from 

Resurrection 3 5 1 

Nekhliidoff was not removed, but it was as if he could see 
what lay beneath. Looking at Mariette, he admired her, 
and yet he knew that she was a liar, living with a husband 
who was making his career by means of the tears and lives 
of hundreds and hundreds of people, and that she was quite 
indifferent about it, and that all she had said the day before 
was untrue. What she wanted — neither he nor she knew 
..why — was to make him fall in love with her. This both 
* attracted and disgusted him. Several times, on the point of 
going away, he took up his hat, and then stayed on. 

But at last, when the husband returned with a strong 
smell of tobacco in his thick moustache, and looked at Nekh- 
liidoff with a patronising, contemptuous air, as if not recog- 
nising him, Nekhliidoff left the box before the door was 
closed again, found his overcoat, and went out of the theatre. 
As he was walking home along the Nevski, he could not 
help noticing a well-shaped and aggressively finely-dressed 
woman, who was quietly walking in front of him along the 
broad asphalt pavement. The consciousness of her detest- 
able power was noticeable in her face and the whole of her 
figure. All who met or passed that woman looked at her. 
Nekhliidoff walked faster than she did and, involuntarily, 
also looked her in the face. The face, which was probably 
painted, was handsome, and the woman looked at him with 
a smile and her eyes sparkled. And, curiously enough, 
Nekhliidoff was suddenly reminded of Mariette, because he 
again felt both attracted and disgusted just as when in the 

Having hurriedly passed her, Nekhliidoff turned off on 
to the Morskaya, and passed on to the embankment, where, 
to the surprise of a policeman, he began pacing up and down 
the pavement. 

" The other one gave me just such a smile when I entered 
the theatre/' he thought, " and the meaning of the smile 
was the same. The only difference is, that this one said 
plainly, ' If you want me, take me ; if not, go your way/ and 
the other one pretended that she was not thinking of this, 
but living in some high and refined state, while this was 
really at the root. Besides, this one was driven to it by 
necessity, while the other amused herself by playing with 
that enchanting, disgusting, frightful passion. This woman 
of the street was like stagnant, smelling water offered to 
those whose thirst was greater than their disgust ; that other 

352 Resurrection 

one in the theatre was like the poison which, unnoticed, 
poisons everything it gets into." 

Nekhludoff recalled his liaison with the Marechal's wife, 
and shameful memories rose before him. 

" The animalism of the brute nature in man is disgusting," 
thought he, " but as long as it remains in its naked form 
we observe it from the height of our spiritual life and 
despise it; and — whether one has fallen or resisted — one 
remains what one was before. But when that same animal- 
ism hides under a cloak of poetry and aesthetic feeling and 
demands our worship — th.en we are swallowed up by it com- 
pletely, and worship animalism, no longer distinguishing 
good from evil. Then it is awful. ,, 

Nekhludoff" perceived all this now as clearly as he saw 
the palace, the sentinels, the fortress, the river, the boats, 
and the Stock Exchange. And just as on this northern 
summer night there was no restful darkness on the earth, 
but only a dismal, dull light coming from an invisible source, 
so in Nekhludoff's soul there was no longer the restful 
darkness, ignorance. Everything seemed clear. It was clear 
that everything considered important and good was insig- 
nificant and repulsive, and that all the glamour and luxury 
hid the old, well-known crimes, which not only remained 
unpunished but were adorned with all the splendour which 
men were capable of inventing. 

Nekhludoff wished to forget all this, not to see it, but 
he could no longer help seeing it. Though he could not 
see the source of the light which revealed it to him any more 
than he could see the source of the light which lay over 
Petersburg; and though the light appeared to him dull, 
dismal, and unnatural, yet he could not help seeing what 
it revealed, and he felt both joyful and anxious. 

Resurrection 353 



On his return to Moscow Nekhludoff went at once to 
the prison hospital to bring Maslova the sad news that the 
Senate had confirmed the decision of the Court, and that 
she must prepare to go to Siberia. He had little hope of 
the success of his petition to the Emperor, which the advo- 
cate had written for him, and which he now brought with 
him for Maslova to sign. And, strange to say, he did not 
at present even wish to succeed ; he had got used to the 
thought of going to Siberia and living among the exiled 
and the convicts, and he could not easily picture to himself 
how his life and Maslova's would shape if she were ac- 
quitted. He remembered the thought of the American 
writer, Thoreau, who at the time when slavery existed in 
America said that " under a government that imprisons 
any unjustly the true place for a just man is also a prison/' 
Nekhludoff, especially after his visit to Petersburg and all 
he discovered there, thought in the same way. 

" Yes, the only place befitting an honest man in Russia 
at the present time is a prison/' he thought, and even felt 
that this applied to him personally, when he drove up to the 
prison and entered its walls. 

The doorkeeper recognised Nekhludoff, and told him at 
once that Maslova was no longer there. 

" Where is she, then ? " 

" In the cell again." 

" Why has she been removed? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" Oh, your excellency, what are such people ? " said the 
doorkeeper, contemptuously. " She's been carrying on with 
the medical assistant, so the head doctor ordered her back." 

Nekhludoff had had no idea how near Maslova and the 
state of her mind were to him. He was stunned by the news. 

He felt as one feels at the news of a great and unforeseen 
misfortune, and his pain was very severe. His first feeling 
was one of shame. He, with his joyful idea of the change 
that he imagined was going on in her soul, now seemed 

354 Resurrection 

ridiculous in his own eyes. He thought that all her pretence 
of not wishing to accept his sacrifice, all the reproaches and 
tears, were only the devices of a depraved woman, who 
wished to use him to the best advantage. He seemed to 
remember having seen signs of obduracy at his last interview 
with her. All this flashed through his mind as he instinc- 
tively put on his hat and left the hospital. 

" What am I to do now? Am I still bound to her? Has 
this action of hers not set me free? " And as he put these 
questions to himself he knew at once that if he considered 
himself free, and threw her up, he would be punishing him- 
self, and not her, which was what he wished to do, and he 
was seized with fear. 

" No, what has happened cannot alter — it can only 
strengthen my resolve. Let her do what flows from the state 
her mind is in. If it is carrying on with the medical assist- 
ant, let her carry on with the medical assistant; that is her 
business. I must do what my conscience demands of me. 
And my conscience expects me to sacrifice my freedom. 
My resolution to marry her, if only in form, and to follow 
wherever she may be sent, remains unalterable. " Nekhludoff 
said all this to himself with vicious obstinacy as he left the 
hospital and walked with resolute steps towards the big 
gates of the prison. He asked the warder on duty at the 
gate to inform the inspector that he wished to see Maslova. 
The warder knew Nekhludoff, and told him of an important 
change that had taken place in the prison. The old inspector 
had been discharged, and a new, very severe official ap- 
pointed in his place. 

" They are so strict nowadays, it's just awful," said the 
jailer. " He is in here ; they will let him know directly." 

The new inspector was in the prison and soon came to 
Nekhludoff. He was a tall, angular man, with high cheek 
bones, morose, and very slow in his movements. 

" Interviews are allowed in the visiting room on the ap- 
pointed days," he said, without looking at Nekhludoff. 

" But I have a petition to the Emperor, which I want 

" You can give it to me." 

" I must see the prisoner mvself. I was always allowed to 

" That was so, before," said the inspector, with a furtive 
glance at Nekhludoff. 

Resurrection 355 

" I have a permission from the governor," insisted Nekh- 
liidoff, and took out his pocket-book. 

" Allow me," said the inspector, taking the paper from 
Nekhliidoff with his long, dry, white fingers, on the first of 
which was a gold ring, still without looking him in the 
eyes. He read the paper slowly. " Step into the office, 

This time the office was empty. The inspector sat down 
by the table and began sorting some papers that lay on it, evi- 
dently intending to be present at the interview. 

When Nekhliidoff asked whether he might see the political 
prisoner, Doiikhova, the inspector answered, shortly, that he 
could not. " Interviews with political prisoners are not per- 
mitted," he said, and again fixed his attention on his papers. 
With a letter to Doiikhova in his pocket, Nekhliidoff felt as 
if he had committed some offence, and his plans had been 
discoVered and frustrated. 

When Maslova entered the room the inspector raised his 
head, and, without looking at either her or Nekhliidoff, re- 
marked : " You may talk," and went on sorting his papers. 
Maslova had again the white jacket, petticoat and kerchief 
on. When she came up to Nekhliidoff and saw his cold, hard 
look, she blushed scarlet, and crumpling the hem of her 
jacket with her hand, she cast down her eyes. Her con- 
fusion, so it seemed to Nekhliidoff, confirmed the hospital 
doorkeeper's words. 

Nekhliidoff had meant to treat her in the same way as be- 
fore, but could not bring himself to shake hands with her, so 
disgusting was she to him now. 

" I have brought you bad news," he said, in a monotonous 
voice, without looking at her or taking her hand. " The 
Senate has refused." 

" I knew it would," she said, in a strange tone, as if she 
were gasping for breath. 

Formerly Nekhliidoff would have asked why she said she 
knew it would ; now he only looked at her. Her eyes were 
full of tears. But this did not soften him ; it roused his ir- 
ritation against her even more. 

The inspector rose and began pacing up and down the 

In spite of the disgust Nekhliidoff was feeling at the mo- 
ment, he considered it right to express His regret at the Sen- 
ate's decision. 

35 6 


" You must not despair," he said. " The petition to the 
Emperor may meet with success, and I hope 

" I'm not thinking of that," she said, looking piteously at 
him with her wet, squinting eyes. 

"What is it, then?" 

" You have been to the hospital, and they have most likely 
told you about me " 

"What of that? That is your affair," said Nekhludoff 
coldly, and frowned. The cruel feeling of wounded pride 
that had quieted down rose with renewed force when she 
mentioned the hospital. 

" He, a man of the w r orld, whom any girl of the best fam- 
ilies would think it happiness to marry, offered himself as a 
husband to this woman, and she could not even wait, but be- 
gan intriguing with the medical assistant," thought he, with 
a look of hatred. 

" Here, sign this petition," he said, taking a large envelope 
from his pocket, and laying the paper on the table. She 
wiped the tears with a corner of her kerchief, and asked 
what to write and where. 

He showed her, and she sat down and arranged the cuff ot 
her right sleeve with her left hand ; he stood behind her, and 
silently looked at her back, which shook with suppressed 
emotion, and evil and good feelings were fighting in his 
breast — feelings of wounded pride and of pity for her who 
was suffering — and the last feeling was victorious. 

He could not remember which came first ; did the pity for 
her first enter his heart, or did he first remember his own 
sins — his own repulsive actions, the very same for which he 
was condemning her? Anyhow, he both felt himself guilty 
and pitied her. 

Having signed the petition and wiped her inky finger on 
her petticoat, she got up and looked at him. 

" Whatever happens, whatever comes of it, my resolve re- 
mains unchanged," said Nekhludoff. The thought that he 
had forgiven her heightened his feeling of pity and tender- 
ness for her, and he wished to comfort her. M I will do what 
I have said ; wherever they take you I shall be with you." 

" What's the use? " she interrupted hurriedly, though her 
whole face lighted up. 

" Think what you will want on the way." 

" I don't know of anything in particular, thank you." 

The inspector came up, and without waiting for a remark 

Resurrection 357 

from him Nekhliidoff took leave, and went out with peace, 
joy, and love towards everybody in his heart such as he had 
never felt before. The certainty that no action of Maslova 
could change his love for her filled him with joy and raised 
him to a level which he had never before attained. Let her 
intrigue with the medical assistant; that was her business. 
He loved her not for his own but for her sake and for God's. 

And this intrigue, for which Maslova was turned out of 
the hospital, and of which Nekhliidoff believed she was 
really guilty, consisted of the following : 

Maslova was sent by the head nurse to get some herb tea 
from the dispensary at the end of the corridor, and there, all 
alone, she found the medical assistant, a tall man, with a 
blotchy face, who had for a long time been bothering her. In 
trying to get away from him Maslova gave him such a push 
that he knocked his head against a shelf, from which two bot- 
tles fell and broke. The head doctor, who was passmg at 
that moment, heard the sound of breaking glass, and saw 
Maslova run out, quite red, and shouted to her : 

" Ah, my good woman, if you start intriguing here, I'll 
send you about your business. What is the meaning of it ? " 
he went on, addressing the medical assistant, and looking at 
him over his spectacles. 

The assistant smiled, and began to justify himself. The 
doctor gave no heed to him, but, lifting his head so that he 
now looked through his spectacles, he entered the ward. He 
told the inspector the same day to send another more sedate 
assistant-nurse in Maslova's place. And this was her " in- 
trigue " with the medical assistant. 

Being turned out for a love intrigue was particularly pain- 
ful to Maslova, because the relations with men, which had 
long been repulsive to her, had become specially disgusting 
after meeting Nekhliidoff . The thought that, judging her 
by her past and present position, every man, the blotchy as- 
sistant among them, considered he had a right to offend her, 
and was surprised at her refusal, hurt her deeply, and made 
her pity herself and brought tears to her eyes. 

When she went out to Nekhliidoff this time she wished to 
clear herself of the false charge which she knew he would 
certainly have heard about. But when she began to justify 
herself she felt he did not believe her, and that her excuses 
would only strengthen his suspicions ; tears choked her, and 
she was silent. 



Maslova still thought and continued to persuade herself 
that she had never forgiven him, and hated him, as she told 
him at their second interview, but in reality she loved him 
again, and loved him so that she did all he wished her to do ; 
left off drinking, smoking, coquetting, and entered the hos- 
pital because she knew he wished it. And if every time he 
reminded her of it, she refused so decidedly to accept his 
sacrifice and marry him, it was because she liked repeating 
the proud words she had once uttered, and because she 
knew that a marriage with her would be a misfortune for 

She had resolutely made up her mind that she would not 
accept his sacrifice, and yet the thought that he despised 
her and believed that she still was what she had been, and 
did not notice the change that had taken place in her, was 
very painful. That he could still think she had done wrong 
while in the hospital tormented her more than the news tha* 
her sentence was confirmed. 

Resurrection 359 



Maslova might be sent off with the first gang of prisoners, 
therefore Nekhludoff got ready for his departure. But there 
was so much to be done that he felt that he could not finish 
it, however much time he might have. It was quite dif- 
ferent now from what it had been. Formerly he used to be 
obliged to look for an occupation, the interest of which al- 
ways centred in one person, i.e., Dmitri Ivanovitch Nekh- 
ludoff, and yet, though every interest of his life was thus 
centred, all these occupations were very wearisome. Now 
all his occupations related to other people and not to Dmitri 
Ivanovitch, and they were all interesting and attractive, 
and there was no end to them. Nor was this all. Formerly 
Dmitri Ivanovitch Nekhludoff's occupations always made 
him feel vexed and irritable; now they produced a joyful 
state of mind. The business at present occupying Nekhlu- 
doff could be divided under three headings. He himself, 
with his usual pedantry, divided it in that way, and accord- 
ingly kept the papers referring to it in three different port- 
folios. The first referred to Maslova, and was chiefly that 
of taking steps to get her petition to the Emperor attended 
to, and preparing for her probable journey to Siberia. 

The second was about his estates. In Panovo he had 
given the land to the peasants on condition of their paying 
rent to be put to their own communal use. But he had to 
confirm this transaction by a legal deed, and to make his 
will, in accordance with it. In Kousminski the state of 
things was still as he had first arranged it, i.e., he was to re- 
ceive the rent ; but the terms had to be fixed, and also how 
much of the money he would use to live on, and how much 
he would leave for the peasants' use. As he did not know 
what his journey to Siberia would cost him, he could not 
decide to lose this revenue altogether, though he reduced 
the income from it by half. 

3 6 ° 


The third part of his business was to help the convicts, 
who applied more and more often to him. At first when he 
came in contact with the prisoners, and they appealed to 
him for help, he at once began interceding for them, hoping 
to lighten their fate, but he soon had so many applications 
that he felt the impossibility of attending to all of them, and 
that naturally led him to take up another piece of work, 
which at last roused his interest even more than the three 
first. This new part of his business was finding an answer 
to the following questions : What was this astonishing in- 
stitution called criminal law, of which the results were that 
in the prison, with some of the inmates of which he had 
lately become acquainted, and in all those other places of 
confinement, from the Peter and Paul Fortress in Peters- 
burg to the island of Sakhalin, hundreds and thousands of 
victims were pining? What did this strange criminal law 
exist for? How had it originated? 

From his personal relations with the prisoners, from 
notes by some of those in confinement, and by questioning 
the advocate and the prison priest, Nekhludoff came to the 
conclusion that the convicts, the so-called criminals, could 
be divided into five classes. The first were quite innocent 
people, condemned by judicial blunder. Such were the 
Menshoffs, supposed to be incendiaries, Maslova, and others. 
There were not many of these ; according to the priest's 
words, only seven per cent., but their condition excited par- 
ticular interest. 

To the second class belong persons condemned for ac- 
tions done under peculiar circumstances, i.e., in a fit of pas- 
sion, jealousy, or drunkenness, circumstances under which 
those who judged them would surely have committed the 
same actions. 

The third class consisted of people punished for having 
committed actions which, according to their understanding, 
were quite natural, and even good, but which those other 
people, the men who made the laws, considered to be 
crimes. Such were the persons who sold spirits without a 
license, smugglers ; those who gathered grass and wood on 
large estates and in the forests belonging to the Crown ; the 
thieving miners ; and those unbelieving people who robbed 

To the fourth class belonged those who were imprisoned 
only because they stood morally higher than the average 

Resurrection 361 

level of society. Such were the Sectarians, the Poles, the 
Circassians rebelling in order to regain their independence, 
the political prisoners, the Socialists, the strikers con- 
demned for withstanding the authorities. There was, ac- 
cording to NekhludofFs observations, a very large per- 
centage belonging to this class ; among them some of the 
best of men. 

The fifth class consisted of persons who had been far 
more sinned against by society than they had sinned against 
it. These were castaways, stupefied by continual oppres- 
sion and temptation, such as the boy who had stolen the 
rugs, and hundreds of others whom Nekhludoff had seen in 
the prison and out of it. The conditions under which they 
lived seemed to lead on systematically to those actions 
which are termed crimes. A great many thieves and mur- 
derers with whom he had lately come in contact, according 
to NekhludofFs estimate, belonged to this class. To this 
class Nekhludoff also reckoned those depraved, demoral- 
ised creatures whom the new school of criminology classify 
as the criminal type, and the existence of which is consid- 
ered to be the chief proof of the necessity of criminal law 
and punishment. This demoralised, depraved, abnormal 
type was, according to Nekhludoff, exactly the same as that 
against whom society had sinned, only here society had 
sinned not directly against them, but against their parents 
and forefathers. 

Among this latter class Nekhludoff was specially struck 
by one Okhotin, an inveterate thief, the illegitimate son of 
a prostitute, brought up in a doss-house, who, up to the 
age of 30, had apparently never met with any one whose 
morality was above that of a policeman, and who had got 
into a band of thieves when quite young. He was gifted 
with an extraordinary sense of humour, by means of which 
he made himself very attractive. He asked Nekhludoff for 
protection, at the same time making fun of himself, the 
lawyers, the prison, and laws human and divine. 

Another was the handsome Fedoroff, who, with a band 
of robbers, of whom he was the chief, had robbed and mur- 
dered an old man, an official. Fedoroff was a peasant, 
whose father had been unlawfully deprived of his house, 
and who, later on, when serving as a soldier, had suffered 
much because he had fallen in love with an officer's mis- 
tress. He had a fascinating, passionate nature, that longed 

362 Resurrection 

for enjoyment at any cost. He had never met anybody who 
restrained himself for any cause whatever, and had never 
heard a word about any aim in life other than enjoyment. 

Nekhliidoff distinctly saw that both these men were richly 
endowed by nature, but had been neglected and crippled like 
uncared-for plants. 

He had also met a tramp and a woman who had repelled 
him by their dulness and seeming cruelty, but even in them 
he could find no trace of the criminal type written about by 
the Italian school, but only saw in them people who were re- 
pulsive to him personally, just in the same way as some he 
had met outside the prison, in swallow-tail coats wearing 
epaulettes, or bedecked with lace. And so the investigation 
of the reasons why all these very different persons were put 
in prison, while others just like them were going about free 
and even judging them, formed a fourth task for Nekh- 

He hoped to find an answer to this question in books, and 
bought all that referred to it. He got the works of Lom- 
broso, Garofalo, Ferry, List, Maudsley, Tard, and read them 
carefully. But as he read he became more and more disap- 
pointed. It happened to him as it always happens to those 
who turn to science not in order to play a part in it, nor to 
write, nor to dispute, nor to teach, but simply for an answer 
to an every-day question of life. Science answered thousands 
of different very subtle and ingenious questions touching 
criminal law, but not the one he was trying to solve. He 
asked a very simple question : " Why, and with what right, 
do some people lock up, torment, exile, flog, and kill others, 
while they are themselves just like those whom they torment, 
flog, and kill ? " And in answer he got deliberations as to 
whether human beings had free will or not. Whether signs 
of criminality could be detected by measuring the skulls or 
not. What part heredity played in crime. Whether immo- 
rality could be inherited. What madness is, what degenera- 
tion is, and what temperament is. How climate, food, ig- 
norance, imitativeness, hypnotism, or passion act. What so- 
ciety is. What are its duties, etc., etc. 

These disquisitions reminded him of the answer he once 
got from a little boy whom he met coming home from school. 
Nekhliidoff asked him if he had learned his spelling, 

" I have," answered the boy. 

" Well, then, tell me, how do you spell ' leg' ? " 

Resurrection 363 

" A dog's leg, or what kind of leg? " the boy answered, 
with a sly look. 

Answers in the form of new questions, like the boy's, was 
all Nekhludoff got in reply to his one primary question. He 
found much that was clever, learned much that was interest- 
ing, but what he did not find was an answer to the principal 
question : By what right some people punish others ? 

Not only did he not find any answer, but all the arguments 
were brought forward in order to explain and vindicate pun- 
ishment, the necessity of which was taken as an axiom. 

Nekhludoff read much, but only in snatches, and putting 
down his failure to this superficial way of reading, hoped to 
find the answer later on. He would not allow himself to be- 
lieve in the truth of the answer which began, more and more 
*ften, to present itself to him. 

3 6 4 


nekhludoff's sister and her husband. 

The gang of prisoners, with Maslova among them, was to 
start on the 5th July. Nekhludoff arranged to start on the 
same day. 

The day before, Nekhludoff's sister and her husband came 
to town to see him. 

Nekhludoff's sister, Nathalie Ivanovna Rogozhinsky, was 
10 years older than her brother. She had been very fond 
of him when he was a boy, and later on, just before her mar- 
riage, they grew very close to each other, as if they were 
equals, she being a young woman of 25, he a lad of 15. At 
that time she was in love with his friend, Nikolenka Irten- 
ieff, since dead. They both loved Nikolenka, and loved in 
him and in themselves that which is good, and w T hich unites 
all men. Since then they had both been depraved, he by mil- 
itary service and a vicious life, she by marriage with a man 
whom she loved with a sensual love, who did not care for 
the things that had once been so dear and holy to her and 
to her brother, nor even understand the meaning of those as- 
pirations towards moral perfection and the service of man- 
kind, which once constituted her life, and put them down to 
ambition and the wish to show off; that being the only ex- 
planation comprehensible to him. 

Nathalie's husband had been a man without a name and 
without means, but cleverly steering towards Liberalism or 
Conservatism, according to which best suited his purpose, he 
managed to make a comparatively brilliant judicial career. 
Some peculiarity which made him attractive to women as- 
sisted him when he was no longer in his first youth. While 
travelling abroad he made Nekhludoff's acquaintance, and 
managed to make Nathalie, who was also no longer a girl, 
fall in love with him, rather against her mother's wishes, who 
considered a marriage with him to be a mesalliance for her 
daughter. Nekhludoff, though he tried to hide it from him- 
self, though he fought against it, hated his brother-in-law. 

Resurrection 365 

Nekhludoff had a strong antipathy towards him because of 
the vulgarity of his feelings, his assurance and narrowness, 
but chiefly because of Nathalie, who managed to love him in 
spite of the narrowness of his nature, and loved him so sel- 
fishly, so sensually, and stifled for his sake all the good that 
had been in her. 

It always hurt Nekhludoff to think of Nathalie as the wife 
of that hairy, self-assured man with the shiny, bald patch 
on his head. He could not even master a feeling of revulsion 
towards their children, and when he heard that she was 
again going to have a baby, he felt something like sorrow 
that she had once more been infected with something bad by 
this man who was so foreign to him. The Rogozhinskys had 
come to Moscow alone, having left their two children — a boy 
and a girl — at home, and stopped in the best rooms of the 
best hotel. Nathalie at once went to her mother's old house, 
but hearing from Agraphena Petrovna that her brother had 
left, and was living in a lodging-house, she drove there. The 
dirty servant met her in the stuffy passage, dark but for a 
lamp which burnt there all day. He told her that the Prince 
was not in. 

Nathalie asked to be shown into his rooms, as she wished 
to leave a note for him, and the man took her up. 

Nathalie carefully examined her brother's two little rooms. 
She noticed in everything the love of cleanliness and order 
she knew so well in him, and w T as struck by the novel sim- 
plicity of the surroundings. On his writing-table she saw 
the paper-weight with the bronze dog on the top which she 
remembered; the tidy way in which his different portfolios 
and writing utensils were placed on the table was also fa- 
miliar, and so was the large, crooked ivory paper knife which 
marked the place in a French book by Tard, which lay with 
other volumes on punishment and a book in English by 
Henry George. She sat down at the table and wrote a 
note asking him to be sure to come that same day, and shak- 
ing her head in surprise at what she saw, she returned to her 

Two questions regarding her brother now interested Nath- 
alie : his marriage with Katusha, which she had heard spoken 
about in their town — for everybody was speaking about it — 
and his giving away the land to the peasants, which was 
also known, and struck many as something of a political na- 
ture, and dangerous. The marriage with Katusha pleased 

366 Resurrection 

her in a way. She admired that resoluteness which was so 
like him and herself as they used to be in those happy times 
before her marriage. And yet she was horrified when she 
thought her brother was going to marry such a dreadful 
woman. The latter was the stronger feeling of the two, and 
she decided to use all her influence to prevent him from 
doing it, though she knew how difficult this would be. 

The other matter, the giving up of the land to the peasants, 
did not touch her so nearly, but her husband was very indig- 
nant about it, and expected her to influence her brother 
against it. 

Rogozhinsky said that such an action was the height of 
inconsistency, flightiness, and pride, the only possible ex- 
planation of which was the desire to appear original, to brag, 
to make one's self talked about. 

" What sense could there be in letting the land to the peas- 
ants, on condition that they pay the rent to themselves ? " he 
said. " If he was resolved to do such a thing, why not sell 
the land to them through the Peasants' Bank ? There might 
have been some sense in that. In fact, this act verges on 
insanity. " 

And Rogozhinsky began seriously thinking about putting 
Nekhludoff under guardianship, and demanded of his wife 
that she should speak seriously to her brother about his curi- 
ous intention. 

Resurrection 367 

nekhludoff's anarchism. 

As soon as Nekhliidoff returned that evening and saw his 
sister's note on the table he started to go and see her. He 
found Nathalie alone, her husband having gone to take a 
rest in the next room. She wore a tightly-fitting black silk 
dress, with a red bow in front. Her black hair was crimped 
and arranged according to the latest fashion. 

The pains she took to appear young, for the sake of her 
husband, whose equal she was in years, were very obvious. 

When she saw her brother she jumped up and hurried 
towards him, with her silk dress rustling. They kissed, and 
looked smilingly at each other. There passed between them 
that mysterious exchange of looks, full of meaning, in which 
all was true, and which cannot be expressed in words. Then 
came words which were not true. They had not met since 
their mother's death. 

" You have grown stouter and younger,'' he said, and her 
lips puckered up with pleasure. 

" And you have grown thinner." 

" Well, and how is your husband ? " Nekhliidoff asked. 

" He is taking a rest ; he did not sleep all night." There 
was much to say, but it was not said in words; only their 
looks expressed what their words failed to say. 

" I went to see you." 

" Yes, I know. I moved because the house is too big for 
me. I was lonely there, and dull. I want nothing of all that 
is there, so that you had better take it all — the furniture, I 
mean, and things." 

" Yes, Agraphena Petrovna told me. I went there. 
Thanks, very much. But " 

At this moment the hotel waiter brought in a silver tea- 
set. While he set the table they were silent. Then Nathalie 
sat down at the table and macfe the tea, still in silence. 
Nekhliidoff also said nothing. 

At last Nathalie began resolutely. " Well, Dmitri, I know 
all about it." And she looked at mm. 

" What of that ? I am glad you know." 

368 Resurrection 

" How can you hope to reform her after the life she has 
led ? " she asked. 

He sat quite straight on a small chair, and listened atten- 
tively, trying to understand her and to answer rightly. The 
state of mind called forth in him by his last interview with 
Maslova still filled his soul with quiet joy and good will to 
all men. 

" It is not her but myself I wish to reform," he replied. 

Nathalie sighed. 

" There are other means besides marriage to do that." 

" But I think it is the best. Besides, it leads me into thaf. 
world in which I can be of use." 

" I cannot believe you will be happy," said Nathalie. 

?1 It's not my happiness that is the point." 

" Of course ; but if she has a heart she cannot be happy 
■ — cannot even wish it." 

" She does not wish it." 

" I understand ; but life " 

-Yes— life?" 

" Demands something different." 

" It demands nothing but that we should do what is 
right," said Nekhludoff, looking into her face, still hand- 
some, though slightly wrinkled round eyes and mouth. 

" I do not understand," she said, and sighed. 

" Poor darling ; how could she change so ? " he thought, 
calling back to his mind Nathalie as she had been before her 
marriage, and feeling towards her a tenderness woven out 
of innumerable memories of childhood. At that moment 
Rogozhinsky entered the room, with head thrown back and 
expanded chest, and stepping lightly and softly in his usual 
manner, his spectacles, his bald patch, and his black beard 
all glistening. 

" How do you do? How do you do? " he said, laying an 
unnatural and intentional stress on his words. (Though, 
soon after the marriage, they had tried to be more familiar 
with each other, they had never succeeded.) 

They shook hands, and Rogozhinsky sank softly into an 

" Am I not interrupting your conversation ? " 

" No, I do not wish to hide what I am saying or doing 
from any one." 

As soon as Nekhludoff saw the hairy hands, and heard the 

Resurrection 369 

patronising, self-assured tones, his meekness left him in a 

" Yes, we were talking about his intentions/' said Nathalie. 
"Shall I give you a cup of tea?" she added, taking the 

" Yes, please. What particular intentions do you mean? " 

" That of going to Siberia with the gang of prisoners, 
among whom is the woman I consider myself to have 
wronged," uttered Nekhludoff. 

" I hear not only to accompany her, but more than that." 

" Yes, and to marry her if she wishes it." 

" Dear me ! But if you do not object I should like to ask 
you to explain your motives. I do not understand them." 

" My motives are that this woman — that this woman's 

first step on her way to degradation " Nekhludoff got 

angry with himself, and was unable to find the right expres- 
sion. " My motives are that I am the guilty one, and she 
gets the punishment." 

" If she is being punished she cannot be innocent, either." 

" She is quite innocent." And Nekhludoff related the 
whole incident with unnecessary warmth. 

" Yes, that was a case of carelessness on the part of the 
president, the result of which was a thoughtless answer on 
the part of the jury; but there is the Senate for cases like 

" The Senate has rejected the appeal." 

" Well, if the Senate has rejected it, there cannot have 
been sufficient reasons for an appeal," said Rogozhinsky, 
evidently sharing the prevailing opinion that truth is the 
product of judicial decrees. " The Senate cannot enter into 
the question on its merits. If there is a real mistake, the 
Emperor should be petitioned." 

" That has been done, but there is no probability of suc- 
cess. They will apply to the Department of the Ministry, the 
Department will consult the Senate, the Senate will repeat 
its decision, and, as usual, the innocent will get punished." 

" In the first place, the Department of the Ministry won't 
consult the Senate," said Rogozhinsky, with a condescend- 
ing smile ; " it will give orders for the original deeds to be 
sent from the Law Court, and if it discovers a mistake it 
will decide accordingly. And, secondly, the innocent are 
never punished, or at least in very rare, exceptional cases. 
It is the guilty who are punished," Rogozhinsky said delib- 
erately, and smiled self-complacently. 



" And I have become fully convinced that most of those 
condemned by law are innocent/' 

" How's that?" 

" Innocent in the literal sense. Just as this woman is 
innocent of poisoning any one; as innocent as a peasant 1 
have just come to know, of the murder he never com- 
mitted ; as a mother and son who were on the point of being 
condemned for incendiarism, which was committed by the 
owner of the house that was set on fire." 

" Well, of course there always have been and always will 
be judicial errors. Human institutions cannot be perfect." 

" And, besides, there are a great many people convicted 
who are innocent of doing anything considered wrong by 
the society they have grown up in." 

" Excuse me, this is not so ; every thief knows that steal- 
ing is wrong, and that we should not steal; that it is im- 
moral/' said Rogozhinsky, with his quiet, self-assured, 
slightly contemptuous smile, which specially irritated Nekh- 

" No, he does not know it ; they say to him ' don't steal/ 
and he knows that the master of the factory steals his labour 
by keeping back his wages; that the Government, with its 
officials, robs him continually by taxation." 

" Why, this is anarchism," Rogozhinsky said, quietly 
defining his brother-in-law's words. 

" I don't know what it is ; I am only telling you the truth," 
Nekhludoff continued. " He knows that the Government 
is robbing him, knows that we landed proprietors have 
robbed him long since, robbed him of the land which should 
be the common property of all, and then, if he picks up dry 
wood to light his fire on that land stolen from him, we put 
him in jail, and try to persuade him that he is a thief. Of 
course he knows that not he but those who robbed him of 
the land are thieves, and that to get any restitution of what 
has been robbed is his duty towards his family." 

" I don't understand, or if I do I cannot agree with it. 
The land must be somebody's property," began Rogozhinsky 
quietly, and, convinced that Nekhludoff was a Socialist, and 
that Socialism demands that all the land should be divided 
equally, that such a division would be very foolish, and that 
he could easily prove it to be so, he said : " If you divided it 
equally to-day, it would to-morrow be again in the hands of 
the most industrious and clever." 

Resurrection 371 

rt Nobody is thinking of dividing the land equally. The 
land must not be anybody's property; must not be a thing 
to be bought and sold or rented/' 

" The rights of property are inborn in man ; without them 
the cultivation of land would present no interest. Destroy 
the rights of property and we lapse into barbarism/' Rogo- 
zhinsky uttered this authoritatively, repeating the usual 
argument in favour of private ownership of land which is 
supposed to be irrefutable, based on the assumption that 
people's desire to possess land proves that they need it. 

" On the contrary, only when the land is nobody's prop- 
erty will it cease to lie idle, as it does now, while the land- 
lords, like dogs in the manger, unable themselves to put it 
to use, will not let those use it who are able." 

" But, Dmitri Ivanovitch, what you are saying is sheer 
madness. Is it possible to abolish property in land in our 
age? I know it is your old hobby. But allow me to tell you 
straight," and Rogozhinsky grew pale, and his voice trem- 
bled. It was evident that this question touched him very 
nearly. " I should advise you to consider this question well 
before attempting to solve it practically." 

" Are you speaking of my personal affairs ? " 

" Yes, I hold that we who are placed in special circum- 
stances should bear the responsibilities which spring from 
those circumstances, should uphold the conditions in which 
we were born, and which we have inherited from our prede- 
cessors, and which we ought to pass on to our descendants." 

" I consider it my duty " 

" Wait a bit," said Rogozhinsky, not permitting the inter- 
ruption. " I am not speaking for myself or my children. 
The position of my children is assured, and I earn enough 
for us to live comfortably, and I expect my children will 
live so too, so that my interest in your action — which, if 
you will allow me to say so, is not well considered — is not 
based on personal motives ; it is on principle that I can- 
not agree with you. I should advise you to think it well 
over, to read " 

" Please allow me to settle my affairs, and to choose 
what to read and what not to read, myself," said Nekhlu- 
doff, turning pale. Feeling his hands grow cold, and that 
he was no longer master of himself, he stopped, and began 
drinking his tea. 

372 Resurrection 



"Well, and how are the children ?" Nekhludoff asked 
his sister when he was calmer. The sister told him about 
the children. She said they were staying with their grand- 
mother (their father's mother), and, pleased that his dispute 
with her husband had come to an end, she began telling 
him how her children played that they were travelling, just 
as he used to do with his three dolls, one of them a negro 
and another which he called the French lady. 

" Can you really remember it all? ,? said Nekhludoff, 

" Yes, and just fancy, they play in the very same way." 

The unpleasant conversation had been brought to an 
end, and Nathalie was quieter, but she did not care to talk 
in her husband's presence of what could be comprehensible 
only to her brother, so, wishing to start a general conversa- 
tion, she began talking about the sorrow of Kamenski's 
mother at losing her only son, who had fallen in a duel, for 
this Petersburg topic of the day had now reached Moscow. 
Rogozhinsky expressed disapproval at the state of things 
that excluded murder in a duel from the ordinary criminal 
offences. This remark evoked a rejoinder from Nekhhidoff, 
and a new dispute arose on the subject. Nothing was fully 
explained, neither of the antagonists expressed all he had 
in his mind, each keeping to his conviction, which con- 
demned the other. Rogozhinsky felt that Nekhludoff con- 
demned him and despised his activity, and he wished to 
show him the injustice of his opinions. 

Nekhludoff, on the other hand, felt provoked by his 
brother-in-law's interference in his affairs concerning the 
land. And knowing in his heart of hearts that his sister, 
her husband, and their children, as his heirs, had a right to 
do so, was indignant that this narrow-minded man per- 
sisted with calm assurance to regard as just and lawful what 
Nekhludoff no longer doubted was folly and crime. 

Resurrection 373 

This man's arrogance annoyed Nekhludoff. 

" What could the law do ? " he asked. 

" It could sentence one of the two duellists to the mines 
like an ordinary murderer. ,, 

Nekhludoff s hands grew cold. 

" Well, and what good would that be ? " he asked, hotly. 

" It would be just." 

" As if justice were the aim of the law," said Nekhludoff. 

" What else?" 

" The upholding of class interests ! I think the law is 
only an instrument for upholding the existing order of 
things beneficial to our class." 

" This is a perfectly new view," said Rogozhinsky with 
a quiet smile ; " the law is generally supposed to have a 
totally different aim." 

" Yes, so it has in theory but not in practice, as I have 
found out. The law aims only at preserving the present 
state of things, and therefore it persecutes and executes 
those who stand above the ordinary level and wish to raise 
it — the so-called political prisoners, as well as those who are 
below the average — the so-called criminal types." 

" I do not agree with you. In the first place, I cannot 
admit that the criminals classed as political are punished 
because they are above the average. In most cases they 
are the refuse of society, just as much perverted, though in 
a different way, as the criminal types whom you consider 
below the average." 

" But I happen to know men who are morally far above 
their judges; all the sectarians are moral, from " 

But Rogozhinsky, a man not accustomed to be inter- 
rupted when he spoke, did not listen to Nekhludoff, but 
went on talking at the same time, thereby irritating him 
still more. 

" Nor can I admit that the object of the law is the uphold- 
ing of* the present state of things. The law aime at reform- 

i*ig b 

" A nice kind of reform, in a prison ! " Nekhludoff put in. 

" Or removing," Rogozhinsky went on, persistently, " the 
perverted and brutalised persons that threaten society." 

" That's just what it doesn't do. Society has not the 
means of doing either the one thing or the other." 

"How is that? I don't understand," said Rogozhinsky 
with a forced smile. 

374 Resurrection 

" I mean that only two reasonable kinds ot punishment 
exist. Those used in the old days : corporal and capital 
punishment, which, as human nature gradually softens, 
come more and more into disuse," said Nekhludoff. 

" There, now, this is quite new and very strange to hear 
from your lips." 

" Yes, it is reasonable to hurt a man so that he should not 
do in future what he is hurt for doing, and it is also quite 
reasonable to cut a man's head off when he is injurious or 
dangerous to society. These punishments have a reason- 
able meaning. But what sense is there in locking up in a 
prison a man perverted by want of occupation and bad ex- 
ample ; to place him in a position where he is provided for, 
where laziness is imposed on him, and where he is in com- 
pany with the most perverted of men ? What reason is there 
to take a man at public cost (it comes to more than 500 
roubles per head) from the Toula to the Irkoutsk govern- 
ment, or from Koursk " 

" Yes, but all the same, people are afraid of those jour- 
neys at public cost, and if it were not for such journeys and 
the prisons, you and I would not be sitting here as we are." 

" The prisons cannot insure our safety, because these 
people do not stay there for ever, but are set free again. On 
the contrary, in those establishments men are brought to 
the greatest vice and degradation, so that the danger is in- 

" You mean to say that the penitentiary system should 
be improved." 

" It cannot be improved. Improved prisons would cost 
more than all that is being now spent on the people's educa- 
tion, and would lay a still heavier burden on the people." 

" The shortcomings of the penitentiary system in nowise 
invalidate the law itself," Rogozhinsky continued again, 
without heeding his brother-in-law. 

" There is no remedy for these shortcomings," said 
Nekhludoff, raising his voice. 

" What of that ? Shall we therefore go and kill, or, as a 
certain statesman proposed, go putting out people's eyes ? " 
Rogozhinsky remarked. 

" Yes ; that would be cruel, but it would be effective. 
What is done now is cruel, and not only ineffective, but so 
stupid that one cannot understand how people, in their 

Resurrection 375 

senses can take part in so absurd and cruel a business as 
criminal law." 

" But I happen to take part in it/' said Rogozhinsky, 
growing pale. 

" That is your business* But to me it is incompre- 

" I think there are a good many things incomprehensible 
to you/* said Rogozhinsky, with a trembling voice. 

" I have seen how one public prosecutor did his very best 
to get an unfortunate boy condemned, who could have 
evoked nothing but sympathy in an unperverted mind. I 
know how another cross-examined a sectarian and put 
down the reading of the Gospels as a criminal offence; in 
fact, the whole business of the Law Courts consists in sense- 
less and cruel actions of that sort." 

" I should not serve if I thought so," said Rogozhinsky, 

Nekhludoff noticed a peculiar glitter under his brother- 
in-law's spectacles. " Can it be tears ? " he thought. And 
they were really tears of injured pride. Rogozhinsky went 
up to the window, got out his handkerchief, coughed and 
rubbed his spectacles, took them off, and wiped his eyes. 

When he returned to the sofa he lit a cigar, and did not 
speak any more. 

Nekhhidoff felt pained and ashamed of having offended 
his brother-in-law and his sister to such a degree, especially 
as he was going away the next day. 

He parted with them in confusion, and drove home. 

" All I have said may be true — anyhow he did not reply. 
But it was not said in the right way. How little I must 
have changed if I could be carried away by ill-feeling to 
such an extent as to hurt and wound poor Nathalie in such 
a way ! " he thought. 

376 Resurrection 



The gang of prisoners, among whom was Maslova, was 
to leave Moscow by rail at 3 p.m. ; therefore, in order to see 
the gang start, and walk to the station with the prisoners 
Nekhludoff meant to reach the prison before 12 o'clock. 

The night before, as he was packing up and sorting his 
papers, he came upon his diary, and read some bits here and 
there. The last bit written before he left for Petersburg 
ran thus : " Katusha does not wish to accept my sacrifice ; 
she wishes to make a sacrifice herself. She has conquered, 
and so have I. She makes me happy by the inner change, 
which seems to me, though I fear to believe it, to be going 
on in her. I fear to believe it, yet she seems to be coming back 
to life." Then further on he read : " I have lived through 
something very hard and very joyful. I learnt that she has 
behaved very badly in the hospital, and I suddenly felt great 
pain. I never expected that it could be so painful. I spoke 
to her with loathing and hatred, then all of a sudden I called 
to mind how many times I have been, and even still am, 
though but in thought, guilty of the thing that I hated her 
for, and immediately I became disgusting to myself, and 
pitied her and felt happy again. If only we could manage 
to see the beam in our own eye in time, how kind we should 
be." Then he wrote : " I have been to see Nathalie, and 
again self-satisfaction made me unkind and spiteful, and a 
heavy feeling remains. Well, what is to be done? To- 
morrow a new life will begin. A final good-bye to the old ! 
Many new impressions have accumulated, but I cannot yet 
bring them to unity." 

When he awoke the next morning NekhludofFs first feel- 
ing was regret about the affair between him and his brother- 

" I cannot go away like this," he thought. " I must go 
and make it up with them." But when he looked at his 

Resurrection 377 

watch he saw that he had not time to go, but must hurry 
so as not to be too late for the departure of the gang. He 
hastily got everything ready, and sent the things to the 
station with a servant and Taras, Theodosia's husband, 
who was going with them. Then he took the first isvost- 
chik he could find and drove off to the prison. 

The prisoners' train started two hours before the train 
by which he was going, so Nekhludoff paid his bill in the 
lodgings and left for good. 

It was July, and the weather was unbearably hot. From 
the stones, the walls, the iron of the roofs, which the sultry 
night had not cooled, the heat streamed into the motionless 
air. When at rare intervals a slight breeze did arise, it 
brought but a whiff of hot air filled with dust and smelling 
of oil paint. 

There were few people in the streets, and those who were 
out tried to keep on the shady side. Only the sunburnt 
peasants, with their bronzed faces and bark shoes on their 
feet, who were mending the road, sat hammering the stones 
into the burning sand in the sun; while the policemen, in 
their holland blouses, with revolvers fastened with orange 
cords, stood melancholy and depressed in the middle of the 
road, changing from foot to foot; and the tramcars, the 
horses of which wore holland hoods on their heads, with 
slits for the ears, kept passing up and down the sunny road 
with ringing bells. 

When Nekhludoff drove up to the prison the gang had 
not left the yard. The work of delivering and receiving 
the prisoners that had commenced at 4 a.m. was still going 
on. The gang was to consist of 623 men and 64 women; 
they had all to be received according to the registry lists. 
The sick and the weak to be sorted out, and all to be deliv- 
ered to the convoy. The new inspector, with two assistants, 
the doctor and medical assistant, the officer of the convoy, 
and the clerk, were sitting in the prison yard at a table 
covered with writing materials and papers, which was placed 
in the shade of a wall. They called the prisoners one by 
one, examined and questioned them, and took notes. The 
rays of the sun had gradually reached the table, and it was 
growing very hot and oppressive for want of air and because 
of the breathing crowd of prisoners that stood close by. 

" Good gracious, will this never come to an end ! " the 
convoy officer, a tall, fat, red-faced man with high shoulders, 



who kept puffing the smoke of his cigarette into his thick 
moustache, asked, as he drew in a long puff. " You are 
killing me. From where have you got them all? Are there 
many more ? " the clerk inquired. 

" Twenty-four men and the women." 

" What are you standing there for ? Come on," shouted 
the convoy officer to the prisoners who had not yet passed 
the revision, and who stood crowded one behind the other. 
The prisoners had been standing there more than three 
hours, packed in rows in the full sunlight, waiting their 

While this was going on in the prison yard, outside the 
gate, besides the sentinel who stood there as usual with a 
gun, were drawn up about 20 carts, to carry the luggage 
of the prisoners and such prisoners as were too weak to 
walk, and a group of relatives and friends waiting to see 
the prisoners as they came out and to exchange a few words 
if a chance presented itself and to give them a few things. 
Nekhludoff took his place among the group. He had stood 
there about an hour when the clanking of chains, the noise 
of footsteps, authoritative voices, the sound of coughing, 
and the low murmur of a large crowd became audible. 

This continued for about five minutes, during which sev- 
eral jailers went in and out of the gateway. At last the 
word of command was given. The gate opened with a 
thundering noise, the clattering of the chains became louder, 
and the convoy soldiers, dressed in white blouses and carry- 
ing guns, came out into the street and took their places in 
a large, exact circle in front of the gate ; this was evidently 
a usual, often-practised manoeuvre. Then another command 
was given, and the prisoners began coming out in couples, 
with flat, pancake-shaped caps on their shaved heads and 
sacks over their shoulders, dragging their chained legs and 
swinging one arm, while the other held up a sack. 

First came the men condemned to hard labour, all dressed 
alike in grey trousers and cloaks with marks on the back. 
All of them — young and old, thin and fat, pale and red, 
dark and bearded and beardless, Russians, Tartars, and 
Jews — came out, clattering with their chains and briskly 
swinging their arms as if prepared to go a long distance, 
but stopped after having taken ten steps, and obediently 
took their places behind each other, four abreast. Then 
without interval streamed out more shaved men, dressed in 

Resurrection 379 

the same manner but with chains only on their legs. These 
were condemned to exile. They came out as briskly and 
stopped as suddenly, taking their places four in a row. Then 
came those exiled by their Communes. Then the women 
in the same order, first those condemned to hard labour, 
with grey cloaks and kerchiefs ; then the exiled women, and 
those following their husbands of their own free will, 
dressed in their own town or village clothing. Some of the 
women were carrying babies wrapped in the fronts of their 
grey cloaks. 

With the women came the children, boys and girls, who, 
like colts in a herd of horses, pressed in among the prisoners. 

The men took their places silently, only coughing now 
and then, or making short remarks. 

The women talked without intermission. Nekhludoff 
thought he saw Maslova as they were coming out, but she 
was at once lost in the large crowd, and he could only see 
grey creatures, seemingly devoid of all that was human, or 
at any rate of all that was womanly, with sacks on their 
backs and children round them, taking their places behind 
the men. 

Though all the prisoners had been counted inside the 
prison walls, the convoy counted them again, comparing the 
numbers with the list. This took very long, especially as 
some of the prisoners moved and changed places, which 
confused the convoy. 

The convoy soldiers shouted and pushed the prisoners 
(who complied obediently, but angrily) and counted them 
over again. When all had been counted, the convoy officer 
gave a command, and the crowd became agitated. The 
weak men and women and children rushed, racing each 
other, towards the carts, and began placing their bags on 
the carts and climbing up themselves. Women with crying 
babies, merry children quarrelling for places, and dull, care- 
worn prisoners got into the carts. 

Several of the prisoners took off their caps and came up 
to the convoy officer with some request. Nekhludoff found 
out later that they were asking for places on the carts. 
Nekhliidoff saw how the officer, without looking at the pris- 
oners, drew in a whiff from his cigarette, and then suddenly 
waved his short arm in front of one of the prisoners, who 
quickly drew his shaved head back between hi v shoulders 
as if afraid of a blow, and sprang back. 

380 Resurrection 

" I will give you a lift such that you'll remember. You'll 
get there on foot right enough, " shouted the officer. Only 
one of the men was granted his request — an old man with 
chains on his legs; and Nekhludoff saw the old man take 
off his pancake-shaped cap, and go up to the cart crossing 
himself. He could not manage to get up on the cart because 
of the chains that prevented his lifting his old legs, and 
a woman who was sitting in the cart at last pulled him in 
by the arm. 

When all the sacks were in the carts, and those who were 
allowed to get in were seated, the officer took off his cap, 
wiped his forehead, his bald head and fat, red neck, and 
crossed himself. 

" March," commanded the officer. The soldiers' guns 
gave a click ; the prisoners took off their caps and crossed 
themselves, those who were seeing them off shouted some- 
thing, the prisoners shouted in answer, a row arose among 
the women, and the gang, surrounded by the soldiers in 
their white blouses, moved forward, raising the dust with 
their chained feet. The soldiers went in front ; then came 
the convicts condemned to hard labour, clattering with their 
chains; then the exiled and those exiled by the Communes, 
chained in couples by their wrists ; then the women. After 
them, on the carts loaded with sacks, came the weak. High 
up on one of the carts sat a woman closely wrapped up, 
emd she kept shrieking and sobbing. 

Kesurtection 381 



The procession was such a long one that the carts with 
the luggage and the weak started only when those in front 
were already out of sight, When the last of the carts moved, 
Nekhludoff got into the trap that stood waiting for him and 
told the isvostchik to catch up the prisoners in front, so that 
he could see if he knew any of the men in the gang, and then 
try and find out Maslova among the women and ask her if 
she had received the things he sent. 

It was very hot, and a cloud of dust that was raised by a 
thousand tramping feet stood all the time over the gang that 
was moving down the middle of the street. The prisoners 
were walking quickly, and the slow-going isvostchik' s horse 
was some time in catching them up. Row upon row they 
passed, those strange and terrible-looking creatures, none of 
whom Nekhludoff knew. 

On they went, all dressed alike, moving a thousand feet all 
shod alike, swinging their free arms as if to keep up their 
spirits. There were so many of them, they all looked so 
much alike, and they were all placed in such unusual, pe- 
culiar circumstances, that they seemed to Nekhludoff to be 
not men but some sort of strange and terrible creatures. This 
impression passed when he recognised in the crowd of con- 
victs the murderer Federoff, and among the exiles Okhotin 
the wit, and another tramp who had appealed to him for as- 
sistance. Almost all :he prisoners turned and looked at the 
trap that was passing them and at the gentleman inside. 
Federoff tossed his head backwards as a sign that he had rec- 
ognised Nekhludoff, Okhotin winked, but neither of them 
bowed, considering it not the thing. 

As soon as Nekhludoff came up to the women he saw 
Maslova; she was in the second row. The first in the row 
was a short-legged, black-eyed, hideous woman, who had her 
cloak tucked up in her girdle. This was Koroshavka. The 



next was a pregnant woman, who dragged herself along with 
difficulty. The third was Maslova ; she was carrying her 
sack on her shoulder, and looking straight before her. Her 
face looked calm and determined. The fourth in the row- 
was a young, lovely woman who was walking along briskly, 
dressed in a short cloak, her kerchief tied in peasant fashion. 
This was Theodosia. 

Nekhludoff got down and approached the women, mean- 
ing to ask Maslova if she had got the things he had sent her, 
and how she was feeling, but the convoy sergeant, who was 
walking on that side, noticed him at once, and ran towards 

" You must not do that, sir. It is against the regulations 
to appr**ich the gang," shouted the sergeant as he came up. 

But when he recognised Nekhludoff (every one in the 
prison knew Nekhludoff) the sergeant raised his fingers to 
his cap, and, stopping in front of Nekhludoff, said : " Not 
now; wait till we get to the railway station; here it is not 
allowed. Don't lag behind ; march ! " he shouted to the con- 
victs, and putting on a brisk air, he ran back to his place at a 
trot, in spite of the heat and the elegant new boots on his 

Nekhludoff went on to the pavement and told the isvost- 
chik to follow him ; himself walking, so as to keep the con- 
victs in sight. Wherever the gang passed it attracted atten- 
tion mixed with horror and compassion. Those who drove 
past leaned out of the vehicles and followed the prisoners with 
their eyes. Those on foot stopped and looked with fear and 
surprise at the terrible sight. Some came up and gave alms 
to the prisoners. The alms were received by the convoy. 
Some, as if they were hypnotised, followed the gang, but 
then stopped, shook their heads, and followed the prisoners 
only with their eyes. Everywhere the people came out of the 
gates and doors, and called others to come out, too, or leaned 
out of the windows looking, silent and immovable, at the 
frightful procession. At a cross-road a fine carriage was 
stopped by the gang. A fat coachman, with a shiny face and 
two rows of buttons on his back, sat on the box ; a married 
couple sat facing the horses, the wife, a pale, thin woman, 
with a light-coloured bonnet on her head and a bright sun- 
shade in her hand, the husband with a top-hat and a well-cut 
light-coloured overcoat. On the seat in front sat their chil- 
dren — a well-dressed little girl, with loose, fair hair, and as 

Resurrection 383 

fresh as a flower, who also held a bright parasol, and an 
eight-year-old boy, with a long, thin neck and sharp collar- 
bones, a sailor hat with long ribbons on his head. 

The father was angrily scolding the coachman because he 
had not passed in front of the gang when he had a chance, 
and the mother frowned and half closed her eyes with a look 
of disgust, shielding herself from the dust and the sun with 
her silk sunshade, which she held close to her face. 

The fat coachman frowned angrily at the unjust rebukes 
of his master — who had himself given the order to drive 
along that street — and with difficulty held in the glossy, 
black horses, foaming under their harness and impatient to 
go on. 

The policeman wished with all his soul to please the 
owner of the fine equipage by stopping the gang, yet felt 
that the dismal solemnity of the procession could not be 
broken even for so rich a gentleman. He only raised his 
fingers to his cap to show his respect for riches, and looked 
severely at the prisoners as if promising in any case to pro- 
tect the owners of the carriage from them. So the carriage 
had to wait till the whole of the procession had passed, and 
could only move on when the last of the carts, laden with 
sacks and prisoners, rattled by. The hysterical woman who 
sat on one of the carts, and had grown calm, again began 
shrieking and sobbing when she saw the elegant carriage. 
Then the coachman tightened the reins with a slight touch, 
and the black trotters, their shoes ringing against the pav- 
ing stones, drew the carriage, softly swaying on its rubber 
tires, towards the country house where the husband, the 
wife, the girl, and the boy with the sharp collar-bones were 
going to amuse themselves. Neither the father nor the 
mother gave the girl and boy any explanation of what they 
had seen, so that the children had themselves to find out the 
meaning of this curious sight. The girl, taking the expres- 
sion of her father's and mother's faces into consideration, 
solved the problem by assuming that these people were quite 
another kind of men and women than her father and mother 
and their acquaintances, that they were bad people, and that 
they had therefore to be treated in the manner they were be- 
ing treated. 

Therefore the girl felt nothing but fear, and was glad 
when she could no longer see those people. 

But the boy with the long, thin neck, who looked at the 



procession of prisoners without taking his eyes off them, 
solved the question differently. 

He still knew, firmly and without any doubt, for he had it 
from God, that these people were just the same kind of peo- 
ple as he was, and like all other people, and therefore some 
one had done these people some wrong, something that ought 
not to have been done, and he was sorry for them, and felt 
no horror either of those who were shaved and chained or 
of those who had shaved and chained them. And so the 
boy's lips pouted more and more, and he made greater and 
greater efforts not to cry, thinking it a shame to cry in such 
a case. 

Resurrection 385 



Nekhludoff kept up with the quick pace of the convicts. 
Though lightly clothed he felt dreadfully hot, and it was 
hard to breathe in the stifling, motionless, burning air filled 
with dust. 

When he had walked about a quarter of a mile he again 
got into the trap, but it felt still hotter in the middle of the 
street. He tried to recall last night's conversation with his 
brother-in-law, but the recollections no longer excited him 
as they had done in the morning. They were dulled by the 
impressions made by the starting and procession of the gang, 
and chiefly by the intolerable heat. 

On the pavement, in the shade of some trees overhanging 
a fence, he saw two schoolboys standing over a kneeling man 
who sold ices. One of the boys was already sucking a pink 
spoon and enjoying his ices, the other was waiting for a 
glass that was being filled with something yellowish. 

" Where could I get a drink ? " Nekhludoff asked his is- 
vostchik, feeling an insurmountable desire for some refresh- 

" There is a good eating-house close by/' the isvostchik 
answered, and turning a corner, drove up to a door with a 
large signboard. Tke plump clerk in a Russian shirt, who 
stood behind the counter, and the waiters in their once white 
clothing who sat at the tables (there being hardly any cus- 
tomers) looked with curiosity at the unusual visitor and 
offered him their services. Nekhludoff asked £or a bottle of 
seltzer water and sat down some way from the window at a 
small table covered with a dirty cloth. Two men sat at an- 
other table with tea-things and a white bottle in front of 
them, mopping their foreheads, and calculating something 
in a friendly manner. One of them was dark and bald, and 
had just such a border of hair at the back as Rogozhinsky. 
This sight again reminded Nekhludoff of yesterday's talk 
with his brother-in-law and his wish to see him and 

386 Resurrection 

" I shall hardly be able to do it before the train starts/' he 
thought; " Td better write." He asked for paper, an en- 
velope, and a stamp, and as he was sipping the cool, efferves- 
cent water he considered what he should say. But his 
thoughts wandered, and he could not manage to compose a 

" My dear Nathalie, — I cannot go away with the heavy 
impression that yesterday's talk with your husband has left," 
he began. " What next ? Shall I ask him to forgive me 
what I said yesterday? But I only said what I felt, and he 
will think that I am taking it back. Besides, this interference 
of his in my private matters. . . . No, I cannot," and again 
he felt hatred rising in his heart towards that man so foreign 
to him. He folded the unfinished letter and put it in his 
pocket, paid, went out, and again got into the trap to catch up 
the gang. It had grown still hotter. The stones and 
the walls seemed to be breathing out hot air. The pavement 
seemed to scorch the feet, and Nekhludoff felt a burning sen- 
sation in his hand when he touched the lacquered splash- 
guard of his trap. 

The horse was jogging along at a weary trot, beating the 
uneven, dusty road monotonously with its hoofs, the isvost- 
chik kept falling into a doze, Nekhludoff sat without think- 
ing of anything. 

At the bottom of a street, in front of a large house, a 
group of people had collected, and a convoy soldier stood by. 

" What has happened? " Nekhludoff asked of a porter. 

" Something the matter with a convict." 

Nekhludoff got down and came up to the group. On the 
rough stones, where the pavement slanted down to the gut- 
ter, lay a broadly-built, red-bearded, elderly convict, with his 
head lower than his feet, and very red in the face. He had a 
grey cloak and grey trousers on, and lay on his back with the 
palms of his freckled hands downwards, and at long inter- 
vals his broad, high chest heaved, and he groaned, while his 
bloodshot eyes were fixed on the sky. By him stood a cross- 
looking policeman, a pedlar, a postman, a clerk, an old 
woman with a parasol, and a short-haired boy with an empty 

" They are weak. Having been locked up in prison they've 
got weak, and then they lead them through the most broil- 
ing heat," said the clerk, addressing Nekhludoff, who had 
just come up. 

Resurrection 387 

" He'll die, most likely/' said the woman with the parasol, 
in a doleful tone. 

" His shirt should be untied," said the postman. 

The policeman began, with his thick, trembling fingers, 
clumsily to untie the tapes that fastened the shirt round the 
red, sinewy neck. He was evidently excited and confused, 
but still thought it necessary to address the crowd. 

" What have you collected here for ? It is hot enough 
without your keeping the wind off." 

" They should have been examined by a doctor, and the 
weak ones left behind," said the clerk, showing off his knowl- 
edge of the law. 

The policeman, having undone the tapes of the shirt, rose 
and looked round. 

"Move on, I tell you. It is not your business, is it? 
What's thereto stare at? " he said, and turned to Nekhludoff 
for sympathy, but not finding any in his face he turned to 
the convoy soldier. 

But the soldier stood aside, examining the trodden-down 
heel of his boot, and was quite indifferent to the policeman's 

" Those whose business it is don't care. Is it right to 
do men to death like this? A convict is a convict, but still 
he is a man," different voices were heard saying in the 

" Put his head up higher, and give him some water," said 

" Water has been sent for," said the policeman, and taking 
the prisoner under the arms he with difficulty pulled his 
body a little higher up. 

" What's this gathering here ? " said a decided, authori- 
tative voice, and a police officer, with a wonderfully clean, 
shiny blouse, and still more shiny top-boots, came up to the 
assembled crowd. 

" Move on. No standing about here," he shouted to the 
crowd, before he knew what had attracted it. 

When he came near and saw the dying convict, he made 
a sign of approval with his head, just as if he had quite 
expected it, and, turning to the policeman, said, " How is 

The policeman said that, as a gang of prisoners was pass- 
ing, one of the convicts had fallen down, and the convoy 
officer had ordered him to be left behind. 

3 88 


u Well, that's all right. He must be taken to the police 
station. Call an isvostchik/' 

" A porter has gone for one/' said the policeman, with 
his fingers raised to his cap. 

The shopman began something about the heat. 

"Is it your business, eh? Move on," said the police 
officer, and looked so severely at him that the clerk was 

" He ought to have a little water," said Nekhludoff. The 
police officer looked severely at Nekhludoff also, but said 
nothing. When the porter brought a mug full of water, he 
told the policeman to offer some to the convict. The police- 
man raised the drooping head, and tried to pour a little 
water down the mouth ; but the prisoner could not swallow 
it, and it ran down his beard, wetting his jacket and his 
coarse, dirty linen shirt. 

" Pour it on his head," ordered the officer ; and the police- 
man took off the pancake-shaped cap and poured the water 
over the red curls and bald part of the prisoner's head. His 
eyes opened wide as if in fear, but his position remained 

Streams of dirt trickled down his dusty face, but the 
mouth continued to gasp in the same regular way, and his 
whole body shook. 

" And what's this? Take this one," said the police officer, 
pointing to Nekhludoff's isvostchik. " You, there, drive 

u p-" 

" I am engaged," said the isvostchik, dismally, and with- 
out looking up. 

" It is my isvostchik; but take him. I will pay you," said 
Nekhludoff, turning to the isvostchik. 

" Well, what are you waiting for ? " shouted the officer. 
" Catch hold." 

The policeman, the porter, and the convoy soldier lifted 
the dying man and carried him to the trap, and put him on 
the seat. But he could not sit up; his head fell back, and 
the whole of his body glided off the seat. 

" Make him lie down," ordered the officer. 

" It's all right, your honour ; I'll manage him like this," 
said the policeman, sitting down by the dying man, and 
clasping his strong, right arm round the body under the 
arms. The convoy soldier lifted the stockingless feet, in 
prison shoes, and put them into the trap. 

Resurrection 389 

The police officer looked around, and noticing the pan- 
cake-shaped hat of the convict lifted it up and put it on the 
wet, drooping head. 

" Go on," he ordered. 

The isvostchik looked angrily round, shook his head, and, 
accompanied by the convoy soldier, drove back to the police 
station. The policeman, sitting beside the convict, kept 
dragging up the body that was continually sliding down 
from the seat, while the head swung from side to side. 

The convoy soldier, who was walking by the side of the 
trap, kept putting the legs in their place. Nekhludoff fol» 
towed the trap. 

390 Resurrection 



The trap passed the fireman who stood sentinel at the 
entrance,* drove into the yard of the police station, and 
stopped at one of the doors. In the yard several firemen 
with their sleeves tucked up were washing some kind of cart 
and talking loudly. When the trap stopped, several police- 
men surrounded it, and taking the lifeless body of the 
convict under the arms, took him out of the trap, which 
creaked under him. The policeman who had brought the 
body got down, shook his numbed arm, took off his cap, 
and crossed himself. The body was carried through the 
door and up the stairs. Nekhludoff followed. In the small, 
dirty room where the body was taken there stood four beds. 
On two of them sat a couple of sick men in dressing-gowns, 
one with a crooked mouth, whose neck was bandaged, the 
other one in consumption. Two of the beds were empty ; 
the convict was laid on one of them. A little man, with 
glistening eyes and continually moving brows, with only his 
underclothes and stockings on, came up with quick, soft 
steps, looked at the convict and then at Nekhludoff, and 
burst into loud laughter. This was a madman who was 
being kept in the police hospital. 

" They wish to frighten me, but no, they won't succeed, " 
he said. 

The policemen who carried the corpse were followed by 
a police officer and a medical assistant. The medical assist- 
ant came up to the body and touched the freckled hand, 
already growing cold, which, though still soft, was deadly 
pale. He held it for a moment, and then let it go. It fell 
lifelessly on the stomach of the dead man. 

" He's ready," said the medical assistant, but, evidently to 
be quite in order, he undid the wet, brown shirt, and tossing 
back the curls from his ear, put it to the yellowish, broad, 

* The headquarters of the fire brigade an4 the police stations are 
geasraHy togstbsr in Mq§gqw ? 

Resurrection 391 

immovable chest of the convict. All were silent. The 
medical assistant raised himself again, shook his head, and 
touched with his fingers first one and then the other lid 
over the open, fixed blue eyes. 

" I'm not frightened, I'm not frightened." The madman 
kept repeating these words, and spitting in the direction of 
the medical assistant. 

" Well ? " asked the police officer. 

" Well ! He must be put into the mortuary." 

" Are you sure ? Mind," said the police officer. 

" It's time I should know," said the medical assistant, 
drawing the shirt over the body's chest. " However, I will 
send for Mathew Ivanovitch. Let him have a look. Petrov, 
call him," and the medical assistant stepped away from the 

" Take him to the mortuary," said the police officer. 
44 And then you must come into the office and sign," he 
added to the convoy soldier, who had not left the convict 
for a moment. 

" Yes, sir," said the soldier. 

The policemen lifted the body and carried it down again. 
Nekhliidoff wished to follow, but the madman kept him 

" You are not in the plot ! Well, then, give me a cigar- 
ette," he said. Nekhliidoff got out his cigarette case and 
gave him one. 

The madman, quickly moving his brows all the time, 
began relating how they tormented him by thought sugges- 

" Why, they are all against me, and torment and torture 
me through their mediums." 

" I beg your pardon," said Nekhliidoff, and without listen- 
ing any further he left the room and went out into the yard, 
wishing to know where the body would be put. 

The policemen with their burden had already crossed the 
yard, and were coming to the door of a cellar. Nekhliidoff 
wished to go up to them, but the police officer stopped him. 

"What do you want?" 

" Nothing." 

44 Nothing? Then go away." 

Nekhliidoff obeyed, and went back to his isvostchik, who 
was dozing. He awoke him, and they drove back towards 
the railway statiort 

392 Resurrection 

They had not made a hundred steps when they met a 
cart accompanied by a convoy soldier with a gun. On the 
cart lay another convict, who was already dead. The con- 
vict lay on his back in the cart, his shaved head, from which 
the pancake-shaped cap had slid over the black-bearded 
face down to the nose, shaking and thumping at every jolt. 
The driver, in his heavy boots, walked by the side of the 
cart, holding the reins ; a policeman followed on foot. 
Nekhludoff touched his isvostchik's shoulder. 

" Just look what they are doing," said the isvostchik, 
stopping his horse. 

Nekhludoff got down and, following the cart, again 
passed the sentinel and entered the gate of the police station. 
By this time the firemen had finished washing the cart, and 
a tall, bpny man, the chief of the fire brigade, with a coloured 
band round his cap, stood in their place, and, with his hands 
in his pockets, was severely looking at a fat-necked, well- 
fed, bay stallion that was being led up and down before him 
by a fireman. The stallion was lame on one of his fore feet, 
and the chief of the firemen was angrily saying something 
to a veterinary who stood by. 

The police officer was also present. When he saw the 
cart he went up to the convoy soldier. 

" Where did you bring him from? " he asked, shaking his 
head disapprovingly. 

" From the Gorbatovskaya," answered the policeman. 

" A prisoner? " asked the chief of the fire brigade. 

" Yes. It's the second to-day." 

" Well, I must say theyVe got some queer arrangements. 
Though of course it's a broiling day," said the chief of the 
fire brigade ; then, turning to the fireman who was leading 
the lame stallion, he shouted : " Put him into the corner 
stall. And as to you, you hound, I'll teach you how to cripple 
horses which are worth more than you are, you scoundrel." 

The dead man was taken from the cart by the policemen 
just in the same way as the first had been, and carried up- 
stairs into the hospital. Nekhludoff followed them as if 
he were hypnotised. 

" What do you want ? " asked one of the policemen. But 
Nekhludoff did not answer, and followed where the body 
was being carried. The madman, sitting on a bed, was 
smoking greedily the cigarette Nekhludoff had given him. 

" Ah, you've come back," he said, and laughed. When 

Resurrection 393 

he saw the body he made a face, and said, " Again ! I am 
sick of it. I am not a boy, am I, eh?" and he turned to 
Nekhludoff with a questioning smile. 

Nekhludoff was looking at the dead man, whose face, 
which had been hidden by his cap, was now visible. This 
convict was as handsome in face and body as the other was 
hideous. He was a man in the full bloom of life. Notwith- 
standing that he was disfigured by the half of his head being 
shaved, the straight, rather low forehead, raised a bit over 
the black, lifeless eyes, was very fine, and so was the nose 
above the thin, black moustaches. There was a smile on the 
lips that were already growing blue, a small beard outlined 
the lower part of the face, and on the shaved side of the 
head a firm, well-shaped ear was visible. 

One could see what possibilities of a higher life had been 
destroyed in this man. The fine bones of his hands and 
shackled feet, the strong muscles of all his well-proportioned 
limbs, showed what a beautiful, strong, agile human animal 
this had been. As an animal merely he had been a far more 
perfect one of his kind than the bay stallion, about the 
laming of which the fireman was so angry. 

Yet he had been done to death, and no one was sorry for 
him as a man, nor was any one sorry that so fine a working 
animal had perished. The only feeling evinced was that of 
annoyance because of the bother caused by the necessity of 
getting this body, threatening putrefaction, out of the way. 
The doctor and his assistant entered the hospital, accom- 
panied by the inspector of the police station. The doctor 
was a thick-set man, dressed in pongee silk coat and trousers 
of the same material, closely fitting his muscular thighs. 
The inspector was a little fat fellow, with a red face, round 
as a ball, which he made still broader by a habit he had of 
filling his cheeks with air, and slowly letting it out again. 
The doctor sat down on the bed by the side of the dead 
man, and touched the hands in the same way as his assistant 
had done, put his ear to the heart, rose, and pulled his 
trousers straight. " Could not be more dead," he said. 

The inspector filled his mouth with air and slowly blew 
it out again. 

" Which prison is he from ? " he asked the convoy soldier. 

The soldier told him, and reminded him of the chains on 
the dead man's feet. 

" I'll have them taken off ; we have got a smith about, the 



Lord be thanked," said the inspector, and blew up his 
cheeks again ; he went towards tire door, slowly letting out 
the air. 

" Why has this happened ? " Nekhhidoff asked the 

The doctor looked at him through his spectacles. 

" Why has what happened ? Why they die of sunstroke, 
you mean ? This is why : They sit all through the winter 
without exercise and without light, and suddenly they are 
taken out into the sunshine, and on a day like this, and they 
march in a crowd so that they get no air, and sunstroke is 
the result." 

" Then why are they sent out? " 

" Oh, as to that, go and ask those who send them. But 
may I ask who are you ? " 

" I am a stranger." 

" Ah, well, good-afternoon ; I have no time." The doctor 
was vexed ; he gave his trousers a downward pull, and went 
towards the beds of the sick. 

" Well, how are you getting on? " he asked the pale man 
with the crooked mouth and bandaged neck. 

Meanwhile the madman sat on a bed, and having finished 
his cigarette, kept spitting in the direction of the doctor. 

Nekhludofr went down into the yard and out of the gate 
past the firemen's horses and the hens and the sentinel in 
his brass helmet, and got into the trap, the driver of which 
had again fallen asleep. 

Resurrection 395 



When Nekhludoff came to the station, the prisoners 
were all seated in railway carriages with grated windows. 
Several persons, come to see them off, stood on the plat- 
form, but were not allowed to come up to the carriages. 

The convoy was much troubled that day. On the way 
from the prison to the station, besides the two Nekhludoff 
had seen, three other prisoners had fallen and died of sun- 
stroke. One was taken to the nearest police station like 
the first two, and the other two died at the railway station.* 
The convoy men were not troubled because five men who 
might have been alive died while in their charge. This did 
not trouble them, but they were concerned lest anything 
that the law required in such cases should be omitted. To 
convey the bodies to the places appointed, to deliver up 
their papers, to take them off the lists of those to be con- 
veyed to Nijni — all this was very troublesome, especially on 
so hot a day. 

It was this that occupied the convoy men, and before it 
could all be accomplished Nekhludoff and the others who 
asked for leave to go up to the carriages were not allowed 
to do so. Nekhludoff, however, was soon allowed to go up, 
because he tipped the convoy sergeant. The sergeant let 
Nekhludoff pass, but asked him to be quick and get his talk 
over before any of the authorities noticed. There were 18 
carriages in all, and except one carriage for the officials, 
they were full of prisoners. As Nekhludoff passed the car- 
riages he listened to what was going on in them. In all 
the carriages was heard the clanging of chains, the sound 
of bustle, mixed with loud and senseless language, but not a 
word was being said about their dead fellow-prisoners. The 
talk was all about sacks, drinking water, and the choice of 

* In Moscow, in the beginning of the eighth decade of this cen- 
tury, five convicts died of sunstroke in one day on their way from 
the Boutyrki prison to the Nijni railway station. 

396 Resurrection 

Looking into one of the carriages, Nekhludoff saw con- 
voy soldiers taking the manacles off the hands of the pris- 
oners. The prisoners held out their arms, and one of the 
soldiers unlocked the manacles with a key and took them 
off; the other collected them. 

After he had passed all the other carriages, Nekhludoff 
came up to the women's carriages. From the second of 
these he heard a woman's groans : " Oh, oh, oh ! O God ! 
Oh, oh ! O God ! " 

Nekhludoff passed this carriage and went up to a window 
of the third carriage, which a soldier pointed out to him. 
When he approached his face to the window, he felt the 
hot air, filled with the smell of perspiration, coming out of 
it, and heard distinctly the shrill sound of women's voices. 
All the seats were filled with red, perspiring, loudly-talking 
women, dressed in prison cloaks and white jackets. Nekh- 
ludoff's face at the window attracted their attention. Those 
nearest ceased talking and drew closer. Maslova, in her 
white jacket and her head uncovered, sat by the opposite 
window. The white-skinned, smiling Theodosia sat a little 
nearer. When she recognised Nekhludoff, she nudged 
Maslova and pointed to the window. Maslova rose hur- 
riedly, threw her kerchief over her black hair, and with a 
smile on her hot, red face came up to the window and took 
hold of one of the bars. 

" Well, it is hot/' she said, with a glad smile. 

" Did you get the things ? " 

* Yes, thank you.' 1 

" Is there anything more you want ? " asked Nekhludoff, 
while the air came out of the hot carriage as out of an oven. 

" I want nothing, thank you/' 

" If we could get a drink ? " said Theodosia. 

" Yes, if we could get a drink/' repeated Maslova. 

" Why, have you not got any water ? " 

44 They put some in, but it is all gone." 

" Directly, I will ask one of the convoy men. Now we 
shall not see each other till we get to Nijni." 

"Why? Are you going?" said Maslova, as if she did 
not know it, and looked joyfully at Nekhludoff. 

" I am going by the next train." 

Maslova said nothing, but only sighed deeply. 

" Is it true, sir, that 12 convicts have been done to 

Resurrection 397 

death ? " said a severe-looking old prisoner with a deep 
voice like a man's. 

It was Korableva. 

" I did not hear of 12 ; I have seen two," said Nekhludoff. 

" They say there were 12 they killed. And will nothing 
be done to them ? Only think ! The fiends ! " 

" And have none of the women fallen ill ? " Nekhludoff 

" Women are stronger/' said another of the prisoners — 
a short little woman, and laughed ; " only there's one that 
has taken it into her head to be delivered. There she goes," 
she said, pointing to the next carriage, whence proceeded 
the groans. 

" You ask if we want anything," said Maslova, trying to 
keep the smile of joy from her lips ; " could not this woman 
be left behind, suffering as she is ? There, now, if you would 
tell the authorities." 

" Yes, I will" 

" And one thing more ; could she not see her husband, 
Taras ? " she added, pointing with her eyes to the smiling 

" He is going with you, is he not? " 

" Sir, you must not talk," said a convoy sergeant, not the 
one who had let Nekhludoff come up. Nekhludoff left the 
carriage and went in search of an official to whom he might 
speak for the woman in travail and about Taras, but could 
not find him, nor get an answer from any of the convoy for 
a long time. They were all in a bustle ; some were leading a 
prisoner somewhere or other, others running to get them- 
selves provisions, some were placing their things in the car- 
riages or attending on a lady who was going to accompany 
the convoy officer, and they answered Nekhludoff's ques- 
tions unwillingly. Nekhludoff found the convoy officer 
only after the second bell had been rung. The officer with 
his short arm was wiping the moustaches that covered his 
mouth and shrugging his shoulders, reproving the corporal 
for something or other. 

" What is it you want ? " he asked Nekhludoff. 

" You've got a woman there who is being confined, so I 
thought best " 

" Well, let her be confined ; we shall see later on," and 
briskly swinging his short arms, he ran up to his carriage. 
At the moment the guard passed with a whistle in his hand. 

398 Resurrection 

and from the people on the platform and from the women's 
carriages there arose a sound of weeping and words of 

Nekhludoff stood on the platform by the side of Taras, 
and looked how, one after the other, the carriages glided 
past him, with the shaved heads of the men at the grated 
windows. Then the first of the women's carriages came up, 
with women's heads at the windows, some covered with ker- 
chiefs and some uncovered, then the second, whence pro- 
ceeded the same groans, then the carriage where Maslova 
was. She stood with the others at the window, and looked 
at Nekhludoff with a pathetic smile. 

Resurrection 399 



There were still two hours before the passenger train by 
which Nekhliidoff was going would start. He had thought 
of using this interval to see his sister again; but after the 
impressions of the morning he felt much excited and so 
done up that, sitting down on a sofa in the first-class re- 
freshment-room, he suddenly grew so drowsy that he turned 
over on to his side, and, laying his face on his hand, fell 
asleep at once. A waiter in a dress coat with a napkin in his 
hand woke him. 

" Sir, sir, are you not Prince Nekhludoff ? There's a lady 
looking for you/' 

Nekhludoff started up and recollected where he was and 
all that had happened in the morning. 

He saw in his imagination the procession of prisoners, 
the dead bodies, the railway carriages with barred windows,* 
and the women locked up in them, one of whom was groan- 
ing in travail with no one to help her, and another who was 
pathetically smiling at him through the bars. 

The reality before his eyes was very different, i.e., a table 
with vases, candlesticks and crockery, and agile waiters 
moving round the table, and in the background a cupboard 
and a counter laden with fruit and bottles, behind it a bar- 
man, and in front the backs of passengers who had come up 
for refreshments. When Nekhludoff had risen and sat 
gradually collecting his thoughts, he noticed that everybody 
in the room was inquisitively looking at something that was 
passing by the open doors. 

He also looked, and saw a group of people carrying a 
chair on which sat a lady whose head was wrapped in a 
kind of airy fabric. 

Nekhludoff thought he knew the footman who was sup- 
porting the chair in front. And also the man behind, and a 
doorkeeper with gold cord on his cap, seemed familiar. A 
lady's maid with a fringe and an apron, who was carrying a 
parcel, a parasol, and something round in a leather case, 
was walking behind the chair. Then came Prince Korcha- 
gin, with bis thick lips, apoplectic nsek, mi & travelling 1 cap 

400 Resurrection 

on his head; behind him Missy, her cousin Misha, and an 
acquaintance of NekhliidofiPs — the long-necked diplomat 
Osten, with his protruding Adam's apple and his unvarying 
merry mood and expression. He was saying something 
very emphatically, though jokingly, to the smiling Missy. 
The Korchagins were moving from their estate near the 
city to the estate of the Princess's sister on the Nijni rail- 
way. The procession — the men carrying the chair, the 
maid, and the doctor — vanished into the ladies' waiting- 
room, evoking a feeling of curiosity and respect in the on- 
lookers. But the old Prince remained and sat down at the 
table, called a waiter, and ordered food and drink. Missy 
and Osten also remained in the refreshment-room and were 
about to sit down, when they saw an acquaintance in the 
doorway, and went up to her. It was Nathalie Rogo- 
zhinskv. Nathalie came into the refreshment-room accom- 
panied by Agraphena Petrovna, and both looked round the 
room. Nathalie noticed at one and the same moment both 
her brother and Missy. She first went up to Missy, only 
nodding to her brother; but, having kissed her, at once 
turned to him. 

" At last I have found you/' she said. Nekhhidoff rose 
to greet Missy, Misha, and Osten, and to say a few words 
to them. Missy told him about their house in the country 
having been burnt down, which necessitated their moving 
to her aunt's. Osten began relating a funny story about a 
fire. Nekhludoff paid no attention, and turned to his sister. 
" How glad I am that you have come." 

" I have been here a long time," she said. " Agraphena 
Petrovna is with me." And she pointed to Agraphena 
Petrovna, who, in a waterproof and with a bonnet on her 
head, stood some way off, and bowed to him with kindly 
dignity and some confusion, not wishing to intrude. 

" We looked for you everywhere." 

" And I had fallen asleep here. How glad I am that you 
have come," repeated Nekhliidoff. " I had begun to write to 

" Really ? " she said, looking frightened. " What about ? " 

Missy and the gentleman, noticing that an intimate conver- 
sation was about to commence between the brother and sis- 
ter, went away. Nekhludoff and his sister sat down by the 
window on a velvet-covered sofa, on which lay a plaid, a box., 
and a few other things. 

Resurrection 401 

" Yesterday, after I left you, I felt inclined to return and 
express my regret, but I did not know how he would take it," 
said Nekhludoff. " I spoke hastily to your husband, and this 
tormented me." 

" I knew," said his sister, " that you did not mean to. Oh, 
you know ! " and the tears came to her eyes, and she touched 
his hand. The sentence was not clear, but he understood it 
perfectly, and was touched by what it expressed. Her words 
meant that, besides the love for her husband which held her 
in its sway, she prized and considered important the love she 
had for him, her brother, and that every misunderstanding 
between them caused her deep suffering. 

" Thank you, thank you. Oh ! what I have seen to-day ! " 
he said, suddenly recalling the second of the dead convicts. 
" Two prisoners have been done to death." 

"Done to death? How?" 

" Yes, done to death. They led them in this heat, and two 
died of sunstroke." 

" Impossible ! What, to-day? Just now? " 

" Yes, just now. I have seen their bodies." 

" But why done to death ? Who killed them ? " asked 

" They who forced them to go killed them," said Nekhlu- 
doff, with irritation, feeling that she looked at this, too, with 
her husband's eyes. 

" Oh, Lord ! " said Agraphena Petrovna, who had come 
up to them. 

" Yes, we have not the slightest idea of what is being done 
to these unfortunate beings. But it ought to be known," 
added Nekhludoff, and looked at old Korchagin, who sat 
with a napkin tied round him and a bottle before him, and 
who looked round at Nekhludoff. 

" Nekhludoff," he called out, " won't you join me and take 
some refreshment? It is excellent before a journey." 

Nekhludoff refused, and turned away. 

" But what are you going to do ? " Nathalie continued. 

" What I can. I don't know, but I feel I must do some- 
thing. And I shall do what I am able to." 

" Yes, I understand. And how about them ? " she con- 
tinued, with a smile and a look towards Korchagin. "' Is it 
possible that it is all over ? " 

" Completely and I think without any regret on either 

4-02 Resurrection 

" It is a pity. I am sorry. I am fond of her. However, 
it's all right. But why do you wish to bind yourself ? " she 
added shyly. " Why are you going? " 

" I go because I must," answered Nekhludoff, seriously 
and dryly, as if wishing to stop this conversation. But he 
felt ashamed of his coldness towards his sister at once. 
" Why not tell her all I am thinking? " he thought, " and let 
Agraphena Petrovna also hear it," he thought, with a look 
at the old servant, whose presence made the wish to repeat 
his decision to his sister even stronger. 

" You mean my intention to marry Katusha? Well, you 
see, I made up my mind to do it, but she refuses definitely 
and firmly," he said, and his voice shook, as it always did 
when he spoke of it. " She does not wish to accept my sac- 
rifice, but is herself sacrificing what in her position means 
much, and I cannot accept this sacrifice, if it is only a mo- 
mentary impulse. And so I am going with her, and shall be 
where she is, and shall try to lighten her fate as much as I 

Nathalie said nothing. Agraphena Petrovna looked at her 
with a questioning look, and shook her head. At this mo- 
ment the former procession issued from the ladies' room. 
The same handsome footman (Philip) and the doorkeeper 
were carrying the Princess Korchagin. She stopped the men 
who were carrying her, and motioned to Nekhludoff to ap- 
proach, and, with a pitiful, languishing air, she extended her 
white, ringed hand, expecting the firm pressure of his hand 
with a sense of horror. 

" Epouvantable!" she said, meaning the heat. " I cannot 
stand it! Ce climat me titer And, after a short talk about 
the horrors of the Russian climate, she gave the men a sign 
to go on. 

" Be sure and come," she added, turning her long face 
towards Nekhludoff as she was borne away. 

The procession with the Princess turned to the right 
towards the first-class carriages. Nekhludoff, with the por- 
ter who was carrying his things, and Taras with his bag, 
turned to the left. 

" This is my companion," said Nekhludoff to his sister, 
pointing to Taras, whose story he had told her before. 

" Surely not third class ? " said Nathalie, when Nekhludoff 
stopped in front of a third-class carriage, and Taras and the 
porter with the things went in. 

Resurrection 403 

" Yes ; it is more convenient for me to be with Taras," he 
said. " One thing more," he added ; " up to now I have not 
given the Kousminski land to the peasants ; so that, in case 
of my death, your children will inherit it." 

" Dmitri, don't ! " said Nathalie. 

" If I do give it away, all I can say is that the rest will be 
theirs, as it is not likely I shall marry; and if I do marry 
I shall have no children, so that " 

" Dmitri, don't talk like that ! " said Nathalie. And yet 
Nekhludoff noticed that she was glad to hear him say it. 

Higher up, by the side of a first-class carriage, there stood 
a group of people still looking at the carriage into which the 
Princess Korchagin had been carried. Most of the pas- 
sengers w T ere already seated. Some of the late comers hur- 
riedly clattered along the boards of the platform, the guard 
was closing the doors and asking the passengers to get in and 
those who were seeing them of? to come out. 

Nekhludoff entered the hot, smelling carriage, but at once 
stepped out again on to the small platform at the back of the 
carriage. Nathalie stood opposite the carriage, with her 
fashionable bonnet and cape, by the side of Agraphena 
Petrovna, and was evidently trying to find something to say. 

She could not even say ecrivez, because they had long ago 
laughed at this word, habitually spoken by those about to 
part. The short conversation about money matters had in a 
moment destroyed the tender brotherly and sisterly feelings 
that had taken hold of them. They felt estranged, so that 
Nathalie was glad when the train moved ; and she could only 
say, nodding her head with a sad and tender look, " Good- 
bye, good-bye, Dmitri." But as soon as the carriage had 
passed her she thought of how she should repeat her conver- 
sation with her brother to her husband, and her face became 
serious and troubled. 

Nekhludoff, too, though he had nothing but the kindest 
feelings for his sister, and had hidden nothing from her, now 
felt depressed and uncomfortable with her, and was glad to 
part. He felt that the Nathalie who was once so near to him 
no longer- existed, and in her place was only a slave of that 
hairy, unpleasant husband, who was so foreign to him. He 
saw it clearly when her face lit up with peculiar animation as 
he spoke of what would peculiarly interest her husband, i.e., 
the giving up of the land to the peasants and the inheritance. 

And this made him sad. 

404 Resurrection 



The heat in the large third-class carriage, which had been 
standing in the burning sun all day, was so great that Nekh- 
liidoff did not go in, but stopped on the little platform behind 
the carriage which formed a passage to the next one. But 
there was not a breath of fresh air here either, and Nekhlu- 
doff breathed freely only when the train had passed the build- 
ings and the draught blew across the platform. 

" Yes, killed," he repeated to himself, the words he had 
used to his sister. And in his imagination in the midst of all 
other impressions there arose with wonderful clearness the 
beautiful face of the second dead convict, with the smile of 
the lips, the severe expression of the brows, and the small, 
firm ear below the shaved bluish skull. 

And what seemed terrible was that he had been murdered, 
and no one knew who had murdered him. Yet he had been 
murdered. He was led out like all the rest of the prisoners 
by Maslennikoff's orders. Maslennikoff had probably given 
the order in the usual manner, had signed with his stupid 
flourish the paper with the printed heading, and most cer- 
tainly would not consider himself guilty. Still less would the 
careful doctor who examined the convicts consider himself 
guilty. He had performed his duty accurately, and had sep- 
arated the weak. How could he have foreseen this terrible 
heat, or the fact that they would start so late in the day and 
in such crowds? The prison inspector? But the inspector 
had only carried into execution the order that on a given day 
a certain number of exiles and convicts — men and women — 
had to be sent off. The convoy officer could not be guilty 
either, for his business was to receive a certain number of 
persons in a certain place, and to deliver up the same number. 
He conducted them in the usual manner, and could not fore- 
see that two such strong men as those Nekhludofif saw would 
not be able to stand it and would die. No one is guilty, 
and yet the men have been murdered by these people who are 
not guilty of their murder. 

Resurrection 405 

v All . this comes," Nekhludoff thought, " from the fact 
that all these people, governors, inspectors, police officers, 
and men, consider that there are circumstances in which 
human relations are not necessary between human beings, 
All these men, Maslennikoff, and the inspector, and the con- 
voy officer, if they were not governor, inspector, officer, 
' would have considered twenty times before sending people 
in such heat in such a mass — would have stopped twenty 
times on the way, and, seeing that a man was growing weak, 
gasping for breath, would have led him into the shade, 
would have given him water and let him rest, and if an 
accident had still occurred they would have expressed pity 
But they not only did not do it, but hindered others from 
doing it, because they considered not men and their duty 
towards them, but only the office they themselves filled, and 
held what that office demanded of them to be above human 
relations. That's what it is," Nekhludoff went on in his 
thoughts. " If one acknowledges but for a single hour 
that anything can be more important than love for one's 
fellowmen, even in some one exceptional case, any crime 
can be committed without a feeling of guilt. " 

Nekhludoff was so engrossed by his thoughts that he did 
not notice how the weather changed. The sun was covered 
over by a low-hanging, ragged cloud. A compact, light 
grey cloud was rapidly coming from the west, and was al- 
ready falling in heavy, driving rain on the fields and woods 
far in the distance. Moisture, coming from the cloud, 
mixed with the air. Now and then the cloud was rent by 
flashes of lightning, and peals of thunder mingled more and 
more often with the rattling of the train. The cloud came 
nearer and nearer, the rain-drops — driven by the wind — ■ 
began to spot the platform and Nekhludoff's coat ; and he 
stepped to the other side of the little platform, and, inhaling 
the fresh, moist air — filled with the smell of corn and wet 
earth that had long been waiting for rain — -he stood looking 
at the gardens, the woods, the yellow rye fields, the green 
oatfields, the dark-green strips of potatoes in bloom, that 
glided past. Everything looked as if covered over with var- 
nish — the green turned greener, the yellow yellower, the 
black blacker. 

" More ! more ! " said Nekhludoff, gladdened by ^e sight 
of gardens and fields revived by the beneficent shower. The 
shower did not last long. Part of the cloud had come down 



in rain, part passed over, and the last fine drops fell straight 
on to the earth. The sun reappeared, everything began to 
glisten, and in the east — not very high above the horizon — - 
appeared a bright rainbow, with the violet tint very distinct 
and broken only at one end. 

" Why, what was I thinking about ? " Nekhludoff asked 
himself when all these changes in nature were over, and the 
train ran into a cutting between two high banks. 

" Oh ! I was thinking that all those people (inspector, con- 
voy men — all those in the service) are for the greater part 
kind people — cruel only because they are serving. " He 
recalled MaslennikofFs indifference when he told him about 
what was being done in the prison, the inspector's severity, 
the cruelty of the convoy officer when he refused places on 
the carts to those who asked for them, and paid no atten- 
tion to the fact that there was a woman in travail in the 
train. All these people were evidently invulnerable and 
impregnable to the simplest feelings of compassion only be- 
cause they held offices. " As officials they were im- 
permeable to the feelings of humanity, as this paved 
ground is impermeable to the rain." Thus thought 
Nekhludoff as he looked at the railway embank- 
ment paved with stones of different colours, down 
which the water was running in streams instead of soaking 
into the earth. " Perhaps it is necessary to pave the banks 
with stones, but it is sad to look at the ground, which might 
be yielding corn, grass, bushes, or trees in the same way as 
the ground visible up there is doing — deprived of vegeta- 
tion, and so it is with men," thought Nekhludoff. " Per- 
haps these governors, inspectors, policemen, are needed, but 
it is terrible to see men deprived of the chief human attribute, 
that of love and sympathy for one another. The thing is," 
he continued, " that these people consider lawful what is not 
lawful, and do not consider the eternal, immutable law, writ- 
ten in the hearts of men by God, as law. That is why I feel 
so depressed when I am with these people. I am simply 
afraid of them, and really they are terrible, more terrible 
than robbers. A robber might, after all, feel pity, but they 
can feel no pity, they are inured against pity as these stones 
are against vegetation. That is what makes them terrible. 
It is said that the Pougatcheffs,* the Razins * are terrible. 

♦Leaders of rebellions in Russia; Stenka Razin in the 17th and 
Pougatcheff in the 18th century. 

Resurrection 407 

These are a thousand times more terrible/ 5 he continued, in 
his thoughts. " If a psychological problem were set to find 
means of making men of our time — Christian, humane, sim- 
ple, kind people — perform the most horrible crimes without 
feeling guilty, only one solution could be devised : to go on 
doing what is being done. It is only necessary that these 
people should be governors, inspectors, policemen ; that 
they should be fully convinced that there is a kind of busi- 
ness, called government service, which allows men to treat 
other men as things, without human brotherly relations 
with them, and also that these people should be so linked 
together by this government service that the responsibility 
for the results of their actions should not fall on any one of 
them separately. Without these conditions, the terrible acts 
I witnessed to-day would be impossible in our times. It 
all lies in the fact that men think there are circumstances 
in which one may deal with human beings without love ; and 
there are no such circumstances. One may deal with things 
without love ; one may cut down trees, make bricks, ham- 
mer iron without love ; but you cannot deal with men with- 
out it, just as one cannot deal with bees without being careful. 
If you deal carelessly with bees you will injure them, and 
will yourself be injured. And so with men. It cannot be 
otherwise, because natural love is the fundamental law of 
human life. It is true that a man cannot force another to 
love him, as he can force him to work for him ; but it does 
not follow that a man may deal with men without love, es- 
pecially to demand anything from them. If you feel no 
love, sit still, ,, Nekhludoff thought ; " occupy yourself with 
things, with yourself, with anything you like, only not with 
men. You can only eat without injuring yourself when 
you feel inclined to eat, so you can only deal with men use- 
fully when you love. Only let yourself deal with a man 
without love, as I did yesterday with my brother-in-law, and 
there are no limits to the suffering you will bring on your- 
self, as all my life proves. Yes, yes, it is so," thought Nekh- 
ludoff; "it is good; yes, it is good," he repeated, enjoying 
the freshness after the torturing heat, and conscious of hav- 
ing attained to the fullest clearness on a question that had 
long occupied him. 





The carriage in which Nekhludoff had taken his place 
was half filled with people. There were in it servants, work- 
ing men, factory hands, butchers, Jews, shopmen, work- 
men's wives, a soldier, two ladies, a young one and an old 
one with bracelets on her arm, and a severe-looking gentle- 
man with a cockade on his black cap. All these people were 
sitting quietly ; the bustle of taking their places was long 
over ; some sat cracking and eating sunflower seeds, some 
smoking, some talking. 

Taras sat, looking very happy, opposite the door, keep- 
ing a place for Nekhludoff, and carrying on an animated 
conversation with a man in a cloth coat who sat opposite to 
him, and who was, as Nekhludoff afterwards found out, a 
gardener going to a new situation. Before reaching the 
place where Taras sat Nekhludoff stopped between the 
seats near a reverend-looking old man with a white beard 
and nankeen coat, who was talking with a young woman 
in peasant dress. A little girl of about seven, dressed in a 
new peasant costume, sat, her little legs dangling above the 
floor, by the side of the woman, and kept cracking seeds. 

The old man turned round, and, seeing Nekhludoff, he 
moved the lappets of his coat off the varnished seat next 
to him, and said, in a friendly manner : 

" Please, here's a seat.' ' 

Nekhludoff thanked him, and took the seat. As soon 
as he was seated the woman continued the interrupted con- 

She was returning to her village, and related how her 
husband, whom she had been visiting, had received her in 

" I was there during the carnival, and now, by the Lord's 
help, I've been again," she said. " Then, God willing, at 
Christinas I'll go again." 

" That's right," said the old man, with a look at Nel<5* 

Resurrection 409 

ltidoff, " it's the best way to go and see him, else a young 
man can easily go to the bad, living in a town/' 

" Oh, no, sir, mine is not such a man. No nonsense of any 
kind about him; his life is as good as a young maiden's. 
The money he earns he sends home all to a copeck. And, 
as to our girl here, he was so glad to see her, there are no 
words for it," said the woman, and smiled. 

The little girl, who sat cracking her seeds and spitting 
out the shells, listened to her mother's words, and, as if to 
confirm them, looked up with calm, intelligent eyes into 
Nekhhidoff's and the old man's faces. 

" Well, if he's good, that's better still," said the old man. 
"And none of that sort of thing?" he added, with a look 
at a couple, evidently factory hands, who sat at the other 
side of the carriage. The husband, with his head thrown 
back, was pouring vodka down his throat out of a bottle, 
and the wife sat holding a bag, out of which they had taken 
the bottle, and watched him intently. 

" No, mine neither drinks nor smokes," said the woman 
who was conversing with the old man, glad of the oppor- 
tunity of praising her husband once more. " No, sir, the 
earth does not hold many such." And, turning to Nekhlti- 
doff, she added, " That's the sort of man he is." 

" What could be better," said the old man, looking at the 
factory worker, who had had his drink and had passed the 
bottle to his wife. The wife laughed, shook her head, and 
also raised the bottle to her lips. 

Noticing Nekhludoff's and the old man's look directed 
towards them, the factory worker addressed the former. 

" What is it, sir? That we are drinking? Ah, no one sees 
how we work, but every one sees how we drink. I have 
earned it, and I am drinking and treating my wife, and no 
one else." 

" Yes, yes," said Nekhliidoff, not knowing what to say. 

u True, sir. My wife is a steady woman. I am satisfied 
with my wife, because she can feel for me. Is it right what 
I'm saying, Mavra? " 

" There you are, take it, I don't want any more," said 
the wife, returning the bottle to him. " And what are you 
jawing for like that? " she added. 

" There now ! She's good — that good ; and suddenly 
she'll begin squeaking like a wheel that's not greased. 
Mavra, is it right what I'm saying? " 

41 o Resurrection 

Mavra laughed and moved her hand with a tipsy gesture. 
" Oh, my, he's at it again." 

" There now, she's that good — that good ; but let her get 
her tail over the reins, and you can't think what she'll be up 
to. . . . Is it right what I'm saying? You must excuse 
me, sir, I've had a drop ! What's to be done ? " said the fac- 
tory worker, and, preparing to go to sleep, put his head in his 
wife's lap. 

Nekhludoff sat a while with the old man, who told him all 
about himself. The old man was a stove builder, who had 
been working for 53 years, and had built so many stoves that 
he had lost count, and now he wanted to rest, but had no 
time. He had been to town and found employment for the 
young ones, and was now going to the country to see the 
people at home. After hearing the old man's story, Nekhlu- 
doff went to the place that Taras was keeping for him. 

" It's all right, sir ; sit down ; we'll put the bag here," said 
the gardener, who sat opposite Taras, in a friendly tone, 
looking up into Nekhludoff's face. 

" Rather a tight fit, but no matter since we are friends," 
said Taras, smiling, and lifting the bag, which weighed more 
than five stone, as if it were a feather, he carried it across to 
the window. 

" Plenty of room ; besides, we might stand up a bit ; and 
even under the seat it's as comfortable as you could wish. 
What's the good of humbugging?" he said, beaming with 
friendliness and kindness. 

Taras spoke of himself as being unable to utter a word 
when quite sober ; but drink, he said, helped him to find the 
right words, and then he could express everything. And in 
reality, when he was sober Taras kept silent ; but when he 
had been drinking, which happened rarely and only on special 
occasions, he became very pleasantly talkative. Then he 
spoke a great deal, spoke well and very simply and truth- 
fully, and especially with great kindliness, which shone in his 
gentle, blue eyes and in the friendly smile that never left his 
lips. He was in such a state to-day. Nekhludoff's approach 
interrupted the conversation ; but when he had put the bag in 
its place, Taras sat down again, and with his strong hands 
folded in his lap, and looking straight into the gardener's 
face, continued his story. He was telling his new acquaint- 
ance about his wife and giving every detail : what she was 
being sent to Siberia for, and why he was now following 

Resurrection 411 

her. Nekhliidoff had never heard a detailed account of this 
affair, and so he listened with interest. When he came up, 
the story had reached the point when the attempt to poison 
was already an accomplished fact, and the family had dis- 
covered that it was Theodosia's doing. 

" It's about my troubles that I'm talking," said Taras, 
addressing Nekhliidoff with cordial friendliness. " I have 
chanced to come across such a hearty man, and we've got 
into conversation, and I'm telling him all." 

" I see," said Nekhliidoff. 

" Well, then in this way, my friend, the business became 
known. Mother, she takes that cake. ' I'm going,' says she, 
' to the police officer.' My father is a just old man. ' Wait, 
wife,' says he, ' the little woman is a mere child, and did not 
herself know what she was doing. We must have pity. She 
may come to her senses.' But, dear me, mother would not 
hear of it. ' While we keep her here,' she says, ' she may 
destroy us all like cockroaches.' Well, friend, so she goes 
off for the police officer. He bounces in upon us at once. 
Calls for witnesses." 

" Well, and you? " asked the gardener. 

" Well, I, you see, friend, roll about with the pain in my 
stomach, and vomit. All my inside is turned inside out; I 
can't even speak. Well, so father he goes and harnesses the 
mare, and puts Theodosia into the cart, and is off to the 
police-station, and then to the magistrate's. And she, you 
know, just as she had done from the first, so also there, con- 
fesses all to the magistrate — where she got the arsenic, and 
how she kneaded the cake. ' Why did you do it ? ' says he. 
' Why/ says she, ' because he's hateful to me. I prefer Si- 
beria to a life with him.' That's me," and Taras smiled. 

" Well, so she confessed all. Then, naturally — the prison, 
and father returns alone. And harvest time just coming, and 
mother the only woman at home, and she no longer strong. 
So we think what we are to do. Could we not bail her out ? 
So father went to see an official. No go. Then another. I 
think he went to five of them, and we thought of giving it up. 
Then we happened to come across a clerk — such an artful 
one as you don't often find. ' You give me five roubles, and 
I'll get her out/ says he. He agreed to do it for three. Well, 
and what do you think, friend ? I went and pawned the linen 
she herself had woven, and gave him the money. As soon 
as he had written that paper." drawled out Taras, just as if 

412 Resurrection 

he were speaking of a shot being fired, " we succeeded at 
once. I went to fetch her myself. Well, friend, so I got to 
town, put up the mare, took the paper, and went to the 
prison. 'What do you want?' 'This is what I want/ say 
I,' you've got my wife here in prison/ ' And have you got a 
paper? ' I gave him the paper. He gave it a look. \ Wait/ 
says he. So I sat down on a bench. It was already past 
noon by the sun. An official comes out. f You are Var- 
goushoff ? ' ' I am/ ' Well, you may take her/ The gates 
opened, and they led her out in her own clothes quite all 
right. * Well, come along. Have you come on foot? ' 'No, 
I have the horse here/ So I went and paid the ostler, and 
harnessed, put in all the hay that was left, and covered it with 
sacking for her to sit on. She got in and wrapped her shawl 
round her, and off we drove. She says nothing and I say 
nothing. Just as we were coming up to the house she says, 
' And how's mother ; is she alive ? ' ' Yes, she's alive.' ' And 
father; is he alive? ' ' Yes, he is.' * Forgive me, Taras/ she 
says, i for my folly. I did not myself know what I was do- 
ing.' So I say, ' Words won't mend matters. I have for- 
given you long ago,' and I said no more. We got home, and 
she just fell at mother's feet. Mother says, ' The Lord will 
forgive you.' And father said, 'How d'you do?' and 
' What's past is past. Live as best you can. Now,' says he, 
4 is not the time for all that ; there's the harvest to be gathered 
in down at Skorodino/ he says. i Down on the manured 
acre, by the Lord's help, the ground has borne such rye that 
the sickle can't tackle it. It's all interwoven and heavy, and 
has sunk beneath its weight ; that must be reaped. You and 
Taras had better go and see to it to-morrow/ Well, friend, 
from that moment she took to the work and worked so that 
every one wondered. At that time we rented three desiatins, 
and by God's help we had a wonderful crop both of oats and 
rye. I mow and she binds the sheaves, and sometimes we 
both of us reap. I am good at work and not afraid of it, 
but she's better still at whatever she takes up. She's a smart 
woman, young, and full of life ; and as to work, friend, she'd 
grown that eager that I had to stop her. We get home, our 
fingers swollen, our arms aching, and she, instead of resting, 
rushes off to the barn to make binders for the sheaves for 
next day. Such a change ! " 

" Well, and to you ? Was she kinder, now ? " asked the 

Resurrection 413 

" That's beyond question. She clings to me as if we were 
one soul. Whatever I think she understands. Even mother, 
angry as she was, could not help saying : * It's as if our The- 
odosia had been transformed ; she's quite a different woman 
now ! ' We were once going to cart the sheaves with two 
carts. She and I were in the first, and I say, ' How could 
you think of doing that, Theodosia?' and she says, 'How 
could I think of it? Just so, I did not wish to live with you. 
I thought I'd rather die than live with you! ? I say, * And 
now ? ' and she says, ' Now you're in my heart ! ' " Taras 
stopped, and smiled joyfully, shook his head as if surprised. 
" Hardly had we got the harvest home when I went to soak 
the hemp, and when I got home there was a summons, she 
must go to be tried, and we had forgotten all about the mat- 
ter that she was to be tried for/' 

" It can only be the evil one," said the gardener. " Could 
any man of himself think of destroying a living soul ? We 
had a fellow once " and the gardener was about to com- 
mence his tale when the train began to stop. 

" It seems we are coming to a station," he said. " I'll go 
and have a drink." 

The conversation stopped, and Nekhludoff followed the 
gardener out of the carriage onto the wet platform of the 

414 Resurrection 



Before Nekhludoff got out he had noticed in the station 
yard several elegant equipages, some with three, some with 
four, well-fed horses, with tinkling bells on their harness. 
When he stepped out on the wet, dark-coloured boards of 
the platform, he saw a group of people in front of the first- 
class carriage, among whom were conspicuous a stout lady 
with costly feathers on her hat, and a waterproof, and a tall, 
thin-legged young man in a cycling suit. The young man 
had by his side an enormous, well-fed dog, with a valuable 
collar. Behind them stood footmen, holding wraps and 
umbrellas, and a coachman, who had also come to meet the 

On the whole of the group, from the fat lady down to 
the coachman who stood holding up his long coat, there 
lay the stamp of wealth and quiet self-assurance. A curious 
and servile crowd rapidly gathered round this group — the 
station-master, in his red cap, a gendarme, a thin young 
lady in a Russian costume, with beads round her neck, who 
made a point of seeing the trains come in all through the 
summer, a telegraph clerk, and passengers, men and women. 

In the young man with the dog Nekhludoff recognised 
young Korchagin, a gymnasium student. The fat lady was 
the Princess's sister, to whose estate the Korchagins were 
now moving. The guard, with his gold cord and shiny top- 
boots, opened the carriage door and stood holding it as 
a sign of deference, while Philip and a porter with a white 
apron carefully carried out the long-faced Princess in her 
folding chair. The sisters greeted each other, and French 
sentences began flying about. Would the Princess go in 
a closed or an open carriage? At last the procession started 
towards the exit, the lady's maid, with her curly fringe, 
parasol and leather case in the rear. 

Nekhludoff, not wishing to meet them and to have to take 
leave over again, stopped before he got to the door, waiting 
for the procession to pass. 

Resurnection 4 1 5 

The Princess, her son, Missy, the doctor, and the maid 
went out first, the old Prince and his sister-in-law remained 
behind. Nekhliidoff was too far to catch anything but a 
few disconnected French sentences of their conversation. 
One of the sentences uttered by the Prince, as it often 
happens, for some unaccountable reason remained in his 
memory with all its intonations and the sound of the 

" Oh, il est da vrai grand monde, du vrai grand mondef* 
said the Prince in his loud, self-assured tone as he went out 
of the station with his sister-in-law, accompanied by the 
respectful guards and porters. 

At this moment from behind the corner of the station 
suddenly appeared a crowd of workmen in bark shoes, wear- 
ing sheepskin coats and carrying bags on their backs. The 
workmen went up to the nearest carriage with soft yet 
determined steps, and were about to get in, but were at 
once driven away by a guard. Without stopping, the work- 
men passed on, hurrying and jostling one another, to the 
next carriage and began getting in, catching their bags 
against the corners and door of the carriage, but another 
guard caught sight of them from the door of the station, 
and shouted at them severely. The workmen, who had 
already got in, hurried out again and went on, with the same 
soft and firm steps, still further towards Nekhliidoff's car- 
riage. A guard was again going to stop them, but Nekhlii- 
doff said thera was plenty of room inside, and that they had 
better get in. They obeyed and got in, followed by Nekhlii- 

The workmen were about to take their seats, when the 
gentleman with the cockade and the two ladies, looking at 
this attempt to settle in their carriage as a personal insult 
to themselves, indignantly protested and wanted to turn 
them out. The workmen — there were 20 of them, old men 
and quite young ones, all of them wearied, sunburnt, with 
haggard faces — began at once to move on through the car- 
riage, catching the seats, the walls, and the doors with their 
bags. They evidently felt they had offended in some way, 
and seemed ready to go on indefinitely wherever they were 
ordered to go. 

" Where are you pushing to, you fiends ? Sit down here," 
shouted another guard they met. 

" Voila encore des nouvelles" exclaimed the younger of 

41 6 Resurrection 

the two ladies, quite convinced that she would attract Nekh- 
ludoff's notice by her good French. 

The other lady with the bracelets kept sniffing and making 
faces, and remarked something about how pleasant it was 
to sit with smelly peasants. 

The workmen, who felt the joy and calm experienced 
by people who have escaped some kind of danger, threw off 
their heavy bags with a movement of their shoulders and 
stowed them away under the seats. 

The gardener had left his own seat to talk with Taras, 
and now went back, so that there were two unoccupied seats 
opposite and one next to Taras. Three of the workmen took 
these seats, but when Nekhludoff came up to them, in his 
gentleman's clothing, they got so confused that they rose 
to go away, but Nekhludoff asked them to stay, and himself 
sat down on the arm of the seat, by the passage down the 
middle of the carriage. 

One of the workmen, a man of about 50, exchanged a 
surprised and even frightened look with a young man. That 
Nekhludoff, instead of scolding and driving them away, as 
was natural to a gentleman, should give up his seat to them, 
astonished and perplexed them. They even feared that this 
might have some evil result for them. 

However, they soon noticed that there was no underlying 
plot when they heard Nekhludoff talking quite simply with 
Taras, and they grew quiet and told one of the lads to sit 
down on his bag and give his seat to Nekhludoff. At first 
the elderly workman who sat opposite Nekhludoff shrank 
and drew back his legs for fear of touching the gentleman, 
but after a while he grew quite friendly, and in talking 
to him and Taras even slapped Nekhludoff on the knee 
when he wanted to draw special attention to what he was 

He told them all about his position and his work in the 
peat bogs, whence he was now returning home. He had 
been working there for two and a half months, and was 
bringing home his wages, which only came to 1.0 roubles, 
since part had been paid beforehand when he was hired. 
They worked, as he explained, up to their knees in water 
from sunrise to sunset, with two hours' interval for dinner. 

" Those who are not used to it find it hard, of course," 
he said ; " but when one's hardened it doesn't matter, if 
only the food is right. At first the food was bad. Later 

Resurrection 4 1 7 

the people complained, and they got good food, and it was 
easy to work." 

Then he told them how, during 28 years he went out to 
work, and sent all his earnings home. First to his father, 
then to his eldest brother, and now to his nephew, who was 
at the head of the household. On himself he spent only 
two or three roubles of the 50 or 60 he earned a year, just 
for luxuries — tobacco and matches. 

" I'm a sinner, when tired I even drink a little vodka 
sometimes," he added, with a guilty smile. 

Then he told them how the women did the work at home, 
and how the contractor had treated them to half a pail of 
vodka before they started to-day, how one of them had died, 
and another was returning home ill. The sick workman 
he was talking about was in a corner of the same carriage. 
He was a young lad, with a pale, sallow face and bluish lips. 
He was evidently tormented by intermittent fever. Nekhlu- 
doff went up to him, but the lad looked up with such a severe 
and suffering expression that Nekhludoff did not care to 
bother him with questions, but advised the elder man to give 
him quinine, and wrote down the name of the medicine. 
He wished to give him some money, but the old workman 
said he would pay for it himself. 

" Well, much as I have travelled, I have never met such 
a gentleman before. Instead of punching your head, he 
actually gives up his place to you," said the old man to 
Taras. " It seems there are all sorts of gentlefolk, too." 

" Yes, this is quite a new and different world," thought 
Nekhludoff, looking at these spare, sinewy, limbs, coarse, 
home-made garments, and sunburnt, kindly, though weary- 
looking faces, and feeling himself surrounded on all sides 
with new people and the serious interests, joys, and suffer- 
ings of a life of labour. 

" Here is le vrai grand monde/' thought Nekhludoff, 
remembering the words of Prince Korchagin and all that 
idle, luxurious world to which the Korchagins belonged, 
with their petty, mean interests. And he felt the joy of 
a traveller on discovering a new, unknown, and beautiful 


Book HI 



The gang of prisoners to which Maslova belonged had 
walked about three thousand three hundred miles. She and, 
the other prisoners condemned for criminal offences had 
travelled by rail and by steamboats as far as the town of 
Perm. It was only here that Nekhludoff succeeded in ob- 
taining a permission for her to continue the journey with the 
political prisoners, as Vera Doiikhova, who was among the 
latter, advised him to do. The journey up to Perm had been 
very trying to Maslova both morally and physically. Physi- 
cally, because of the overcrowding, the dirt, and the dis- 
gusting vermin, which gave her no peace ; morally, because of 
the equally disgusting men. The men, like the vermin, 
though they changed at each halting-place, were everywhere 
alike importunate; they swarmed round her, giving her no 
rest. Among the women prisoners and the men prisoners, 
the jailers and the convoy soldiers, the habit of a kind of 
cynical debauch was so firmly established that unless a fe- 
male prisoner was willing to utilise her position as a woman 
she had to be constantly on the watch. To be continually in 
a state of fear and strife was very trying. And Maslova was 
specially exposed to attacks, her appearance being attractive 
and her past known to every one. The decided resistance 
with which she now met the importunity of all the men 
seemed offensive to them, and awakened another feeling, that 
of ill-will towards her. But her position was made a little 
easier by her intimacy with Theodosia, and Theodosia's hus- 
band, who, having heard of the molestations his wife was 
subject to, had in Nijni been arrested at his own desire in 
order to be able to protect her, and was now travelling 
with the gang as a prisoner. Maslova's position became 
much more bearable when she was allowed to join the politi- 
cal prisoners, who were provided with better accommoda- 
tions, better food, and were treated less rudely, but besides 
all this Maslova's condition was much improved because 

422 Resurrection 

among the political prisoners she was no longer molested by 
the men, and could live without being reminded of that past 
which she was so anxious to forget. But the chief advantage 
of the change lay in the fact that she made the acquaintance 
of several persons who exercised a decided and most ben- 
eficial influence on her character. Maslova was allowed to 
stop with the political prisoners at all the halting-places, but 
being a strong and healthy woman she was obliged to march 
with the criminal convicts. In this way she walked all the 
way from Tomsk. Two political prisoners also marched 
with the gang, Mary Pavlovna Schetinina, the girl with the 
hazel eyes who had attracted Nekhludoff's attention when he 
had been to visit Doukhova in prison, and one Simonson, who 
was on his way to the Takoutsk district, the dishevelled dark 
young fellow with deep-lying eyes, whom Nekhliidoff had 
also noticed during that visit. Mary Pavlovna was walking 
because she had given her place on the cart to one of the 
criminals, a woman expecting to be confined, and Simonson 
because he did not dare to avail himself of a class privilege. 

These three always started early in the morning before the 
rest of the political prisoners, who followed later on in the 

They were ready to start in this way just outside a large 
town, where a new convoy officer had taken charge of the 

It was early on a dull September morning. It kept raining 
and snowing alternately, and the cold wind blew in sudden 
gusts. The whole gang of prisoners, consisting of four hun- 
dred men and fifty women, was already assembled in the 
court of the halting station. Some of them were crowding 
round the chief of the convoy, who was giving to specially 
appointed prisoners money for two days' keep to distribute 
among the rest, while others were purchasing food from 
women who had been let into the courtyard. One could hear 
the voices of the prisoners counting their money and making 
their purchases, and the shrill voices of the women with the 

Simonson, in his rubber jacket and rubber overshoes fast- 
ened with a string over his worsted stockings (he was a veg- 
etarian and would not wear the skin of slaughtered animals), 
was also in the courtyard waiting for the gang to start. He 
stood by the porch and jotted down in his notebook a thought 
that had occurred to him. This was what he wrote; w If a 

Resurrection 423 

bacteria watched and examined a human nail it would pro- 
nounce it inorganic matter, and thus we, examining our 
globe and watching its crust, pronounce it to be inorganic. 
This is incorrect. ,, 

Katusha and Mary Pavlovna, both wearing top-boots and 
with shawls tied round their heads, came out of the building 
into the courtyard where the women sat sheltered from the 
wind by the northern wall of the court, and vied with one an- 
other, offering their goods, hot meat pie, fish, vermicelli, 
buckwheat porridge, liver, beef, eggs, milk. One had even a 
roast pig to offer. 

Having bought some eggs, bread, fish, and some rusks, 
Maslova was putting them into her bag, while Mary Pav- 
lovna was paying the women, when a movement arose among 
the convicts. All were silent and took their places. The 
officer came out and began giving the last orders before start- 
ing. Everything was done in the usual manner. The pris- 
oners were counted, the chains on their legs examined, and 
those who were to march in couples linked together with 
manacles. But suddenly the angry, authoritative voice of the 
officer shouting something was heard, also the sound of a 
blow and the crying of a child. All was silent for a moment 
and then came a hollow murmur from the crowd. Maslova 
and Mary Pavlovna advanced towards the spot whence tha 
noise proceeded. 

424 Resurrection 



This is what Mary Pavlovna and Katusha saw when they 
came up to the scene whence the noise proceeded. The offi- 
cer, a sturdy fellow, with fair moustaches, stood uttering 
words of foul and coarse abuse, and rubbing with his left 
the palm of his right hand, which he had hurt in hitting a 
prisoner on the face. In front of him a thin, tall convict, 
with half his head shaved and dressed in a cloak too short for 
him and trousers much too short, stood wiping his bleeding 
face with one hand, and holding a little shrieking girl wrap- 
ped in a shawl with the other. 

" I'll give it you " (foul abuse) ; " I'll teach you to reason " 
(more abuse) ; " you're to give her to the women ! " shouted 
the officer. " Now, then, on with them." 

The convict, who was exiled by the Commune, had been 
carrying his little daughter all the way from Tomsk, where 
his wife had died of typhus, and now the officer ordered him 
to be manacled. The exile's explanation that he could not 
carry the child if he was manacled irritated the officer, who 
happened to be in a bad temper, and he gave the troublesome 
prisoner a beating.* Before the injured convict stood a con- 
voy soldier, and a black-bearded prisoner with manacles on 
one hand and a look of gloom on his face, which he turned 
now to the officer, now to the prisoner with the little girl. 

The officer repeated his orders for the soldiers to take 
away the girl. The murmur among the prisoners grew 

" All the way from Tomsk they were not put on," came a 
hoarse voice from some one in the rear. " It's a child, and 
not a puppy." 

"What's he to do with the lassie? That's not the law," 
said some one else. 

" Who's that ? " shouted the officer as if he had been stung, 
and rushed into the crowd. 

" I'll teach you the law. Who spoke. You? You? " 

*A fact described by Lineff in his Transportation, 

Resurrection 425 

" Everybody says so, because " said a short, broad- 
faced prisoner. 

Before he had finished speaking the officer hit him in the 

" Mutiny, is it? I'll show you what mutiny means. I'll 
have you all shot like dogs, and the authorities will be only 
too thankful. Take the girl." 

The crowd was silent. One convoy soldier pulled away 
the girl, who was screaming desperately, while another 
manacled the prisoner, who now submissively held out his 

" Take her to the women/' shouted the officer, arranging 
his sword belt. 

The little girl, whose face had grown quite red, was trying 
to disengage her arms from under the shawl, and screamed 
unceasingly. Mary Pavlovna stepped out from among the 
crowd and came up to the officer. 

" Will you allow me to carry the little girl? " she said. 

" Who are you ? " asked the officer. 

" A political prisoner/' 

Mary Pavlovna's handsome face, with the beautiful prom- 
inent eyes (he had noticed her before when the prisoners 
were given into his charge), evidently produced an effect on 
the officer. He looked at her in silence as if considering, then 
said : " I don't care ; carry her if you like. It is easy for you 
to show pity ; if he ran away who would have to answer? " 

" How could he run away with the child in his arms?" 
said Mary Pavlovna. 

" I have no time to talk with you. Take her if you like." 

" Shall I give her? " asked the soldier. 

" Yes, give her." 

" Come to me," said Mary Pavlovna, trying to coax the 
child to come to her. 

But the child in the soldier's arms stretched herself 
towards her father and continued to scream, and would not 
go to Mary Pavlovna. 

" Wait a bit, Mary Pavlovna," said Maslova, getting a 
rusk out of her bag ; " she will come to me." 

The little girl knew Maslova, and when she saw her face 
and the rusk she let her take her. All was quiet. The gates 
were opened, and the gang stepped out, the convoy counted 
the prisoners over again, the bags were packed and tied on 
to the carts, the weak seated on the top. Maslova with the 

426 Resurrection 

child in her arms took her place among the women next to 
Theodosia. Simonson, who had all the time been watching 
what was going on, stepped with large, determined strides up 
to the officer, who, having given his orders, was just getting 
into a trap, and said, " You have behaved badly. " 
" Get to your place ; it is no business of yours." 
" It is my business to tell you that you have behaved badly 
and I have said it," said Simonson, looking intently into the 
officer's face from under his bushy eyebrows. 

" Ready ? March ! " the officer called out, paying no heed 
to Simonson, and, taking hold of the driver's shoulder, he 
got into the trap. The gang started and spread out as it 
stepped on to the muddy high road with ditches on each 
side, which passed through a dense forest. 

Resurrection 427 



In spite of the hard conditions in which they were placed, 
life among the political prisoners seemed very good to 
Katiisha after the depraved, luxurious and effeminate life 
she had led in town for the last six years, and after two 
months' imprisonment with criminal prisoners. The fifteen to 
twenty miles they did per day, with one day's rest after two 
days' marching, strengthened her physically, and the fellow- 
ship with her new companions opened out to her a life full 
of interests such as she had never dreamed of. People so 
wonderful (as she expressed it) as those whom she was 
now going with she had not only never met but could not 
even have imagined. 

" There now, and I cried when I was sentenced," she said. 
" Why, I must thank God for it all the days of my life. I 
have learned to know what I never should have found out 

The motives she understood easily and without effort that 
guided these people, and, being of the people, fully sympa- 
thised with them. She understood that these persons were 
for the people and against the upper classes, and though 
themselves belonging to the upper classes had sacrificed 
their privileges, their liberty and their lives for the people. 
This especially made her value and admire them. She was 
charmed with all the new companions, but particularly with 
Mary Pavlovna, and she was not only charmed with her, 
but loved her with a peculiar, respectful and rapturous love. 
She was struck by the fact that this beautiful girl, the 
daughter of a rich general, who could speak three languages, 
gave away all that her rich brother sent her, and lived like 
the simplest working girl, and dressed not only simply, but 
poorly, paying no heed to her appearance. This trait and 
a complete absence of coquetry was particularly surprising 
and therefore attractive to Maslova. Maslova could see that 
Mary Pavlovna knew, and was even pleased to know, that 
she was handsome, and yet the effect her appearance had 

428 Resurrection 

on men was not at all pleasing to her ; she was even afraid 
of it, and felt an absolute disgust to all love affairs. Her 
men companions knew it, and if they felt attracted by her 
never permitted themselves to show it to her, but treated 
her as they would a man ; but with strangers, who often 
molested her, the great physical strength on which she 
prided herself stood her in good stead. 

" It happened once/' she said to Katusha, " that a man 
followed me in the street and would not leave me on any 
account. At last I gave him such a shaking that he was 
frightened and ran away." 

She became a revolutionary, as she said, because she felt 
a dislike to the life of the well-to-do from childhood up, 
and loved the life of the common people, and she was always 
being scolded for spending her time in the servants' hall, 
in the kitchen or the stables instead of the drawing-room. 

" And I found it amusing to be with cooks and the coach- 
men, and dull with our gentlemen and ladies," she said. 
" Then when I came to understand things I saw that our 
life was altogether wrong; I had no mother and I did not 
care for my father, and so when I was nineteen I left home, 
and went with a girl friend to work as a factory hand." 

After she left the factory she lived in the country, then 
returned to town and lived in a lodging, where they had 
a secret printing press. There she was arrested and sen- 
tenced to hard labour. Mary Pavlovna said nothing about it 
herself, but Katusha heard from others that Mary Pavlovna 
was sentenced because, when the lodging was searched by 
the police and one of the revolutionists fired a shot in the 
dark, she pleaded guilty. 

As soon as she had learned to know Mary Pavlovna, Ka- 
tusha noticed that whatever the conditions she found herself 
in, Mary Pavlovna never thought of herself, but was always 
anxious to serve, to help some one, in matters small or great. 
One of her present companions, Novodvoroff, said of her 
that she devoted herself to philanthropic amusements. And 
this was true. The interest of her whole life lay in the 
search for opportunities of serving others. This kind of 
amusement had become the habit, the business of her life. 
And she did it all so naturally that those who knew her no 
longer valued, but simply expected it of her. 

When Maslova first came among them, Mary Pavlovna 
felt repulsed and disgusted. Katusha noticed this, but she 

Resurrection 429 

also noticed that, having made an effort to overcome these 
feelings, Mary Pavlovna became particularly tender and 
kind to her. The tenderness and kindness of so uncommon 
a being touched Maslova so much that she gave her whole 
heart, and unconsciously accepting her views, could not help 
imitating her in everything. 

This devoted love of Katusha touched Mary Pavlovna 
in her turn, and she learned to love Katusha. 

These women were also united by the repulsion they both 
felt to sexual love. The one loathed that kind of love, having 
experienced all its horrors, the other, never having experi- 
enced it, looked on it as something incomprehensible and at 
the same time as something repugnant and offensive to 
human dignity. 

430 Resurrection 



Mary Pavlovna's influence was one that Maslova sub- 
mitted to because she loved Mary Pavlovna. Simonson 
influenced her because he loved her. 

Everybody lives and acts partly according to his own, 
partly according to other people's, ideas. This is what con- 
stitutes one of the great differences among men. To some, 
thinking is a kind of mental game; they treat their reason 
as if it were a fly-wheel without a connecting strap, and are 
guided in their actions by other people's ideas, by custom 
or laws ; while others look upon their own ideas as the chief 
motive power of all their actions, and always listen to the 
dictates of their own reason and submit to it, accepting 
other people's opinions only on rare occasions and after 
weighing them critically. Simonson was a man of the latter 
sort ; he settled and verified everything according to his own 
reason and acted on the decisions he arrived at. When a 
schoolboy he made up his mind that his father's income, 
made as a paymaster in government office, was dishonestly 
gained, and he told his father that it ought to be given to 
the people. When his father, instead of listening to him, 
gave him a scolding, he left his father's house and would 
not make use of his father's means. Having come to the 
conclusion that all the existing misery was a result of the 
people's ignorance, he joined the socialists, who carried on 
propaganda among the people, as soon as he left* the univer- 
sity and got a place as a village schoolmaster. He taught 
and explained to his pupils and to the peasants what he 
considered to be just, and openly blamed what he thought 
unjust. He was arrested and tried. During his trial 
he determined to tell his judges that his was a just cause, 
for which he ought not to be tried or punished. When the 
judges paid no heed to his words, but went on with the trial, 
he decided not to answer them and kept resolutely silent 
when they questioned him. He was exiled to the Govern- 
ment of Archangel. There he formulated a religious teach- 

Resurrection 431 

ing which was founded on the theory that everything in 
the world was alive, that nothing is lifeless, and that all the 
objects we consider to be without life or inorganic are only 
parts of an enormous organic body which we cannot com- 
pass. A man's task is to sustain the life of that huge organ- 
ism and all its animate parts. Therefore he was against 
war, capital punishment and every kind of killing, not only 
of human beings, but also of animals. Concerning marriage, 
too, he had a peculiar idea of his own ; he thought that 
increase was a lower function of man, the highest function 
being to serve the already existing lives. He found a con- 
firmation of his theory in the fact that there were phacocytes 
in the blood. Celibates, according to his opinion, were the 
same as phacocytes, their function being to help the weak 
and the sickly particles of the organism. From the moment 
he came to this conclusion he began to consider himself as 
well as Mary Pavlovna as phacocytes, and to live accord- 
ingly, though as a youth he had been addicted to vice. His 
love for Katusha did not infringe this conception, because 
he loved her platonically, and" such love he considered could 
not hinder his activity as a phacocytes, but acted, on the 
contrary, as an inspiration. 

Not only moral, but also most practical questions he 
decided in his own way. He applied a theory of his own 
to all practical business, had rules relating to the number 
of hours for rest and for work, to the kind of food to eat, 
the way to dress, to heat and light up the rooms. With all 
this Simonson was very shy and modest ; and yet when he 
had once made up his mind nothing could make him waver. 
And this man had a decided influence on Maslova through 
his love for her. With a woman's instinct Maslova very 
soon found out that he loved her. And the fact that she 
could awaken love in a man of that kind raised her in her 
own estimation. It was NekhludofPs magnanimity and 
what had been in the past that made him offer to marry her, 
but Simonson loved her such as she was now, loved her 
simply because of the love he bore her. And she felt that 
Simonson considered her to be an exceptional woman, hav- 
ing peculiarly high moral qualities. She did not quite know 
what the qualities he attributed to her were, but in order to 
be on the safe side and that he should not be disappointed 
in her, she tried with all her might to awaken in herself all 
the highest qualities she could conceive, and she tried to 

432 Resurrection 

be as good as possible. This had begun while they were 
still in prison, when on a common visiting day she had 
noticed his kindly dark blue eyes gazing fixedly at her from 
under his projecting brow. Even then she had noticed that 
this was a peculiar man, and that he was looking at her in 
a peculiar manner, and had also noticed the striking com- 
bination of sternness — the unruly hair and the frowning 
forehead gave him this appearance — with the child-like kind- 
ness and innocence of his look. She saw him again in 
Tomsk, where she joined the political prisoners. Though 
they had not uttered a word, their looks told plainly that 
they had understood one another. Even after that they had 
had no serious conversation with each other, but Maslova felt, 
that when he spoke in her presence his words were addressed 
to her, and that he spoke for her sake, trying to express 
himself as plainly as he could ; but it was when he started 
walking with the criminal prisoners that they grew specially 
near to one another. 

Resurrection 433 



Until they left Perm Nekhludoff only twice managed to 
see Katiisha, once in Nijni, before the prisoners were em- 
barked on a barge surrounded with a wire netting, and 
again in Perm in the prison office. At both these inter- 
views he found her reserved and unkind. She answered 
his questions as to whether she was in want of anything, 
and whether she was comfortable, evasively and bashfully, 
and, as he thought, with the same feeling of hostile re- 
proach which she had shown several times before. Her 
depressed state of mind, which was only the result of the 
molestations from the men that she was undergoing at the 
time, tormented Nekhludoff. He feared lest, influenced by 
the hard and degrading circumstances in which she was 
placed on the journey, she should again get into that state 
of despair and discord with her own self which formerly 
made her irritable with him, and which had caused her to 
drink and smoke excessively to gain oblivion. But he was 
unable to help her in any way during this part of the jour- 
ney, as it was impossible for him to be with her. It was 
only when she joined the political prisoners that he saw 
how unfounded his fears were, and at each interview he 
noticed that inner change he so strongly desired to see in 
her becoming more and more marked. The first time they 
met in Tomsk she was again just as she had been when 
leaving Moscow. She did not frown or become confused 
when she saw him, but met him joyfully and simply, thank- 
ing him for what he had done for her, especially for bring- 
ing her among the people with whom she now was. 

After two months' marching with the gang, the change 
that had taken place within her became noticeable in her 
appearance. She grew sunburned and thinner, and seemed 
older; wrinkles appeared on her temples and round her 
mouth. She had no ringlets on her forehead now, and 
her hair was covered with the kerchief; in the way it was 
arranged, as well as in her dress and her manners, there 

434 Resurrection 

was no trace of coquetry left. And this change, which had 
taken place and was still progressing in her, made Nekh- 
ludoff very happy. 

He felt for her something he had never experienced be- 
fore. This feeling had nothing in common with his first 
poetic love for her, and even less with the sensual love that 
had followed, nor even with the satisfaction of a duty ful- 
filled, not unmixed with self-admiration, with which he de- 
cided to marry her after the trial. The present feeling was 
simply one of pity and tenderness. He had felt it when he 
met her in prison for the first time, and then again when, 
after conquering his repugnance, he forgave her the imag- 
ined intrigue with the medical assistant in the hospital (the 
injustice done her had since been discovered) ; it was the 
same feeling he now had, only with this difference, that for- 
merly it was momentary, and that now it had become per- 
manent. Whatever he was doing, whatever he was think- 
ing now, a feeling of pity and tenderness dwelt with him, 
and not only pity and tenderness for her, but for everybody. 
This feeling seemed to have opened the floodgates of love, 
which had found no outlet in Nekhludoff's soul, and the 
love now flowed out to every one he met. 

During this journey Nekhludoff's feelings were so stimu- 
lated that he could not help being attentive and considerate 
to everybody, horn the coachman and the convoy soldiers 
to the prison inspectors and governors whom he had to 
deal with. Now that Maslova was among the political 
prisoners, Nekhludoff could not help becoming acquainted 
with many of them, first in Ekaterinburg, where they had 
a good deal of freedom and were kept altogether in a large 
cell, and then on the road when Maslova was marching with 
three of the men and four of the women. Coming in contact 
with political exiles in this way made Nekhludoff completely 
change his mind concerning them. 

From the very beginning of the revolutionary move- 
ment in Russia, but especially since that first of March, 
when Alexander II. was murdered, Nekhludoff regarded 
the revolutionists with dislike and contempt. He was re- 
pulsed by the cruelty and secrecy of the methods they em- 
ployed in their struggles against the government, especially 
the cruel murders they committed, and their arrogance also 
disgusted him. But having learned more intimately to 
know them and all they had suffered at the hands of the 

Resurrection 435 

government, he saw that they could not be other than they 

Terrible and endless as were the torments which were in- 
flicted on the criminals, there was at least some semblance 
of justice shown them before and after they were sentenced, 
but in the case of the political prisoners there was not even 
that semblance, as Nekhludoff saw in the case of Shoustova 
and that of many and many of his new acquaintances. 
These people were dealt with like fish caught with a net; 
everything that gets into the nets is pulled ashore, and then 
the big fish which are required are sorted out and the little 
ones are left to perish unheeded on the shore. Having cap- 
tured hundreds that were evidently guiltless, and that could 
not be dangerous to the government, they left them im- 
prisoned for years, where they became consumptive, went 
out of their minds or committed suicide, and kept them 
only because they had no inducement to set them free, 
while they might be of use to elucidate some question at a 
judicial inquiry, safe in prison. The fate of these persons, 
often innocent even from the government point of view, de- 
pended on the whim, the humour of, or the amount of leis- 
ure at the disposal of some police officer or spy, or public 
prosecutor, or magistrate, or governor, or minister. Some 
one of these officials feels dull, or inclined to distinguish 
himself, and makes a number of arrests, and imprisons or 
sets free, according to his own fancy or that of the higher au- 
thorities. And the higher official, actuated by like motives, 
according to whether he is inclined to distinguish himself, 
or to what his relations to the minister are, exiles men to 
the other side of the world or keeps them in solitary con- 
finement, condemns them to Siberia, to hard labour, to 
death, or sets them free at the request of some lady. 

They were dealt with as in war, and they naturally em- 
ployed the means that were used against them. And as the 
military men live in an atmosphere of public opinion that 
not only conceals from them the guilt of their actions, but 
sets these actions up as feats of heroism, so these political 
offenders were also constantly surrounded by an atmos- 
phere of public opinion which made the cruel actions they 
committed, in the face of danger and at the risk of liberty 
and life, and all that is dear to men, seem not wicked but 
glorious actions. Nekhludoff found in this the explanation 
of the surprising phenomenon that men, with the mildest 

436 Resurrection 

characters, who seemed incapable of witnessing the suffer- 
ings of any living creature, much less of inflicting pain, 
quietly prepared to murder men, nearly all of them consid- 
ering murder lawful and just on certain occasions as a 
means for self-defence, for the attainment of higher aims 
or for the general welfare. 

The importance they attribute to their cause, and conse- 
quently to themselves, flowed naturally from the importance 
the government attached to their actions, and the cruelty of 
the punishments it inflicted on them. When Nekhludoff 
came to know them better he became convinced that they 
were not the right-down villains that some imagined them 
to be, nor the complete heroes that others thought them, 
but ordinary people, just the same as others, among whom 
there were some good and some bad, and some mediocre, 
as there are everywhere. 

There were some among them who had turned revolu- 
tionists because they honestly considered it their duty to 
fight the existing evils, but there were also those who chose 
this work for selfish, ambitious motives ; the majority, how- 
ever, was attracted to the revolutionary idea by the desire 
for danger, for risks, the enjoyment of playing with one's 
life, which, as Nekhludoff knew from his military experi- 
ences, is quite common to the most ordinary people while 
they are young and full of energy. But wherein they dif- 
fered from ordinary people was that their moral standard 
was a higher one than that of ordinary men. They con- 
sidered not only self-control, hard living, truthfulness, but 
also the readiness to sacrifice everything, even life, for the 
common welfare as their duty. Therefore the best among 
them stood on a moral level that is not often reached, 
while the worst were far below the ordinary level, many of 
them being untruthful, hypocritical and at the same time 
self-satisfied and proud. So that Nekhludoff learned not 
only to respect but to love some of his new acquaintances, 
while he remained more than indifferent to others. 

Resurrection 437 

kryltzoff's story. 

Nekhludoff grew especially fond of Kryltzoff, a con- 
sumptive young man condemned to hard labour, who was 
going with the same gang as Katiisha. Nekhludoff had 
made his acquaintance already in Ekaterinburg, and talked 
with him several times on the road after that. Once, in 
summer, Nekhludoff spent nearly the whole of a day with 
him at a halting station, and Kryltzoff, having once started 
talking, told him his story and how he had become a revo- 
lutionist. Up to the time of his imprisonment his story 
was soon told. He lost his father, a rich landed proprietor 
in the south of Russia, when still a child. He was the only 
son, and his mother brought him up. He learned easily in 
the university, as well as the gymnasium, and was first in 
the mathematical faculty in his year. He was offered a 
choice of remaining in the university or going abroad. He 
hesitated. He loved a girl and was thinking of marriage, 
and taking part in the rural administration. He did not 
like giving up either offer, and could not make up his mind. 
At this time his fellow-students at the university asked him 
for money for a common cause. He did not know that 
this common cause was revolutionary, which he was not 
interested in at that time, but gave the money from a sense 
of comradeship and vanity, so that it should not be said that 
he was afraid. Those who received the money were caught, 
a note was found which proved that the money had been 
given by Kryltzoff: he was arrested, and first kept at the 
police station, then imprisoned. 

" The prison where I was put," Kryltzoff went on to re- 
late (he was sitting on the high shelf bedstead, his elbows 
on his knees, with sunken chest, the beautiful, intelligent 
eyes with which he looked at Nekhludoff glistening fever- 
ishly) — " they were not specially strict in that prison. We 
managed to converse, not only by tapping the wall, but 
could walk about the corridors, share our provisions and 
our tobacco, and in the evenings we even sang in chorus. 


8 Resurrection 

I had a fine voice — yes, if it had not been for mother it 
would have been all right, even pleasant and interesting. 
Here I made the acquaintance of the famous Petroff — he 
afterwards killed himself with a piece of glass at the fortress 
— and also of others. But I was not yet a revolutionary. 
I also became acquainted with my neighbours in the cells 
next to mine. They were both caught with Polish proc- 
lamations and arrested in the same cause, and were tried 
for an attempt to escape from the convoy when they were 
being taken to the railway station. One was a Pole, Loz- 
insky ; the other a Jew, Rozovsky. Yes. Well, this Roz- 
ovsky was quite a boy. He said he was seventeen, but he 
looked fifteen — thin, small, active, with black, sparkling 
eyes, and, like most Jews, very musical. His voice was 
still breaking, and yet he sang beautifully. Yes. I saw 
them both taken to be tried. They were taken in the morn- 
ing. They returned in the evening, and said they were 
condemned to death. No one had expected it. Their case 
was so unimportant; they only tried to get away from the 
convoy, and had not even wounded any one. And then it 
was so unnatural to execute such a child as Rozovsky. And 
we in prison all came to the conclusion that it was only done 
to frighten them, and would not be confirmed. At first we 
were excited, and then we comforted ourselves, and life 
went on as before. Yes. Well, one evening, a watchman 
comes to my door and mysteriously announces to me that 
carpenters had arrived, and were putting up the gallows. 
At first I did not understand. What's that? What gal- 
lows ? But the watchman was so excited that I saw at once 
it was for our two. I wished to tap and communicate with 
my comrades, but was afraid those two would hear. The 
comrades were also silent. Evidently everybody knew. In 
the corridors and in the cells everything was as still as death 
all that evening. They did not tap the wall nor sing. At 
ten the watchman came again and announced that a hang- 
man had arrived from Moscow. He said it and went away. 
I began calling him back. Suddenly I hear Rozovsky shout- 
ing to me across the corridor : ' What's the matter ? Why 
do you call him ? ' I answered something about asking him 
to get me some tobacco, but he seemed to guess, and asked 
me : ' Why did we not sing to-night, why did we not tap 
the walls?' I do not remember what I said, but I went 
away so as not to speak to him. Yes. It was a terrible 

Resurrection 439 

night. I listened to every sound all night. Suddenly, 
towards morning, I hear doors opening and somebody walk- 
ing — many persons. I went up to my window. There was 
a lamp burning in the corridor. The first to pass was the 
inspector. He was stout, and seemed a resolute, self-satis- 
fied man, but he looked ghastly pale, downcast, and seemed 
frightened; then his assistant, frowning but resolute; be- 
hind them the watchman. They passed my door and 
stopped at the next, and I hear the assistant calling out in 
a strange voice : ' Lozinsky, get up and put on clean linen.' 
Yes. Then I hear the creaking of the door; they entered 
into his cell. Then I hear Lozinsky's steps going to the op- 
posite side of the corridor. I could only see the inspector. 
He stood quite pale, and buttoned and unbuttoned his coat, 
shrugging his shoulders. Yes. Then, as if frightened of 
something, he moved out of the way. It was Lozinsky, who 
passed him and came up to my door. A handsome young 
fellow he was, you know, of that nice Polish type : broad 
shouldered, his head covered with fine, fair, curly hair as 
with a cap, and with beautiful blue eyes. So blooming, so 
fresh, so healthy. He stopped in front of my window, so 
that I could see the whole of his face. A dreadful, gaunt, 
livid face. ' Kryltzoff, have you any cigarettes ? ' I wished 
to pass him some, but the assistant hurriedly pulled out his 
cigarette case and passed it to him. He took out one, the 
assistant struck a match, and he lit the cigarette and began 
to smoke and seemed to be thinking. Then, as if he had 
remembered something, he began to speak. ' It is cruel and 
unjust. I have committed no crime. I — ' I saw some- 
thing quiver in his white young throat, from which I could 
not take my eyes, and he stopped. Yes. At that moment 
I hear Rozovsky shouting in his fine, Jewish voice. Lozin- 
sky threw away the cigarette and stepped from the door. 
And Rozovsky appeared at the window. His childish face, 
with the limpid black eyes, was red and moist. He also 
had clean linen on, the trousers were too wide, and he kept 
pulling them up and trembled all over. He approached his 
pitiful face to my window. ' Kryltzoff, it's true that the 
doctor has prescribed cough mixture for me, is it not? I 
am not well. I'll take some more of the mixture.' No one 
answered, and he looked inquiringly, now at me, now at 
the inspector. What he meant to say I never made out. 
Yes. Suddenly the assistant again put on a stern expres- 

44° Resurrection 

sion, and called out in a kind of squeaking tone : ' Now, 
then, no nonsense. Let us go/ Rozovsky seemed incapa- 
ble of understanding what awaited him, and hurried, almost 
ran, in front of him all along the corridor. But then he 
drew back, and I could hear his shrill voice and his cries, 
then the trampling of feet, and general hubbub. He was 
shrieking and sobbing. The sounds came fainter and 
fainter, and at last the door rattled and all was quiet. Yes. 
And so they hanged them. Throttled them both with a 
rope. A watchman, another one, saw it done, and told me 
that Lozinsky did not resist, but Rozovsky struggled for a 
long time, so that they had to pull him up on to the scaffold 
and to force his head into the noose. Yes. This watchman 
was a stupid fellow. He said : ' They told me, sir, that it 
would be frightful, but it was not at all frightful. After 
they were hanged they only shrugged their shoulders twice, 
like this/ He showed how the shoulders convulsively rose 
and fell. ' Then the hangman pulled a bit so as to tighten 
the noose, and it was all up, and they never budged/ u And 
Kryltzoff repeated the watchman's words, " Not at all fright- 
ful/' and tried to smile, but burst into sobs instead. 

For a long time after that he kept silent, breathing heav- 
ily, and repressing the sobs that were choking him. 

" From that time I became a revolutionist. Yes," he 
said, when he was quieter and finished his story in a few 
words. He belonged to the Narodovoltzy party, and was 
even at the head of the disorganising group, whose object 
was to terrorise the government so that it should give up 
its power of its own accord. With this object he travelled 
to Petersburg, to Kiev, to Odessa and abroad, and was 
everywhere successful. A man in whom he had full con- 
fidence betrayed him. He was arrested, tried, kept in prison 
for two years, and condemned to death, but the sentence 
was mitigated to one of hard labour for life. 

He went into consumption while in prison, and in the 
conditions he was now placed he had scarcely more than 
a few months longer to live. This he knew, but did not re- 
pent of his action, but said that if he had another life he 
would use it in the same way to destroy the conditions in 
which such things as he had seen were possible. 

This man's story and his intimacy with him explained to 
Nekhludoff much that he had not previously understood. 

Resurrection 44 i 



On the day when the convoy officer had the encounter 
with the prisoners at the halting station about the child, 
Nekhludoff, who had spent the night at the village inn, woke 
up late, and was some time writing letters to post at the next 
Government town, so that he left the inn later th&n usual, 
and did not catch up with the gang on the road as he had 
done previously, but came to the village where the next 
halting station was as it was growing dusk. 

Having dried himself at the inn, which was kept by an 
elderly woman who had an extraordinarily fat, white neck, 
he had his tea in a clean room decorated with a great number 
of icons and pictures and then hurried away to the halting 
station to ask the officer for an interview with Katusha. 
At the last six halting stations he could not get the permis- 
sion for an interview from any of the officers. Though they 
had been changed several times, not one of them would 
allow Nekhludoff inside the halting stations, so that he had 
not seen Katusha for more than a week. This strictness 
was occasioned by the fact that an important prison official 
was expected to pass that way. Now this official had passed 
without looking in at the gang, after all, and Nekhludoff 
hoped that the officer who had taken charge of the gang in 
the morning would allow him an interview with the pris- 
oners, as former officers had done. 

The landlady offered Nekhludoff a trap to drive him to 
the halting station, situated at the farther end of the village, 
but Nekhludoff preferred to walk. A young labourer, a 
broad-shouldered young fellow of herculean dimensions, 
with enormous top-boots freshly blackened with strongly 
smelling tar, offered himself as a guide. 

A dense mist obscured the sky, and it was so dark that 
when the young fellow was three steps in advance of him 
Nekhludoff could not See him unless the light of some 
window happened to fall on the spot, but he could hear the 
heavy boots wading through the deep, sticky slush. After 

44 2 Resurrection 

passing the open place in front of the church and the long 
street, with its rows of windows shining brightly in the 
darkness, Nekhltidoff followed his guide to the outskirts 
of the village, where it was pitch dark. But soon here, too, 
rays of light, streaming through the mist from the lamps 
in the front of the halting station, became discernible 
through the darkness. The reddish spots of light grew 
bigger and bigger; at last the stakes of the palisade, the 
moving figure of the sentinel, a post painted with white and 
black stripes and the sentinel's box became visible. 

The sentinel called his usual " Who goes there ? " as 
they approached, and seeing they were strangers treated 
them with such severity that he would not allow them to 
wait by the palisade; but Nekhludoff's guide was not 
abashed by this severity. 

" Hallo, lad ! why so fierce? You go and rouse your boss 
while we wait here ? " 

The sentinel gave no answer, but shouted something in 
at the gate and stood looking at the broad-shouldered young 
labourer scraping the mud off Nekhludoff's boots with a 
chip of wood by the light of the lamp. From behind the 
palisade came the hum of male and female voices. In about 
three minutes more something rattled, the gate opened, and 
a sergeant, with his cloak thrown over his shoulders, stepped 
out of the darkness into the lamplight. 

The sergeant was not as strict as the sentinel, but he was 
extremely inquisitive. He insisted on knowing what Nekh- 
ltidoff wanted the officer for, and who he was, evidently 
scenting his booty and anxious not to let it escape. Nekhlti- 
doff said he had come on special business, and would show 
his gratitude, and would the sergeant take a note for him 
to the officer. The sergeant took the note, nodded, and went 
away. Some time after the gate rattled again, and women 
carrying baskets, boxes, jugs and sacks came out, loudly 
chattering in their peculiar Siberian dialect as they stepped 
over the threshold of the gate. None of them wore peasant 
costumes, but were dressed town fashion, wearing jackets 
and fur-lined cloaks. Their skirts were tucked up high, and 
their heads w r rapped up in shawls. They examined Nekhlti- 
doff and his guide curiously by the light of the lamp. One 
of them showed evident pleasure at the sight of the broad- 
shouldered fellow, and affectionately administered to him 
a dose of Siberian abuse. 

Resurrection 443 

" You demon, what are you doing here? The devil take 
you," she said, addressing him. 

" I've been showing this traveller here the way," answered 
the young fellow. " And what have you been bringing 

" Dairy produce, and I am to bring more in the morning." 

The guide said something in answer that made not only 
the women but even the sentinel laugh, and, turning to 
Nekhludoff, he said : 

" You'll find your way alone? Won't get lost, will you? " 

" I shall find it all right." 

" When you have passed the church it's the second from 
the two-storied house. Oh, and here, take my staff," he 
said, handing the stick he was carrying, and which was 
longer than himself, to Nekhludoff; and splashing through 
the mud with his enormous boots, he disappeared in the 
darkness, together with the women. 

His voice mingling with the voices of the women was 
still audible through the fog, when the gate again rattled, 
and the sergeant appeared and asked Nekhludoff to follow 
him to the officer. 

444 Resurrection 



This halting station, like all such stations along the 
Siberian road, was surrounded by a courtyard, fenced in 
with a palisade of sharp-pointed stakes, and consisted of 
three one-storied houses. One of them, the largest, with 
grated windows, was for the prisoners, another for the 
convoy soldiers, and the third, in which the office was, for 
the officers. 

There were lights in the windows of all the three houses, 
and, like all such lights, they promised, here in a specially 
deceptive manner, something cosy inside the walls. Lamps 
were burning before the porches of the houses and about 
five lamps more along the walls lit up the yard. 

The sergeant led Nekhludoff along a plank which lay 
across the yard up to the porch of the smallest of the houses. 

When he had gone up the three steps of the porch he let 
Nekhludoff pass before him into the ante-room, in which 
a small lamp was burning, and which was filled with smoky 
fumes. By the stove a soldier in a coarse shirt with a necktie 
and black trousers, and with one top-boot on, stood blowing 
the charcoal in a somovar, using the other boot as bellows.* 
When he saw Nekhludoff, the soldier left the somovar and 
helped him off w T ith his waterproof ; then went into the inner 

" He has come, your honour. " 

" Well, ask him in," came an angry voice. 

" Go in at the door," said the soldier, and went back to 
the somovar. 

In the next room an officer with fair moustaches and a 
very red face, dressed in an Austrian jacket that closely 
fitted his broad chest and shoulders, sat at a covered table, 
on which were the remains of his dinner and two bottles ; 
there was a strong smell of tobacco and some very strong, 

* The long boots worn in Russia have concertina-like sides, and 
when held to the chimney of the somovar (tea urn) can be used in- 
stead of bellows to make the charcoal inside burn up. 

Resurrection 445 

cheap scent in the warm room. On seeing Nekhludoff the 
officer rose and gazed ironically and suspiciously, as it 
seemed, at the newcomer. 

"What is it you want?" he asked, and, not waiting for 
a reply, he shouted through the open door : 

" Bernoff, the somovar! What are you about?" 

" Coming at once." 

" You'll get it * at once ' so that you'll remember it," 
shouted the officer, and his eyes flashed. 

" I'm coming," shouted the soldier, and brought in the 
somovar. Nekhludoff waited while the soldier placed the 
somovar on the table. When the officer had followed the 
soldier out of the room with his cruel little eyes looking as 
if they were aiming where best to hit him, he made the tea, 
got the four-cornered decanter out of his travelling case 
and some Albert biscuits, and having placed all this on the 
cloth he again turned to Nekhludoff. " Well, how can I 
be of service to you? " 

" I should like to be allowed to visit a prisoner," said 
Nekhludoff, without sitting down. 

" ; A political one? That's forbidden by the law," said the 

" The woman I mean is not a political prisoner," said 

" Yes. But pray take a seat," said the officer. Nekhludoff 
sat down. 

" She is not a political one, but at my request she has been 
allowed by the higher authorities to join the political prison- 
ers " 

" Oh, yes, I know," interrupted the other ; H a little dark 
one ? Well, yes, that can be managed. Won't you smoke ? " 
He moved a box of cigarettes towards Nekhludoff, and, hav- 
ing carefully poured out two tumblers of tea, he passed one 
to Nekhludoff. " If you please," he said. 

" Thank you ; I should like to see " 

" The night is long. You'll have plenty of time. I shall 
order her to be sent out to you." 

" But could I not see her where she Js ? Why need she 
be sent for? " Nekhludoff said. 

" In to the political prisoners ? It is against the law." 

u I have been allowed to go in several times. If there is 
any danger of my passing anything in to them I could do it 
through her just as well." 

446 Resurrection 

" Oh, no ; she would be searched/' said the officer, and 
laughed in an unpleasant manner. 

" Well, why not search me? " 

" All right ; we'll manage without that," said the officer, 
opening the decanter, and holding it out towards Nekhlu- 
dojfFs tumbler of tea. May I? No? Well, just as you 
lil^e. When you are living here in Siberia you are too glad 
to meet an educated person. Our work, as you know, is the 
saddest, and when one is used to better things it is very 
hard. The idea they have of us is that convoy officers are 
coarse, uneducated men, and no one seems to remember 
that we may have been born for a very different position." 

This officer's red face, his scents, his rings, and especially 
his unpleasant laughter disgusted Nekhludoff very much, 
but to-day, as during the whole of his journey, he was in 
that serious, attentive state which did not allow him to 
behave slightingly or disdainfully towards any man, but 
made him feel the necessity of speaking to every one 
" entirely," as he expressed to himself, this relation to men. 
When he had heard the officer and understood his state of 
mind, he said in a serious manner : 

" I think that in your position, too, some comfort could 
be found in helping the suffering people," he said. 

" What are their sufferings ? You don't know what these 
people are." 

" They are not special people," said Nekhludoff ; " they 
are just such people as others, and some of them are quite 

" Of course, there are all sorts among them, and naturally 
one pities them. Others won't let anything off, but I try to 
lighten their condition where I can. It's better that I should 
suffer, but not they. Others keep to the law in every detail, 
even as far as to shoot, but I show pity. May I? — Take 
another," he said, and poured out another tumbler of tea 
for Nekhludoff. 

" And who is she, this woman that you want to see ? " he 

" It is an unfortunate woman who got into a brothel, and 
was there falsely accused of poisoning, and she is a very 
good woman," Nekhludoff answered. 

The officer shook his head. " Yes, it does happen. I can 
tell you about a certain Emma who lived in Kasan. She 
was a Hungarian by birth, but she had quite Persian eyes," 

Resurrection 447 

he continued, unable to restrain a smile at the recollection ; 
" there was so much chic about her that a countess " 

Nekhludoff interrupted the officer and returned to the 
former topic of conversation. 

" I think that you could lighten the condition of the people 
while they are in your charge. And in acting that way I 
am sure you would find great joy!" said Nekhludoff, try- 
ing to pronounce as distinctly as possible, as he might if talk- 
ing to a foreigner or a child. 

The officer looked at Nekhludoff impatiently, waiting for 
him to stop so as to continue the tale about the Hungarian 
with Persian eyes, who evidently presented herself very 
vividly to his imagination and quite absorbed his attention. 

" Yes, of course, this is all quite true," he said, " and I do 
pity them ; but I should like to tell you about Emma. What 
do you think she did ? " 

" It does not interest me," said Nekhludoff, " and I will tell 
you straight, that though I was myself very different at one 
time, I now hate that kind of relation to women." 

The officer gave Nekhludoff a frightened look. 

" Won't you take some more tea? " he said. 

" No, thank you." 

" Bernoff ! " the officer called, " take the gentleman to 
Vakouloff. Tell him to let him into the separate political 
room. He may remain there till the inspection." 

448 Resurrection 



Accompanied by the orderly, Nekhludoff went out into 
the courtyard, which was dimly lit up by the red light of the 

" Where to ? " asked the convoy sergeant, addressing the 

" Into the separate cell, No. 5." 

" You can't pass here ; the boss has gone to the village and 
taken the keys." 

" Well, then, pass this way." 

The soldier led Nekhludoff along a board to another en- 
trance. While still in the yard Nekhludoff could hear the 
din of voices and general commotion going on inside as in a 
beehive when the bees are preparing to swarm ; but when he 
came nearer and the door opened the din grew louder, and 
changed into distinct sounds of shouting, abuse and laughter. 
He heard the clatter of chairs and smelt the well-known foul 
air. This din of voices and the clatter of the chairs, together ' 
with the close smell, always flowed into one tormenting sen- 
sation, and produced in Nekhludoff a feeling of moral nausea 
which grew into physical sickness, the two feelings mingling 
with and heightening each other. 

The first thing Nekhludoff saw, on entering, was a large, 
stinking tub. A corridor into which several doors opened led 
from the entrance. The first was the family room, then the 
bachelors' room, and at the very end two small rooms were 
set apart for the political prisoners. 

The buildings, which were arranged to hold one hundred 
and fifty prisoners, now that there were four hundred and 
fifty inside, were so crowded that the prisoners could not all 
get into the rooms, but filled the passage, too. Some were 
sitting or lying on the floor, some were going out with empty 
teapots, or bringing them back filled with boiling water. 
Among the latter was Taras. He overtook Nekhludoff and 
greeted him affectionately. The kind face of Taras was dis- 
figured by dark bruises on his nose and under his eye. 

Resurrection 449 

" What has happened to you ? " asked Nekhliidoff. 

" Yes, something did happen," Taras said, with a smile. 

" All because of the woman," added a prisoner, who fol- 
lowed Taras; " he's had a row with Blind Fedka." 

" And how's Theodosia? " 

" She's all right. Here I am bringing her the water for 
her tea," Taras answered, and went into the family room. 

Nekhliidoff looked in at the door. The room was crowded 
with women and men, some of whom were on and some 
under the bedsteads ; it was full of steam from the wet clothes 
that were drying, and the chatter of women's voices was un- 
ceasing. The next door led into the bachelors' room. This 
room was still more crowded; even the doorway and the 
passage in front of it were blocked by a noisy crowd of men, 
in wet garments, busy doing or deciding something or other. 

The convoy sergeant explained that it was the prisoner 
appointed to buy provisions, paying off out of the food money 
what was owing to a sharper who had won from or lent 
money to the prisoners, and receiving back little tickets 
made of playing cards. When they saw the convoy soldier 
and a gentleman, those who were nearest became silent, and 
followed them with looks of ill-will. Among them Nekhlii- 
doff noticed the criminal Fedoroff, whom he knew, and who 
always kept a miserable lad with a swelled appearance and 
raised eyebrows beside him, and also a disgusting, noseless, 
pock-marked tramp, who was notorious among the prisoners 
because he killed his comrade in the marshes while trying to 
escape, and had, as it was rumoured, fed on his flesh. The 
tramp stood in the passage with his wet cloak thrown over 
one shoulder, looking mockingly and boldly at Nekhliidoff, 
and did not move out of the way. Nekhliidoff passed him by. 

Though this kind of scene had now become quite familiar 
to him, though he had during the last three months seen 
these four hundred criminal prisoners over and over again 
in many different circumstances ; in the heat, enveloped in 
clouds of dust which they raised as they dragged their 
chained feet along the road, and at the resting places by the 
way, where the most horrible scenes of barefaced debauchery 
had occurred, yet every time he came among them, and felt 
their attention fixed upon him as it was now, shame and con- 
sciousness of his sin against them tormented him. To this 
sense of shame and guilt was added an unconquerable feeling 
of loathing and horror. He knew that, placed in a position 

45 o Resurrection 

such as theirs, they could not be other than they were, and 
yet he was unable to stifle his disgust. 

" It's well for them do-nothings, " Nekhhidoff heard some 
one say in a hoarse voice as he approached the room of the 
political prisoners. Then followed a word of obscene abuse, 
and spiteful, mocking laughter. 

Resurrection 45 1 



When they had passed the bachelors' room the sergeant 
who accompanied Nekhludoff left him, promising to come 
for him before the inspection would take place. As soon as 
the sergeant was gone a prisoner, quickly stepping with his 
bare feet and holding up the chains, came close up to Nekh- 
ludoff, enveloping him in the strong, acid smell of perspira- 
tion, and said in a mysterious whisper : 

" Help the lad, sir ; he's got into an awful mess. Been 
drinking. To-day he's given his name as Karmanoff at the 
inspection. Take his part, sir. We dare not, or they'll kill 
us," and looking uneasily round he turned away. 

This is what had happened. The criminal Kalmanoff had 
persuaded a young fellow who resembled him in appearance 
and was sentenced to exile to change names with him and go 
to the mines instead of him, while he only went to exile. 
Nekhludoff knew all this. Some convict had told him about 
this exchange the week before. He nodded as a sign that he 
understood and would do what was in his power, and con- 
tinued his way without looking round. 

Nekhludoff knew this convict, and was surprised by his 
action. When in Ekaterinburg the convict had asked Nekh- 
ludoff to get a permission for his wife to follow him. The 
convict was a man of medium size and of the most ordinary 
peasant type, about thirty years old. He was condemned 
to hard labour for an attempt to murder and rob. His 
name was Makar Devkin. His crime was a very curious 
one. In the account he gave of it to Nekhludoff, he said it 
was not his but his devil's doing. He said that a traveller 
had come to his father's house and hired his sledge to drive 
him to a village thirty miles off for two roubles. Makar's 
father told him to drive the stranger. Makar harnessed the 
horse, dressed, and sat down to drink tea with the stranger. 
The stranger related at the tea-table that he was going to be 
married and had five hundred roubles, which he had earned 
in Moscow, with him. When he had heard this, Makar went 

45 2 Resurrection 

out into the yard and put an axe into the sledge under the 
straw. " And I did not myself know why I was taking the 
axe/' he said. i Take the axe/ says he, and I took it. We 
got in and started. We drove along all right; I even forgot 
about the axe. Well, we were getting near the village ; only 
about four miles more to go. The way from the cross-road 
to the high road was up hill, and I got out. I walked behind 
the sledge and he whispers to me, ' What are you thinking 
about? When you get to the top of the hill you will meet 
people along the highway, and then there will be the village. 
He will carry the money away. If you mean to do it, now's 
the time/ I stooped over the sledge as if to arrange the 
straw, and the axe seemed to jump into my hand of itself. 
The man turned round. ' What are you doing? ' I lifted the 
axe and tried to knock him down, but he was quick, jumped 
out, and took hold of my hands. ' What are you doing, you 
villain ? ' He threw me down into the snow, and I did not 
even struggle, but gave in at once. He bound my arms with 
his girdle, and threw me into the sledge, and took me 
straight to the police station. I was imprisoned and tried. 
The commune gave me a good character, said that I was a 
good man, and that nothing wrong had been noticed about 
me. The masters for whom I worked also spoke well of me, 
but we had no money to engage a lawyer, and so I was con- 
demned to four years' hard labour/' 

It was this man who, wishing to save a fellow-villager, 
knowing that he was risking his life thereby, told Nekhludoff 
the prisoner's secret, for doing which (if found out) he 
would certainly be throttled. 

Resurrection 45 3 



The political prisoners were kept in two small rooms, 
the doors of which opened into a part of the passage par- 
titioned off from the rest. The first person Nekhludoff saw 
on entering into this part of the passage was Simonson in 
his rubber jacket and with a log of pine wood in his hands, 
crouching in front of a stove, the door of which trembled, 
drawn in by the heat inside. 

When he saw Nekhludoff he looked up at him from 
under his protruding brow, and gave him his hand without 

" I am glad you have come ; I want to speak to you," he 
said, looking Nekhludoff straight in the eyes with an ex- 
pression of importance. 

" Yes ; what is it? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" It will do later on ; I am busy just now," and Simonson 
turned again towards the stove, which he was heating ac- 
cording to a theory of his own, so as to lose as little heat 
energy as possible. 

Nekhludoff was going to enter in at the first door, when 
Maslova, stooping and pushing a large heap of rubbish and 
dust towards the stove with a handleless birch broom, came 
out of the other. She had a white jacket on, her skirt was 
tucked up, and a kerchief, drawn down to her eyebrows, 
protected her hair from the dust. When she saw Nekh- 
ludoff, she drew herself up, flushing and animated, put down 
the broom, wiped her hands on her skirt, and stopped right 
in front of him. " You are tidying up the apartments, I see," 
said Nekhludoff, shaking hands. 

" Yes ; my old occupation," and she smiled. " But the 
dirt ! You can't imagine what it is. We have been cleaning 
and cleaning. Well, is the plaid dry ? " she asked, turning 
to Simonson. 

" Almost," Simonson answered, giving her a strange 
look, which struck Nekhludoff, 1 

454 Resurrection 

" All right, Til come for it, and will bring the cloaks to 
dry. Our people are all in here," she said to Nekhludoff, 
pointing to the first door as she went out of the second. 

Nekhludoff opened the door and entered a small room 
dimly lit by a little metal lamp, which was standing low 
down on the shelf bedstead. It was cold in the room, and 
there was a smell of the dust, which had not had time to 
settle, damp and tobacco smoke. 

Only those who were close to the lamp were clearly vis- 
ible, the bedsteads were in the shade and wavering shadows 
glided over the walls. Two men, appointed as caterers, who 
had gone to fetch boiling water and provisions, were away ; 
most of the political prisoners were gathered together in 
the small room. There was Nekhludoff's old acquaintance, 
Vera Doukhova, with her large, frightened eyes, and the 
swollen vein on her forehead, in a grey jacket with short 
hair, and thinner and yellower than ever. She had a news- 
paper spread out in front of her, and sat rolling cigarettes 
with a jerky movement of her hands. 

Emily Rantzeva, whom Nekhludoff considered to be the 
pleasantest of the political prisoners, was also here. She 
looked after the housekeeping, and managed to spread a 
feeling of home comfort even in the midst of the most try- 
ing surroundings. She sat beside the lamp, with her sleeves 
rolled up, wiping cups and mugs, and placing them, with 
her deft, red and sunburnt hands, on a cloth that was spread 
on the bedstead. Rantzeva was a plain-looking young 
woman, with a clever and mild expression of face, which, 
when she smiled, had a way of suddenly becoming merry, 
animated and captivating. It was with such a smile that 
she now welcomed Nekhludoff. 

" Why, we thought you had gone back to Russia," she 

Here in a dark corner was also Mary Pavlovna, busy with 
a little, fair-haired girl, who kept prattling in her sweet, 
childish accents. 

" How nice that you have come," she said to Nekhludoff. 
" Have you seen Katusha ? And we have a visitor here," 
and she pointed to the little girl. 

Here was also Anatole Kryltzoff with felt boots on, sit- 
ting in a far corner with his feet under him, doubled up and 
shivering, his arms folded in the sleeves of his cloak, and 
looking at Nekhludoff with feverish eyes. Nekhludoff was 

Resurrection 455 

going up to him, but to the right of the door a man with 
spectacles and reddish curls, dressed in a rubber jacket, sat 
talking to the pretty, smiling Grabetz. This was the cele- 
brated revolutionist Novodvoroff. Nekhludoff hastened to 
greet him. He was in a particular hurry about it, because 
this man was the only one among all the political prisoners 
whom he disliked. NovodvorofFs eyes glistened through 
his spectacles as he looked at Nekhludoff and held his nar- 
row hand out to him. 

"Well, are you having a pleasant journey ?" he asked, 
with apparent irony. 

" Yes, there is much that is interesting," Nekhludoff 
answered, as if he did not notice the irony, but took the 
question for politeness, and passed on to Kryltzoff. 

Though Nekhludoff appeared indifferent, he was really 
far from indifferent, and these words of Novodvoroff, show- 
ing his evident desire to say or do something unpleasant, 
interfered with the state of kindness in which Nekhludoff 
found himself, and he felt depressed and sad. 

" Well, how are you ? " he asked, pressing KryltzofFs cold 
and trembling hand. 

" Pretty well, only I cannot get warm ; I got wet through/' 
Kryltzoff answered, quickly replacing his hands into the 
sleeves of his cloak. " And here it is also beastly cold. 
There, look, the window-panes are broken/' and he pointed 
to the broken panes behind the iron bars. " And how are 
you ? Why did you not come ? " 

" I was not allowed to, the authorities were so strict, but 
to-day the officer is lenient." 

" Lenient indeed ! " Kryltzoff remarked. " Ask Mary 
what she did this morning." 

Mary Pavlovna from her place in the corner related what 
had happened about the little girl that morning when they 
left the halting station. 

" I think it is absolutely necessary to make a collective 
protest," said Vera Doiikhova, in a determined tone, and 
yet looking now at one, now at another, with a frightened, 
undecided look. " Valdemar Simonson did protest, but 
that is not sufficient." 

" What protest ! " muttered Kryltzoff, cross and frown- 
ing. Her want of simplicity, artificial tone and nervous- 
ness had evidently been irritating him for a long time. 

"Are you looking for Katusha?" he asked, addressing 

456 Resurrection 

Nekhludoff. " She is working all the time. She has 
cleaned this, the men's room, and now she has gone to 
clean the women's ! Only it is not possible to clean away 
the fleas. And what is Mary doing there? " he asked, nod- 
ding towards the corner where Mary Pavlovna sat. 

" She is combing out her adopted daughter's hair," re- 
plied Rantzeva. 

" But won't she let the insects loose on us ? " asked 

" No, no ; I am very careful. She is a clean little girl 
now. You take her," said Mary, turning to Rantzeva, 
" while I go and help Katusha, and I will also bring him his 

Rantzeva took the little girl on her lap, pressing her 
plump, bare, little arms to her bosom with a mother's ten- 
derness, and gave her a bit of sugar. As Mary Pavlovna 
left the room, two men came in with boiling water and pro- 

Resurrection 457 



One of the men who came in was a short, thin, young 
man, who had a cloth-covered sheepskin coat on, and high 
top-boots. He stepped lightly and quickly, carrying two 
steaming teapots, and holding a loaf wrapped in a cloth 
under his arm. 

" Well, so our prince has put in an appearance again/' 
he said, as he placed the teapot beside the cups, and handed 
the bread to Rantzeva. " We have bought wonderful 
things/' he continued, as he took off his sheepskin, and 
flung it over the heads of the others into the corner of the 
bedstead. " Markel has bought milk and eggs. Why, we'll 
have a regular ball to-day. And Rantzeva is spreading out 
her aesthetic cleanliness," he said, and looked with a smile 
at Rantzeva, " and now she will make the tea." 

The whole presence of this man — his motion, his voice, 
his look — seemed to breathe vigour and merriment. The 
other newcomer was just the reverse of the first. He looked 
despondent and sad. He was short, bony, had very prom- 
inent cheek bones, a sallow complexion, thin lips and beau- 
tiful, greenish eyes, rather far apart. He wore an old 
wadded coat, top-boots and goloshes, and was carrying two 
pots of milk and two round boxes made of birch bark, 
which he placed in front of Rantzeva. He bowed to Nekh- 
ludoff, bending only his neck, and with his eyes fixed on 
him. Then, having reluctantly given him his damp hand 
to shake, he began to take out the provisions. 

Both these political prisoners were of the people ; the 
first was Nabatoff, a peasant; the second, Markel Kond- 
ratieff, a factory hand. Markel did not come among the 
revolutionists till he was quite a man, Nabatoff only eigh- 
teen. After leaving the village school, owing to his excep- 
tional talents, Nabatoff entered the gymnasium, and main- 
tained himself by giving lessons all the time he studied 
there, and obtained the gold medal. He did not go to the 
university because, while still in the seventh class of the 

458 Resurrection 

gymnasium, he made up his mind to go among the people 
and enlighten his neglected brethren. This he did, first 
getting the place of a Government clerk in a large village. 
He was soon arrested because he read to the peasants and 
arranged a co-operative industrial association among them. 
They kept him imprisoned for eight months and then set 
him free, but he remained under police supervision. As 
soon as he was liberated he went to another village, got a 
place as schoolmaster, and did the same as he had done in 
the first village. He was again taken up and kept four- 
teen months in prison, where his convictions became yet 
stronger. After that he was exiled to the Perm Govern- 
ment, from where he escaped. Then he was put to prison 
for seven months and after that exiled to Archangel. There 
he refused to take the oath of allegiance that was required 
of them and was condemned to be exiled to the Takoutsk 
Government, so that half his life since he reached man- 
hood was passed in prison and exile. All these adventures 
did not embitter him nor weaken his energy, but rather 
stimulated it. He was a lively young fellow, with a splen- 
did digestion, always active, gay and vigorous. He never 
repented of anything, never looked far ahead, and used all 
his powers, his cleverness, his practical knowledge to act in 
the present. When free he worked towards the aim he had 
set himself, the enlightening and the uniting of the work- 
ing men, especially the country labourers. When in prison 
he was just as energetic and practical in finding means to 
come in contact with the outer world, and in arranging his 
own life and the life of his group as comfortably as the con- 
ditions would allow. Above all things he was a communist. 
He wanted, as it seemed to him, nothing for himself and 
contented himself with very little, but demanded very much 
for the group of his comrades, and could work for it either 
physically or mentally day and night, without sleep or food. 
As a peasant he had been industrious, observant, clever at 
his work, and naturally self-controlled, polite without any 
effort, and attentive not only to the wishes but also the 
opinions of others. His widowed mother, an illiterate, super- 
stitious, old peasant woman, was still living, and Nabatoff 
helped her and went to see her while he was free. During 
the time he spent at home he entered into all the interests of 
his mother's life, helped her in her work, and continued his 
intercourse with former playfellows ; smoked cheap tobacco 

Resurrection 459 

with them in so-called " dog's feet," * took part in their fist 
fights, and explained to them how they were all being de- 
ceived by the State and how they ought to disentangle 
themselves out of the deception they were kept in. When 
he thought or spoke of what a revolution would do for the 
people he always imagined this people from whom he had 
sprung himself left in very nearly the same conditions as 
they were in, only with sufficient land and without the 
gentry and without officials. The revolution, according to 
him, and in this he differed from Novodvoroff and Novod- 
vorofFs follower, Markel Kondratieff, should not alter the 
elementary forms of the life of the people, should not break 
down the whole edifice, but should only alter the inner walls 
of the beautiful, strong, enormous old structure he loved so 
dearly. He was also a typical peasant in his views on religion, 
never thinking about metaphysical questions, about the 
origin of all origin, or the future life. God was to him, as 
also to Arago, an hypothesis, which he had had no need 
of up to now. He had no business with the origin of the 
world, whether Moses or Darwin was right. Darwinism, 
which seemed so important to his fellows, was only the same 
kind of plaything of the mind as the creation in six days. The 
question how the world had originated did not interest him, 
just because the question how it would be best to live in this 
world was ever before him. He never thought about 
future life, always bearing in the depth of his soul the firm 
and quiet conviction inherited from his forefathers, and 
common to all labourers on the land, that just as in the 
world of plants and animals nothing ceases to exist, but 
continually changes its form, the manure into grain, the 
grain into a food, the tadpole into a frog, the caterpillar into 
a butterfly, the acorn into an oak, so man also does not 
perish, but only undergoes a change. He believed in this, 
and therefore always looked death straight in the face, and 
bravely bore the sufferings that lead towards it, but did not 
care and did know how to speak about it. He loved work, 
was always employed in some practical business, and put 
his comrades in the way of the same kind of practical work. 
The other political prisoner from among the people, Mar- 
kel Kondratieff, was a very different kind of man. He began 
to work at the age of fifteen, and took to smoking and drink- 

* Dog's foot is a kind of cigarette that the peasants smoke, made 
of a bit of paper and bent at one end into a book. 

460 Resurrection 

ing in order to stifle a dense sense of being wronged. He 
first realised he was wronged one Christmas when they, the 
factory children, were invited to a Christmas tree, got up 
by the employer's wife, where he received a farthing whistle, 
an apple, a gilt walnut and a fig, while the employer's chil- 
dren had presents given them which seemed gifts from fairy- 
land, and had cost more than fifty roubles, as he afterwards 

When he was twenty a celebrated revolutionist came to 
their factory to work as a working girl, and noticing his su- 
perior qualities began giving books and pamphlets to Kon- 
dratieff and to talk and explain his position to him, and how 
to remedy it. When the possibility of freeing himself and 
others from their oppressed state rose clearly in his mind, the 
injustice of this state appeared more cruel and more terrible 
than before, and he longed passionately not only for freedom, 
but also for the punishment of those who had arranged and 
who kept up this cruel injustice. Kondratieff devoted him- 
self with passion to the acquirement of knowledge. It was 
not clear to him how knowledge should bring about the reali- 
sation of the social ideal, but he believed that the knowledge 
that had shown him the injustice of the state in which he 
lived would also abolish that injustice itself. Besides knowl- 
edge would, in his opinion, raise him above others. There- 
fore he left off drinking and smoking, and devoted all his 
leisure time to study. The revolutionist gave him lessons, 
and his thirst for every kind of knowledge, and the facility 
with which he took it in, surprised her. In two years he had 
mastered algebra, geometry, history — which he was specially 
fond of — and made acquaintance with artistic and critical, 
and especially socialistic literature. The revolutionist was 
arrested, and Kondratieff with her, forbidden books having 
been found in their possession, and they were imprisoned and 
then exiled to the Vologda Government. There Kondratieff 
became acquainted with Novodvoroff, and read a great deal 
more revolutionary literature, remembered it all, and became 
still firmer in his socialistic views. While in exile he became 
leader in a large strike, which ended in the destruction of a 
factory and the murder of the director. He was again ar- 
rested and condemned to Siberia. 

His religious views were of the same negative nature as 
his views of the existing economic conditions. Having seen 
the absurdity of the religion in which he was brought up, and 

Resurrection 461 

having gained with great effort, and at first with fear, but 
later with rapture, freedom from it, he did not tire of 
viciously and with venom ridiculing priests and religious 
dogmas, as if wishing to revenge himself for the deception 
that had been practised on him. 

He was ascetic through habit, contented himself with very 
little, and, like all those used to work from childhood and 
whose muscles have been developed, he could work much and 
easily, and was quick at any manual labour; but what he 
valued most was the leisure in prisons and halting stations, 
which enabled him to continue his studies. He was now 
studying the first volume of Karl Marks's, and carefully hid 
the book in his sack as if it were a great treasure. He be- 
haved with reserve and indifference to all his comrades, ex- 
cept Novodvoroff, to whom he was greatly attached, and 
whose arguments on all subjects he accepted as unanswer- 
able truths. 

He had an indefinite contempt for women, whom he 
looked upon as a hindrance in all necessary business. But he 
pitied Maslova and was gentle with her, for he considered 
her an example of the way the lower are exploited by the 
upper classes. The same reason made him dislike Nekhlii- 
doff, so that he talked little with him, and never pressed 
NekhliidofFs hand, but only held out his own to be pressed 
when greeting him. 





The stove had burned up and got warm, the tea was made 
and poured out into mugs and cups, and milk was added to 
it ; rusks, fresh rye and wheat bread, hard-boiled eggs, but- 
ter, and calf's head and feet were placed on the cloth. Every- 
body moved towards the part of the shelf beds which took the 
place of the table and sat eating and talking. Rantzeva sat on 
a box pouring out the tea. The rest crowded round her, only 
Kryltzoff, who had taken off his wet cloak and wrapped him- 
self in his drv plaid and lay in his own place talking to Nekh- 

After the cold and damp march and the dirt and disorder 
they had found here, and after the pains they had taken to 
get it tidy, after having drunk hot tea and eaten, they were 
all in the best and brightest of spirits. 

The fact that the tramp of feet, the screams and abuse of 
the criminals, reached them through the wall, reminding 
them of their surroundings, seemed only to increase the sense 
of coziness. As on an island in the midst of the sea, these 
people felt themselves for a brief interval not swamped by 
the degradation and sufferings which surrounded them ; this 
made their spirits rise, and excited them. They talked about 
everything except their present position and that which 
awaited them. Then, as it generally happens among young 
men, and women especially, if they are forced to remain to- 
gether, as these people were, all sorts of agreements and dis- 
agreements and attractions, curiously blended, had sprung 
up among them. Almost all of them were in love. Novod- 
voroff was in love with the pretty, smiling Grabetz. This 
Grabetz was a young, thoughtless girl who had gone in for 
a course of study, perfectly indifferent to revolutionary ques- 
tions, but succumbing to the influence of the day, she com- 
promised herself in some way and was exiled. The chief 
interest of her life during the time of her trial in prison and 
in exile was her success with men, just as it had been when 

Resurrection 463 

she was free. Now on the way she comforted herself with 
the fact that Novodvoroff had taken a fancy to her, and she 
fell in love with him. Vera Doiikhova, who was very prone 
to fall in love herself, but did not awaken love in others, 
though she was always hoping for mutual love, was some- 
times drawn to Nabatoff, then to Novodvoroff. Kryltzoff 
felt something like love for Mary Pavlovna. He loved her 
with a man's love, but knowing how she regarded this sort 
of love, hid his feelings under the guise of friendship and 
gratitude for the tenderness with which she attended to his 
wants. Nabatoff and Rantzeva were attached to each other 
by very complicated ties. Just as Mary Pavlovna was a per- 
fectly chaste maiden, in the same way Rantzeva was perfectly 
chaste as her own husband's wife. When only a schoolgirl 
of sixteen she fell in love with Rantzeff, a student of the 
Petersburg University, and married him before he left the 
university, when she was only nineteen years old. During 
his fourth year at the university her husband had become 
involved in the students' rows, was exiled from Petersburg, 
and turned revolutionist. She left the medical courses she 
was attending, followed him, and also turned revolutionist. 
If she had not considered her husband the cleverest and best 
of men she would not have fallen in love with him ; and if 
she had not fallen in love would not have married ; but hav- 
ing fallen in love and married him whom she thought the 
best and cleverest of men, she naturally looked upon life and 
its aims in the way the best and cleverest of men looked at 
them. At first he thought the aim of life was to learn, and 
she looked upon study as the aim of life. He became a revo- 
lutionist, and so did she. She could demonstrate very clearly 
that the existing state of things could not go on, and that it 
was everybody's duty to fight this state of things and to try 
to bring about conditions in which the individual could 
develop freely, etc. And she imagined that she really thought 
and felt all this, but in reality she only regarded everything 
her husband thought as absolute truth, and only sought for 
perfect agreement, perfect identification of her own soul with 
his which alone could give her full moral satisfaction. The 
parting with her husband and their child, whom her mother 
had taken, was very hard to bear ; but she bore it firmly and 
quietly, since it was for her husband's sake and for that 
cause which she had not the slightest doubt was true, since 
he served it. She was always with her husband in thoughts, 

464 Resurrection 

and did not love and could not love any other any more than 
she had done before. But NabatofFs devoted and pure love 
touched and excited her. This moral, firm man, her hus- 
band's friend, tried to treat her as a sister, but something 
more appeared in his behaviour to her, and this something 
frightened them both, and yet gave colour to their life of 

So that in all this circle only Mary Pavlovna and Kon- 
dratieff were quite free from love affairs. 

Resurrection 465 



Expecting to have a private talk with Katusha, as usual, 
after tea, Nekhludoff sat by the side of Kryltzoff, convers- 
ing with him. Among other things he told him the story of 
Makar's crime and about his request to him. Kryltzoff lis- 
tened attentively, gazing at Nekhludoff with glistening 

" Yes," said Kryltzoff suddenly, " I often think that here 
we are going side by side with them, and who are they ? The 
same for wdiose sake we are going, and yet we not only do 
not know them, but do not even wish to know them. And 
they, even worse than that, they hate us and look upon us as 
enemies. This is terrible. " 

" There is nothing terrible about it," broke in Novodvor- 
off. " The masses always worship power only. The govern- 
ment is in power, and they worship it and hate us. To-mor- 
row we shall have the power, and they will worship us," he 
said with his grating voice. At that moment a volley of 
abuse and the rattle of chains sounded from behind the wall, 
something was heard thumping against it and screaming and 
shrieking, some one was being beaten, and some one was call- 
ing out, " Murder ! help ! " 

" Hear them, the beasts ! What intercourse can there be 
between us and such as them ? quietly remarked Novod- 

" You call them beasts, and Nekhludoff was just telling 
me about such an action ! " irritably retorted Kryltzoff, and 
went on to say how Makar was risking his life to save a fel- 
low-villager. " That is not the action of a beast, it is hero- 

" Sentimentality ! " Novodvoroff ejaculated ironically ; 
" it is difficult for us to understand the emotions- of these 
people and the motives on which they act. You see gener- 
osity in the act, and it may be simply jealousy of that other 

466 Resurrection 

" How is it that you never wish to see anything good in 
another ? " Mary Pavlovna said suddenly, flaring up. 

" How can one see what does not exist ! " 

" How does it not exist, when a man risks dying a terrible 

" I think," said Novodvoroff, " that if we mean to do our 
work, the first condition is that " (here Kondratieff put 
down the book he was reading by the lamplight and began 
to listen attentively to his master's words) " we should not 
give way to fancy, but look at things as they are. We should 
do all in our power for the masses, and expect nothing in 
return. The masses can only be the object of our activity, 
but cannot be our fellow-workers as long as they remain in 
that state of inertia they are in at present," he went on, as 
if delivering a lecture. " Therefore, to expect help from 
them before the process of development — that process which 
we are preparing them for — has taken place is an illusion." 

" What process of development? " Kryltzoff began, flush- 
ing all over. " We say that we are against arbitrary rule 
and despotism, and is this not the most awful despotism? " 

" No despotism whatever," quietly rejoined Novodvoroff. 
" I am only saying that I know the path that the people must 
travel, and can show them that path." 

" But how can you be sure that the path you show is the 
true path ? Is this not the same kind of despotism that lay at 
the bottom of the Inquisition, all persecutions, and the great 
revolution? They, too, knew the one true way, by means 
of their science." 

" Their having erred is no proof of my going to err ; 
besides, there is a great difference between the ravings of 
idealogues and the facts based on sound, economic science." 
Novodvoroff's voice filled the room ; he alone was speaking, 
all the rest were silent. 

" They are always disputing," Mary Pavlovna said, when 
there was a moment's silence. 

" And you yourself, what do you think about it? " Nekh- 
ludoff asked her. 

" I think Kryltzoff is right when he says we should not 
force our views on the people." 

"And you, Katiisha?" asked Nekhludoff with a smile, 
waiting anxiously for her answer, fearing she would say 
something awkward. 

Resurrection 467 

" I think the common people are wronged," she said, and 
blushed scarlet. " I think they are dreadfully wronged. " 

" That's right, Maslova, quite right/' cried Nabatoff. 
r They are terribly wronged, the people, and they must 
not be wronged, and therein lies the whole of our task." 

" A curious idea of the object of revolution," Novodvoroff 
remarked crossly, and began to smoke. 

" I cannot talk to him," said Kryltzoff in a whisper, and 
was silent. 

" And it is much better not to talk," Nekhludoff said. 

468 Resurrection 



Although Novodvoroff was highly esteemed of all the 
revolutionists, though he was very learned, and considered 
very wise, Nekhludoff reckoned him among those of the 
revolutionists who, being below the average moral level, 
were very far below it. His inner life was of a nature 
directly opposite to that of Simonson's. Simonson was one 
of those people (of an essentially masculine type) whose 
actions follow the dictates of their reason, and are deter- 
mined by it. Novodvoroff belonged, on the contrary, to the 
class of people of a feminine type, whose reason is directed 
partly towards the attainment of aims set by their feelings, 
partly to the justification of acts suggested by their feelings. 
The whole of NovodvorofFs revolutionary activity, though 
he could explain it very eloquently and very convincingly, 
appeared to Nekhludoff to be founded on nothing but ambi- 
tion and the desire for supremacy. At first his capacity for 
assimilating the thoughts of others, and of expressing them 
correctly, had given him a position of supremacy among 
pupils and teachers in the gymnasium and the university, 
where qualities such as his are highly prized, and he was 
satisfied. When he had finished his studies and received 
his diploma he suddenly altered his views, and from a mod- 
ern liberal he turned into a rabid Narodovoletz, in order (so 
Kryltzoff, who did not like him, said) to gain supremacy in 
another sphere. 

As he was devoid of those moral and aesthetic qualities 
which call forth doubts and hesitation, he very soon acquired 
a position in the revolutionary world which satisfied him — 
that of the leader of a party. Having once chosen a direc- 
tion, he never doubted or hesitated, and was therefore certain 
that he never made a mistake. Everything seemed quite 
simple, clear and certain. And the narrowness and one- 
sidedness of his views did make everything seem simple and 
clear. One only had to be logical, as he said. His self- 
assurance was so great that it either repelled people or made 

Resurrection 469 

them submit to him. As he carried on his work among 
very young people, his boundless self-assurance led them to 
believe him very profound and wise; the majority did sub- 
mit to him, and he had a great success in revolutionary 
circles. His activity was directed to the preparation of a 
rising in which he was to usurp the power and call together 
a council. A programme, composed by him, should be 
proposed before the council, and he felt sure that this pro- 
gramme of his solved every problem, and that it would be 
impossible not to carry it out. 

His comrades respected but did not love him. He did 
not love any one, looked upon all men of note as upon rivals, 
and would have willingly treated them as old male monkeys 
treat young ones if he could have done it. He would have 
torn all mental power, every capacity, from other men, so 
that they should not interfere with the display of his talents. 
He behaved well only to those who bowed before him. Now, 
on the journey he behaved well to Kondratieff, who was 
influenced by his propaganda ; to Vera Doukhova and pretty 
little Grabetz, who were both in love with him. Although 
in principle he was in favour of the woman's movement, yet 
in the depth of his soul he considered all women stupid and 
insignificant except those whom he was sentimentally in 
love with (as he was now in love with Grabetz), and such 
women he considered to be exceptions, whose merits he 
alone was capable of discerning. 

The question of the relations of the sexes he also looked 
upon as thoroughly solved by accepting free union. He had 
one nominal and one real wife, from both of whom he was 
separated, having come to the conclusion that there was no 
real love between them, and now he thought of entering on 
a free union with Grabetz. He despised Nekhludoff for 
" playing the fool," as Novodvoroff termed it, with Maslova, 
but especially for the freedom Nekhludoff took of consider- 
ing the defects of the existing system and the methods of 
correcting those defects in a manner which was not only 
not exactly the same as NovodvorofFs, but was Nekhludoff s 
own — a prince's, that is, a fool's manner. Nekhludoff felt 
this relation of NovodvorofFs towards him, and knew to 
his sorrow that in spite of the state of good will in which 
he found himself on this journey he could not help paying 
this man in his own coin, and could not stifle the strong 
antipathy he felt for him, 

47° Resurrection 



The voices of officials sounded from the next room. All 
the prisoners were silent, and a sergeant, followed by two 
convoy soldiers, entered. The time of the inspection had 
come. The sergeant counted every one, and when Nekhlu- 
doff's turn came he addressed him with kindly familiarity. 

" You must not stay any longer, Prince, after the inspec- 
tion ; you must go now/' 

Nekhliidoff knew what this meant, went up to the ser- 
geant and shoved a three-rouble note into his hand. 

" Ah, well, what is one to do with you ; stay a bit longer, 
if you like." The sergeant was about to go when another 
sergeant, followed by a convict, a spare man with a thin 
beard and a bruise under his eye, came in. 

" It's about the girl I have come," said the convict. 

" Here's daddy come," came the ringing accents of a child's 
voice, and a flaxen head appeared from behind Rantzeva, 
who, with Katusha's and Mary Pavlovna's help, was 
making a new garment for the child out of one of Rantzeva's 
own petticoats. 

" Yes, daughter, it's me," Bousovkin, the prisoner, said 

" She is quite comfortable here," said Mary Pavlovna, 
looking with pity at Bousovkin's bruised face. " Leave her 
with us." 

" The ladies are making me new clothes," said the girl, 
pointing to Rantzeva's sewing — " ni-i-ice re-ed ones," she 
went on, prattling. 

" Do you wish to sleep with us? " asked Rantzeva, caress- 
ing the child. 

" Yes, I wish. And daddy, too." 

" No, daddy can't. Well, leave her then," she said, turn- 
ing to the father. 

" Yes, you may leave her," said the first sergeant, and 
went out with the other. 

Resurrection 47 1 

As soon as they were out of the room Nabatoff went up 
to Bousovkin, slapped him on the shoulder, and said : 

" I say, old fellow, is it true that Karmanoff wishes to 
exchange? " 

Bousovkin's kindly, gentle face turned suddenly sad and 
a veil seemed to dim his eyes. 

" We have heard nothing — hardly," he said, and with the 
same dimness still over his eyes he turned to the child. 

" Well, Aksutka, it seems you're to make yourself com- 
fortable with the ladies," and he hurried away. 

" It's true about the exchange, and he knows it very well," 
said Nabatoff. 

" What are you going to do? " 

"I shall tell the authorities in the next town. I know 
both prisoners by sight," said Nekhludoff. 

All were silent, fearing a recommencement of the dispute. 

Simonson, who had been lying with his arms thrown 
back behind his head, and not speaking, rose, and deter- 
minately walked up to Nekhludoff, carefully passing round 
those who were sitting. 

" Could you listen to me now? " 

" Of course," and Nekhludoff rose and followed him. 

Katusha looked up with an expression of suspense, and 
meeting Nekhludoff's eyes, she blushed and shook her 

" What I want to speak to you about is this," Simonson 
began, when they had come out into the passage. In the 
passage the din of the criminal's voices and shouts sounded 
louder. Nekhludoff made a face, but Simonson did not 
seem to take any notice. 

" Knowing of your relations to Katerina Maslova," he 
began seriously and frankly, with his kind eyes looking 

straight into Nekhludoff's face, " I consider it my duty" 

He was obliged to stop because two voices were heard dis- 
puting and shouting, both at once, close to the door. 

" I tell you, blockhead, they are not mine," one voice 

" May you choke, you devil," snorted the other. 

At this moment Mary Pavlovna came out into the pas- 

" How can one talk here? " she said ; " go in, Vera is alone 
there," and she went in at the second door, and entered a 
tiny room, evidently meant for a solitary cell, which was 

472 Resurrection 

now placed at the disposal of the political women prisoners. 
Vera Doukhova lay covered up, head and all, on the bed. 

4k She has got a headache, and is asleep, so she cannot 
hear you, and I will go away," said Mary Pavlovna. 

"On the contrary, stay here," said Simonson ; "I have 
no secrets from any one, certainly none from you." 

" All right," said Mary Pavlovna, and moving her whole 
body from side to side, like a child, so as to get farther back 
on to the bed, she settled down to listen, her beautiful hazel 
eyes seeming to look somewhere far away. 

•I Well, then, this is my business," Simonson repeated. 
" Knowing of your relations to Katerina Maslova, I con- 
sider myself bound to explain to you my relations to her." 

Nekhludoff could not help admiring the simplicity and 
truthfulness with which Simonson spoke to him. 

" What do you mean? " 

" I mean that I should like to marry Katerina Mas- 
lova " 

" How strange ! " said Mary Pavlovna, fixing her eyes on 

" — And so I made up my mind to ask her to be my wife," 
Simonson continued. 

" What can I do ? It depends on her," said Nekhludoff. 

" Yes ; but she will not come to any decision without 


" Because as long as your relations with her are unset- 
tled she cannot make up her mind." 

"As far as I am concerned, it is finally settled. I should 
like to do what I consider to be my duty and also to lighten 
her fate, but on no account would I wish to put any re- 
straint on her." 

" Yes, but she does not wish to accept your sacrifice." 

" It is no sacrifice." 

" And I know that this decision of hers is final." 

" Well, then, there is no need to speak to me," said Nekh- 

" She wants vou to acknowledge that vou think as she 

" How can I acknowledge that I must not do what I con- 
sider to be my duty? All I can say is that I am not free, 
but she is." 

Simonson was silent ; then, after thinking a little, he 

Resurrection 4.77 

said : " Very well, then, I'll tell her. You must not think I 
am in love with her," he continued; " I love her as a splen- 
did, unique, human being who has suffered much. I want 
nothing from her. I have only an awful longing to help her, 
to lighten her posi " 

Nekhludoff was surprised to hear the trembling in Simon- 
son's voice. 

" — To lighten her position," Simonson continued. " If 
she does not wish to accept your help, let her accept mine. 
If she consents, I shall ask to be sent to the place where she 
will be imprisoned. Four years are not an eternity. I 
would live near her, and perhaps might lighten her fate 
■ " and he again stopped, too agitated to continue. 

" What am I to say ? " said Nekhludoff. " I am very glad 
she has found such a protector as you " 

" That's what I wanted to know," Simonson interrupted. 
" I wanted to know if, loving her and wishing her happi- 
ness, you would consider it good for her to marry me ? " 

" Oh, yes," said Nekhludoff decidedly. 

" It all depends on her ; I only wish that this suffering 
soul should find rest," said Simonson, with such childlike 
tenderness as no one could have expected from so morose- 
looking a man. 

Simonson rose, and stretching his lips out to Nekhludoff, 
smiled shyly and kissed him. 

" So I shall tell her," and he went away. 

474 Resurrection 



" What do you think of that ? " said Mary Pavlovna. " In 
love — quite in love. Now, that's a thing I never should 
have expected, that Valdemar Simonson should be in love, 
and in the silliest, most boyish manner. It is strange, and, 
to say the truth, it is sad," and she sighed. 

" But she ? Katiisha ? How does she look at it, do you 
think ? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" She ? " Mary Pavlovna waited, evidently wishing to 
give as exact an answer as possible. " She? Well, you see, 
in spite of her past she has one of the most moral natures 
— and such fine feelings. She loves you — loves you well, 
and is happy to be able to do you even the negative good 
of not letting you get entangled with her. Marriage with 
you would be a terrible fall for her, worse than all that's 
past, and therefore she will never consent to it. And yet 
your presence troubles her." 

" Well, what am I to do? Ought I to vanish? " 

Mary Pavlovna smiled her sweet, childlike smile, and 
said, " Yes, partly." 

" How is one to vanish partly ? " 

" I am talking nonsense. But as for her, I should like to 
tell you that she probably sees the silliness of this raptur- 
ous kind of love (he has not spoken to her), and is both 
flattered and afraid of it. I am not competent to judge in 
such affairs, you know, still I believe that on his part it is 
the most ordinary man's feeling, though it is masked. He 
says that this love arouses his energy and is Platonic, but I 
know that even if it is exceptional, still at the bottom it is 

Mary Pavlovna had wandered from the subject, having 
started on her favourite theme. 

" Well, but what am I to do? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" I think you should tell her everything ; it is always best 
that everything should be clear. Have a talk with her; I 
shall call her. Shall I ? " said Mary Pavlovna. 

Resurrection 475 

" If you please," said Nekhludoff, and Mary Pavlovna 
went. • 

A strange feeling overcame Nekhludoff when he was 
alone in the little room with the sleeping Vera Doiikhova, 
listening to her soft breathing, broken now and then by 
moans, and to the incessant din that came through the two 
doors that separated him from the criminals. What Simon- 
son had told him freed him from the self-imposed duty, 
which had seemed hard and strange to him in his weak 
moments, and yet now he felt something that was not 
merely unpleasant but painful. 

He had a feeling that this offer of Simonson's destroyed 
the exceptional character of his sacrifice, and thereby les- 
sened its value in his own and others' eyes ; if so good a man 
who was not bound to her by any kind of tie wanted to join 
his fate to hers, then this sacrifice was not so great. There 
may have also been an admixture of ordinary jealousy. He 
had got so used to her love that he did not like to admit 
that she loved another. 

Then it also upset the plans he had formed of living near 
her while she was doing her term. If she married Simon- 
son his presence would be unnecessary, and he would have 
to form new plans. 

Before he had time to analyse his feelings the loud din of 
the prisoners' voices came in with a rush (something special 
was going on among them to-day) as the door opened to let 
Katiisha in. 

She stepped briskly close up to him and said, " Mary 
Pavlovna has sent me." 

" Yes, I must have a talk with you. Sit down. Valdemar 
Simonson has been speaking to me." 

She sat down and folded her hands in her lap and seemed 
quite calm, but hardly had Nekhludoff uttered Simonson's 
name when she flushed crimson. 

" What did he say ? " she asked. 

" He told me he wanted to marry you." 

Her face suddenly puckered up with pain, but she said 
nothing and only cast down her eyes. 

" He is asking for my consent or my advice. I told him 
that it all depends entirely on you — that you must decide." 

"Ah, what does it all mean? Why?" she muttered, and 
looked in his eyes with that peculiar squint that always 
strangely affected Nekhludoff. 

476 Resurrection 

They sat silent for a few minutes looking into each other's 
eyes, and this look told much to both of them. 

" You must decide," Nekhliidoff repeated. 

"What am I to decide? Everything has long been de- 

" No ; you must decide whether you will accept Mr. Simon- 
son's offer," said Nekhludoff. 

" What sort of a wife can I be — I, a convict? Why should 
I ruin Mr. Simonson, too ? " she said, with a frown. 

" Well, but if the sentence should be mitigated." 

" Oh, leave me alone. I have nothing more to say," she 
said, and rose to leave the room. 

Resurrection 477 



When, following Katusha, Nekhludoff returned to the 
men's room, he found every one there in agitation. Nabatoff, 
who went about all over the place, and who got to know 
everybody, and noticed everything, had just brought new T s 
which staggered them all. The news was that he had dis- 
covered a note on a wall, written by the revolutionist Petlin, 
who had been sentenced to hard labour, and who, every one 
thought, had long since reached the Kara ; and now it turned 
out that he had passed this way quite recently, the only polit- 
ical prisoner among criminal convicts. 

" On the 17th of August," so ran the note, " I was sent off 
alone with the criminals. Neveroff was with me, but hanged 
himself in the lunatic asylum in Kasan. I am well and in 
good spirits and hope for the best/' 

All w r ere discussing Petlin's position and the possible 
reasons of NeverofFs suicide. Only Kryltzoff sat silent and 
preoccupied, his glistening eyes gazing fixedly in front of' 

" My husband told me that Neveroff had a vision while 
still in the Petropavlovski prison," said Rantzeva. 

" Yes, he was a poet, a dreamer ; this sort of people can- 
not stand solitary confinement," said Novodvoroff. " Now, 
I never gave my imagination vent when in solitary confine- 
ment, but arranged my days most systematically, and in this 
way always bore it very well." 

" What is there unbearable about it ? Why, I used to be 
glad when they locked me up," said Nabatoff cheerfully, 
wishing to dispel the general depression. 

" A f ellow r 's afraid of everything ; of being arrested him- 
self and entangling others, and of spoiling the whole busi- 
ness, and then he gets locked up, and all responsibility is at 
an end, and he can rest ; he can just sit and smoke." 

"You knew him well?" asked Mary Pavlovna, glancing 
anxiously at the altered, haggard expression of KryltzofFs 

478 Resurrection 

" Neveroff a dreamer?" Kryltzoff suddenly began, pant- 
ing for breath as if he had been shouting or singing for a 
long time. " Neveroff was a man ' such as the earth bears 
few of/ as our doorkeeper used to express it. Yes, he had a 
nature like crystal, you could see him right through ; he could 
not lie, he could not dissemble ; not simply thin skinned, but 
with all his nerves laid bare, as if he were flayed. Yes, his 

was a complicated, rich nature, not such a ■ But where is 

the use of talking? " he added, with a vicious frown. " Shall 
we first educate the people and then change the forms of life, 
or first change the forms and then struggle, using peaceful 
propaganda or terrorism ? So we go on disputing while they 
kill ; they do not dispute — they know their business ; they 
don't care whether dozens, hundreds of men perish — and 
what men ! No ; that the best should perish is just what they 
want. Yes, Herzen said that when the Decembrists were 
withdrawn from circulation the average level of our society 
sank. I should think so, indeed. Then Herzen himself and 
his fellows were withdrawn ; now is the turn of the Never- 

" They can't all be got rid off/' said Nabatoff, in his cheer- 
ful tones. " There will always be left enough to continue 
the breed. No, there won't, if we show any pity to them 
there," Nabatoff said, raising his voice; and not letting 
himself be interrupted, " Give me a cigarette." 

" Oh, Anatole, it is not good for you," said Mary Pav- 
lovna. " Please do not smoke." 

" Oh, leave me alone," he said angrily, and lit a cigarette, 
but at once began to cough and to retch, as if he were going 
to be sick. Having cleared his throat though, he went on : 

" What we have been doing is not the thing at all. Not 
to argue, but for all to unite — to destroy them — that's it." 

" But they are also human beings," said Nekhludoff. 

" No, they are not human, they who can do what they are 

doing No There, now, I heard that some kind of 

bombs and balloons have been invented. Well, one ought 
to go up in such a balloon and sprinkle bombs down on 
them as if they were bugs, until they are all exterminated 

Yes. Because " he was going to continue, but, 

flushing all over, he began coughing worse than before, and 
a stream of blood rushed from his mouth. 

Nabatoff ran to get ice. Mary Pavlovna brought valerian 
drops and offered them to him, but he, breathing quickly 

Resurrection 479 

and heavily, pushed her away with his thin, white hand, and 
kept his eyes closed. When the ice and cold water had 
eased Kryltzoff a little, and he had been put to bed, Nekhlti- 
doff, having said good-night to everybody, went out with 
the sergeant, who had been waiting for him some time. 

The criminals were now quiet, and most of them were 
asleep. Though the people were lying on and under the 
bed shelves and in the space between, they could not all be 
placed inside the rooms, and some of them lay in the passage 
with their sacks under their heads and covered with their 
cloaks. The moans and sleepy voices came through the 
open doors and sounded through the passage. Everywhere 
lay compact heaps of human beings covered with prison 
cloaks. Only a few men who were sitting in the bachelors' 
room by the light of a candle end, which they put out when 
they noticed the sergeant, were awake, and an old man who 
sat naked under the lamp in the passage picking the vermin 
off his shirt. The foul air in the political prisoners' rooms 
seemed pure compared to the stinking closeness here. The 
smoking lamp shone dimly as through a mist, and it was 
difficult to breathe. Stepping along the passage, one had 
to look carefully fcr an empty space, and having put down 
one foot had to find place for the other. Three persons, 
who had evidently found no room even in the passage, lay 
in the anteroom, close to the stinking and leaking tub. One 
of these was an old idiot, whom Nekhludoff had often seen 
marching with the gang ; another was a boy about twelve ; 
he lay between the two other convicts, with his head on the 
leg of one of them. 

When he had passed out of the gate Nekhludoff took 
a deep breath and long continued to breathe in deep draughts 
<^f frosty air. 

480 Resurrection 



It had cleared up and was starlight. Except in a few 
places the mud was frozen hard when Nekhludoff returned 
to his inn and knocked at one of its dark windows. The 
broad-shouldered labourer came barefooted to open the door 
for him and let him in. Through a door on the right, lead- 
ing to the back premises, came the loud snoring of the 
carters, who slept there, and the sound of many horses 
chewing oats came from the yard. The front room, where 
a red lamp was burning in front of the icons, smelt of worm- 
wood and perspiration, and some one with mighty lungs 
was snoring behind a partition. Nekhludoff undressed, put 
his leather travelling pillow on the oilcloth sofa, spread out 
his rug and lay down, thinking over all he had seen and 
heard that day; the boy sleeping on the liquid that oozed 
from the stinking tub, with his head on the convict's leg, 
seemed more dreadful than all else. 

Unexpected and important as his conversation with 
Simonson and Katiisha that evening had been, he did not 
dwell on it; his situation in relation to that subject was so 
complicated and indefinite that he drove the thought from 
his mind. But the picture of those unfortunate beings, 
inhaling the noisome air, and lying in the liquid oozing out 
of the stinking tub, especially that of the boy, with his 
innocent face asleep on the leg of a criminal, came all the 
more vividly to his mind, and he could not get it out of his 

To know that somewhere far away there are men who 
torture other men by inflicting all sorts of humiliations and 
inhuman degradation and sufferings on them, or for three 
months incessantly to look on while men were inflicting 
these humiliations and sufferings on other men is a very 
different thing. And Nekhludoff felt it. More than once 
during these three months he asked himself, " Am I mad 
because I see what others do HQt ? or are they mad that do 
these things that I see ? * 

Resurrection 481 

Yet they (and there were many of them) did what seemed 
so astonishing and terrible to him with such quiet assurance 
that what they were doing was necessary and was important 
and useful work that it was hard to believe they were mad ; 
nor could he, conscious of the clearness of his thoughts, 
believe he was mad ; and all this kept him continually in 
a state of perplexity. 

This is how the things he saw during these three months 
impressed Nekhludoff : From among the people who were 
free, those were chosen, by means of trials and the adminis- 
tration, who were the most nervous, the most hot tempered, 
the most excitable, the most gifted, and the strongest, but 
the least careful and cunning. These people, not a wit more 
dangerous than many of those who remained free, were first 
locked in prisons, transported to Siberia, where they were 
provided for and kept months and years in perfect idleness, 
and away from nature, their families, and useful work — that 
is, away from the conditions necessary for a natural and 
moral life. This firstly. Secondly, these people were sub- 
jected to all sorts of unnecessary indignity in these different 
places — chains, shaved heads, shameful clothing — that is, 
they were deprived of the chief motives that induce the 
weak to live good lives, the regard for public opinion, the 
sense of shame and the consciousness of human dignity. 
Thirdly, they were continually exposed to dangers, such as 
the epidemics so frequent in places of confinement, exhaus- 
tion, flogging, not to mention accidents, such as sunstrokes, 
drowning or conflagrations, when the instinct of self-preser- 
vation makes even the kindest, most moral men commit 
cruel actions, and excuse such actions when committed by 

Fourthly, these people were forced to associate with 
others who were particularly depraved by life, and espe- 
cially by these very institutions — rakes, murderers and vil- 
lains — who act on those who are not yet corrupted by the 
measures inflicted on them as leaven acts on dough. 

And, fifthly, the fact that all sorts of violence, cruelty, in- 
humanity, are not only tolerated, but even permitted by the 
government, when it suits its purposes, was impressed on 
them most forcibly by the inhuman treatment they were 
subjected to ; by the sufferings inflicted on children, women 
and old men ; by floggings with rods and whips ; by rewards 
offered for bringing a fugitive back, dead or alive; by the 

482 Resurrection 

separation of husbands and wives, and the uniting them 
with the wives and husbands of others for sexual inter- 
course ; by shooting or hanging them. To those who were 
deprived of their freedom, who were in want and misery, 
acts of violence were evidently still more permissible. All 
these institutions seemed purposely invented for the pro- 
duction of depravity and vice, condensed to such a degree 
that no other conditions could produce it, and for the 
spreading of this condensed depravity and vice broadcast 
among the whole population. 

" Just as if a problem had been set to find the best, the 
surest means of depraving the greatest number of persons," 
thought Nekhludoff, while investigating the deeds that 
were being done in the prisons and halting stations. Every 
year hundreds of thousands were brought to the highest 
pitch of depravity, and when completely depraved they were 
set free to carry the depravity they had caught in prison 
among the people. In the prisons of Tamen, Ekaterin- 
burg, Tomsk and at the halting stations Nekhludoff saw 
how successfully the object society seemed to have set itself 
was attained. 

Ordinary, simple men with a conception of the demands 
of the social and Christian Russian peasant morality lost 
this conception, and found a new one, founded chiefly on 
the idea that any outrage or violence was justifiable if it 
seemed profitable. After living in a prison those people 
became conscious with the whole of their being that, judg- 
ing by what was happening to themselves, all the moral 
laws, the respect and the sympathy for others which church 
and the moral teachers preach, was really set aside, and 
that, therefore, they, too, need not keep the laws. Nekh- 
ludoff noticed the effects of prison life on all the convicts 
he knew — on Fedoroff, on Makar, and even on Taras, who, 
after two months among the convicts, struck Nekhludoff 
by the want of morality in his arguments. Nekhludoff found 
out during his journey how tramps, escaping into the 
marshes, persuade a comrade to escape with them, and then 
kill him and feed on his flesh. (He saw a living man who 
was accused of this and acknowledged the fact.) And the 
most terrible part was that this was not a solitary, but a re- 
curring case. 

Only by a special cultivation of vice, such as was per- 
petrated in these establishments, could a Russian be 

Resurrection 483 

brought to the state of this tramp, who excelled Nietzsche's 
newest teaching, and held that everything was possible and 
nothing forbidden, and who spread this teaching first 
among the convicts and then among the people in general. 

The only explanation of all that was being done was the 
wish to put a stop to crime by fear, by correction, by lawful 
vengeance as it was written in the books. But in reality 
nothing in the least resembling any of these results came 
to pass. Instead of vice being put a stop to, it only spread 
further ; instead of being frightened, the criminals were en- 
couraged (many a tramp returned to prison of his own free 
will). Instead of being corrected, every kind of vice was 
systematically instilled, while the desire for vengeance did 
not weaken by the measures of the government, but was 
bred in the people who had none of it. 

" Then why is it done ? " Nekhludoff asked himself, but 
could find no answer. And what seemed most surprising 
was that all this was not being done accidentally, not by 
mistake, not once, but that it had continued for centuries, 
with this difference only, that at first the people's nostrils 
used to be torn and their ears cut off; then they were 
branded, and now they were manacled and transported by 
steam instead of on the old carts. The arguments brought 
forward by those in government service, who said that the 
things which aroused his indignation were simply due to 
the imperfect arrangements of the places of confinement, 
and that they could all be put to rights if prisons of a mod- 
ern type were built, did not satisfy Nekhludoff, because 
he knew that what revolted him was not the consequence 
of a better or worse arrangement of the prisons. He had 
read of model prisons with electric bells, of executions by 
electricity, recommended by Tard ; but this refined kind of 
violence revolted him even more. 

But what revolted Nekhludoff most was that there were 
men in the law courts and in the ministry who received 
large salaries, taken from the p,eople, for referring to books 
written by men like themselves and with like motives, and 
sorting actions that violated laws made by themselves ac- 
cording to different statutes ; and, in obedience to these 
statutes, sending those guilty of such actions to places 
where they were completely at the mercy of cruel, hardened 
inspectors, jailers, convoy soldiers, where millions of them 
perished body and soul. 

4 8 4 


Now that he had a closer knowledge of prisons, Nekh- 
ludoff found out that all those vices which developed among 
the prisoners — drunkenness, gambling, cruelty, and all 
these terrible crimes, even cannibalism — were not casual 
or due to degeneration or to the existence of monstrosities 
of the criminal type, as science, going hand in hand with 
the government, explained it, but an unavoidable con- 
sequence of the incomprehensible delusion that men may 
punish one another. Nekhludoff saw that cannibalism did 
not commence in the marshes, but in the ministry. He 
saw that his brother-in-law, for example, and, in fact, all the 
lawyers and officials, from the usher to the minister, do not 
care in the least for justice or the good of the people about 
whom they spoke, but only for the roubles they were paid 
for doing the things that were the source whence all this 
degradation and suffering flowed. This was quite evident. 

" Can it be, then, that all this is done simply through 
misapprehension? Could it not be managed that all these 
officials should have their salaries secured to them, and a 
premium paid them, besides, so that they should leave off 
doing all that they were doing now? " Nekhludoff thought, 
and in spite of the fleas, that seemed to spring up round 
him like water from a fountain whenever he moved, he fell 
fast asleep. 

Resurrection 485 



The carters had left the inn long before Nekhliidoff 
awoke. The landlady had had her tea, and came in wiping 
her fat, perspiring neck with her handkerchief, and said that 
a soldier had brought a note from the halting station. The 
note was from Mary Pavlovna. She w r rote that Kryltzoff's 
attack was more serious than they had imagined. " We 
wished him to be left behind and to remain with him, but 
this has not been allowed, so that we shall take him on ; but 
we fear the worst. Please arrange so that if he should be 
left in the next town, one of us might remain with him. If 
in order to get the permission to stay I should be obliged to 
get married to him, I am of course ready to do so." 

Nekhliidoff sent the young labourer to the post station 
to order horses and began packing up hurriedly. Before he 
had drunk his second tumbler of tea the three-horsed post- 
cart drove up to the porch with ringing bells, the wheels rat- 
tling on the frozen mud as on stones. Nekhliidoff paid the 
fat-necked landlady, hurried out and got into the cart, and 
gave orders to the driver to go on as fast as possible, so as 
to overtake the gang. Just past the gates of the communal 
pasture ground they did overtake the carts, loaded with sacks 
and the sick prisoners, as they rattled over the frozen mud, 
that was just beginning to be rolled smooth by the wheels 
(the officer was not there, he had gone in advance). The 
soldiers, who had evidently been drinking, followed by the 
side of the road, chatting merrily. There were a great many 
carts. In each of the first carts sat six invalid criminal con- 
victs, close packed. On each of the last two were three polit- 
ical prisoners. Novodvoroff, Grabetz and Kondratieff sat on 
one, Rantzeva, Nabatoff and the woman to whom Mary 
Pavlovna had given up her own place on the other, and on 
one of the carts lay Kryltzoff on a heap of hay, with a pillow 
under his head, and Mary Pavlovna sat by him on the edge 
of the cart. Nekhliidoff ordered his driver to stop, got out 

and went up to Kryltzoff* Qm q£ the tipsy soldiers waved 



his hand towards Nekhludoff, but he paid no attention and 
started walking by Kryltzoff's side, holding on to the side of 
the cart with his hand. Dressed in a sheepskin coat, with a 
fur cap on his head and his mouth bound up with a handker- 
chief, he seemed paler and thinner than ever. His beautiful 
eyes looked very large and brilliant. Shaken from side to 
side by the joltings of the cart, he lay with his eyes fixed on 
Nekhludoff ; but when asked about his health, he only closed 
his eyes and angrily shook his head. All his energy seemed 
to be needed in order to bear the jolting of the cart. Mary 
Pavlovna was on the other side. She exchanged a significant 
glance with Nekhludoff, which expressed all her anxiety 
about Kryltzoff's state, and then began to talk at once in a 
cheerful manner. 

" It seems the officer is ashamed of himself," she shouted, 
so as to be heard above the rattle of the wheels. " Bousov- 
kin's manacles have been removed, and he is carrying his lit- 
tle girl himself. Kattisha and Simonson are with him, and 
Vera, too. She has taken my place." 

Kryltzoff said something that could not be heard because 
of the noise, and frowning in the effort to repress his cough 
shook his head. Then Nekhludoff stooped towards him, so as 
to hear, and Kryltzoff, freeing his mouth of the handker- 
chief, whispered : 

" Much better now. Only not to catch cold." 

Nekhludoff nodded in acquiescence, and again exchanged 
a glance with Mary Pavlovna. 

" How about the problem of the three bodies? " whispered 
Kryltzoff, smiling with great difficulty. " The solution is 

Nekhludoff did not understand, but Mary Pavlovna ex- 
plained that he meant the well-known mathematical prob- 
lem which defined the position of the sun, moon and earth, 
which Kryltzoff compared to the relations between Nekhlu- 
doff, Katusha and Simonson. Kryltzoff nodded, to show 
that Mary Pavlovna had explained his joke correctly. 

" The decision does not lie with me," Nekhludoff said. 

" Did you get my note? Will you do it? " Mary Pavlovna 

" Certainly," answered Nekhludoff ; and noticing a look of 
displeasure on Kryltzoff's face, he returned to his convey- 
ance, and holding with both hands to the sides of the cart, 
got in, which jolted with him over the ruts of the rough road, 

Resurrection 487 

He passed the gang, which, with its grey cloaks and sheep- 
skin coats, chains and manacles, stretched over three-quar- 
ters of a mile of the road. On the opposite side of the road 
Nekhludoff noticed Katiisha's blue shawl, Vera Doukhova's 
black coat, and Simonson's crochet cap, white worsted stock- 
ings, with bands, like those of sandals, tied round him. 
Simonson was walking with the woman and carrying on a 
heated discussion. 

When they saw Nekhludoff they bowed to him, and 
Simonson raised his hat in a solemn manner. Nekhludoff, 
having nothing to say, did not stop, and was soon ahead of 
the carts. Having got again on to a smoother part of the 
road, they drove still more quickly, but they had continually 
to turn aside to let pass long rows of carts that were moving 
along the road in both directions. 

The road, which was cut up by deep ruts, lay through a 
thick pine forest, mingled with birch trees and larches, bright 
with yellow leaves they had not yet shed. By the time Nekh- 
ludoff had passed about half the gang he reached the end of 
the forest. Fields now lay stretched along both sides of the 
road, and the crosses and cupolas of a monastery appeared 
in the distance. The clouds had dispersed, and it had cleared 
up completely; the leaves, the frozen puddles and the gilt 
crosses and cupolas of the monastery glittered brightly in 
the sun that had risen above the forest. A little to the right 
mountains began to gleam white in the blue-grey distance, 
and the trap entered a large village. The village street was 
full of people, both Russians and other nationalities, wearing 
peculiar caps and cloaks. Tipsy men and women crowded 
and chattered round booths, traktirs, public houses and carts. 
The vicinity of a town was noticeable. Giving a pull and a 
lash of the whip to the horse on his right, the driver sat down 
sideways on the right edge of the seat, so that the reins hung 
over that side, and with evident desire of showing off, he 
drove quickly down to the river, which had to be crossed by a 
ferry. The raft was coming towards them, and had reached 
the middle of the river. About twenty carts were waiting to 
cross. Nekhludoff had not long to wait. The raft, which 
had been pulled far up the stream, quickly approached the 
landing, carried by the swift waters. The tall, silent, broad- 
shouldered, muscular ferryman, dressed in sheepskins, threw 
the ropes and moored the raft with practised hand, landed 
the carts that were on it, and put those that were waiting or 

488 Resurrection 

the bank on board. The whole raft was filled with vehicles 
and horses shuffling at the sight of the water. The broad, 
swift river splashed against the sides of the ferryboats, tight- 
ening their moorings. 

When the raft was full, and NekhludofFs cart, with the 
horses taken out of it, stood closely surrounded by other carts 
on the side of the raft, the ferryman barred the entrance, 
and, paying no heed to the prayers of those who had not 
found room in the raft, unfastened the ropes and set off. 

All was quiet on the raft ; one could hear nothing but the 
tramp of the ferryman's boots and the horses changing from 
foot to foot. 

Resurrection 489 



Nekhludoff stood on the edge of the raft looking at the 
broad river. Two pictures kept rising up in his mind. 
One, that of Kryltzoff, unprepared for death and dying, 
made a heavy, sorrowful impression on him. The other, 
that of Katiisha, full of energy, having gained the love of 
such a man as Simonson, and found a true and solid path 
towards righteousness, should have been pleasant, yet it also 
created a heavy impression on NekhliidofFs mind, and he 
could not conquer this impression. 

The vibrating sounds of a big brass bell reached them 
from the town. NekhliidofFs driver, who stood by his side, 
and the other men on the raft raised their caps and crossed 
themselves, all except a short, dishevelled old man, who 
stood close to the railway and whom Nekhludoff had not 
noticed before. He did not cross himself, but raised his 
head and looked at Nekhludoff. This old man wore a 
patched coat, cloth trousers and worn and patched shoes. 
He had a small wallet on his back, and a high fur cap with 
the fur much rubbed on his head. 

" Why don't you pray, old chap ? " asked NekhliidofFs 
driver as he replaced and straightened his cap. " Are you 
unbaptized ? " 

" Who's one to pray to ? " asked the old man quickly, in 
a determinately aggressive tone. 

" To whom ? To God, of course," said the driver sarcas- 

" And you just show me where he is, that god." There 
was something so serious and firm in the expression of the 
old man, that the driver felt that he had to do with a 
strong-minded man, and was a bit abashed. And trying 
not to show this, not to be silenced, and not to be put to 
shame before the crowd that was observing them, he 
answered quickly. 

" Where ? In heaven, of course." 

" And have you been up there ? " 

49° Resurrection 

" Whether I've been or not, every one knows that you 
must pray to God." 

" No one has ever seen God at any time. The only be- 
gotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father he hath de- 
clared him," said the old man in the same rapid manner, 
and with a severe frown on his brow. 

" It's clear you are not a Christian, but a hole worship- 
per. You pray to a hole/' said the driver, shoving the 
handle of his whip into his girdle, pulling straight the har- 
ness on one of the horses. 

Some one laughed. 

" What is your faith, Dad ? " asked a middle-aged man, 
who stood by his cart on the same side of the raft. 

" I have no kind of faith, because I believe no one — no 
one but myself," said the old man as quickly and decidedly 
as before. 

" How can you believe yourself? " Nekhhidoff asked, en- 
tering into a conversation with him. " You might make a 

" Never in your life," the old man said decidedly, with a 
toss of his head. 

" Then why are there different faiths ? " Nekhliidoff 

" It's just because men believe others and do not believe 
themselves that there are different faiths. I also believed 
others, and lost myself as in a swamp — lost myself so that 
I had no hope of finding my way out. Old believers and 
new believers and Judaisers and Khlysty and Popovitzy, 
and Bespopovitzy and Avstriaks and Molokans and Skoptzy 
— every faith praises itself only, and so they all creep about 
like blind puppies. There are many faiths, but the spirit is 
one — in me and in you and in him. So that if every one 
believes himself all will be united. Every one be himself, 
and all will be as one." 

The old man spoke loudly and often looked round, evi- 
dently wishing that as many as possible should hear him. 

" And have you long held this faith? " 

" I ? A long time. This is the twenty-third year that they 
persecute me." 

" Persecute you ? How ? " 

" As they persecuted Christ, so they persecute me. They 
seize me, and take me before the courts and before the 
priests, the Scribes and the Pharisees. Once they put me into 

Resurrection 491 

a madhouse; but they can do nothing because I am free. 
They say, 'What is your name?' thinking I shall name 
myself. But I do not give myself a name. I have given up 
everything : I have no name, no place, no country, nor any- 
thing. I am just myself. ' What is your name? ' ' Man.' 
1 How old are you ? ' J say, ' I do not count my years and 
cannot count them, because I always was, I always shall 
be/ ' Who ar<* voiir parents? ' ' I have no parents except 
God and Mother Earth. God is my father/ ' And the 
Ts?r? Do you recognise the Tsar?' they say. I say, 

* Why not? He is his own Tsar, and I am my own Tsar.' 

* Where's the good of talking to him/ they say, and I say, 
' I do not ask you to talk to me/ And so they begin torment- 
ing me/' 

" And where are you going now? " asked Nekhludoff. 

" Where God will lead me. I work when I can find work, 
and when I can't I beg/' The old man noticed that the raft 
was approaching the bank and stopped, looking round at 
the bystanders with a look of triumph. 

Nekhludoff got out his purse and offered some money to 
the old man, but he refused, saying : 

" I do not accept this sort of thing — bread I do accept. " 

" Well, then, excuse me." 

" There is nothing to excuse, you have not offended me. 
And it is not possible to offend me." And the old man put 
the wallet he had taken off again on his back. Meanwhile, 
the post-cart had been landed and the horses harnessed. 

" I wonder you should care to talk to him, sir," said the 
driver, when Nekhludoff, having tipped the bowing ferry- 
man, got into the cart again. " He is just a worthless 

49^ Resurrection 



When they got to the top of the hill bank trie an^r 
turned to Nekhludoff. 

" Which hotel am I to drive to ? " 

" Which is the best ?" 

" Nothing could be better than the Siberian, but Duke- 
ofFs is also good." 

" Drive to whichever you like." 

The driver again seated himself sideways and drove 
faster. The town was like all such towns. The same kind 
of houses with attic windows and green roofs, the same kind 
of cathedral, the same kind of shops and stores in the prin- 
cipal street, and even the same kind of policemen. Only 
the houses were almost all of them wooden, and the streets 
were not paved. In one of the chief streets the driver stop- 
ped at the door of an hotel, but there was no room to be 
had, so he drove to another. And here Nekhludoff, after 
two months, found himself once again in surroundings such 
as he had been accustomed to as far as comfort and clean- 
liness went. Though the room he was shown to was simple 
enough, yet Nekhludoff felt greatly relieved to be there 
after two months of post-carts, country inns and halting sta- 
tions. His first business was to clean himself of the lice 
which he had never been able to get thoroughly rid of after 
visiting a halting station. When he had unpacked he went 
to the Russian bath, after which he made himself fit to be 
seen in a town, put on a starched shirt, trousers that had got 
rather creased along the seams, a frock-coat and an overcoat, 
and drove to the Governor of the district. The hotel-keeper 
called an isvostchik, whose well-fed Kirghiz horse and vibrat- 
ing trap soon brought Nekhludoff to the large porch of a big 
building, in front of which stood sentinels and a policeman. 
The house had a garden in front, and at the back, among the 
naked branches of aspen and birch trees, there grew thick 
and dark green pines and firs. The General was not well, 

Resurrection 493 

and did not receive; but Nekhludoff asked the footman to 
hand in his card all the same, and the footman came back 
with a favourable reply. 

" You are asked to come in." 

The hall, the footman, the orderly, the staircase, the danc- 
ing-room, with its well-polished floor, were very much the 
same as in Petersburg, only more imposing and rather 
dirtier. Nekhludoff was shown into the cabinet. 

The General, a bloated, potato-nosed man, with a san- 
guine disposition, large bumps on his forehead, bald head, 
and puffs under his eyes, sat wrapped in a Tartar silk dress- 
ing-gown smoking a cigarette and sipping his tea out of a 
tumbler in a silver holder. 

" How do you do, sir? Excuse my dressing-gown; it is 
better so than if I had not received you at all," he said, pull- 
ing up his dressing-gown over his fat neck with its deep 
folds at the nape. " I am not quite well, and do not go out. 
What has brought you to our remote region? " 

" I am accompanying a gang of prisoners, among whom 
there is a person closely connected with me," said Nekhlu- 
doff, and now I have come to see your Excellency partly 
in behalf of this person, and partly about another business." 
The General took a whiff and a sip of tea, put his cigarette 
into a malachite ashpan, with his narrow eyes fixed on 
Nekhludoff, listening seriously. He only interrupted him 
once to offer him a cigarette. 

The General belonged to the learned type of military men 
who believed that liberal and humane views can be recon- 
ciled with their profession. But being by nature a kind and 
intelligent man, he soon felt the impossibility of such a recon- 
ciliation; so as not to feel the inner discord in which he 
was living, he gave himself up more and more to the habit 
of drinking, which is so widely spread among military men, 
and was now suffering from what doctors term alcoholism. 
He was imbued with alcohol, and if he drank any kind of 
liquor it made him tipsy. Yet strong drink was an absolute 
necessity to him, he could not live without it, so he was quite 
drunk every evening; but had grown so used to this state 
that he did not reel nor talk any special nonsense. And if 
he did talk nonsense, it was accepted as words of wisdom 
because of the important and high position "which he occu- 
pied. Only in the morning, just at the time Nekhludoff 
came to see him, he was like a reasonable being, could under- 

494 Resurrection 

stand what was said to him, and fulfil more or less aptly a 
proverb he was fond of repeating: "He's tipsy, but tie's 
wise, so he's pleasant in two ways/' 

The higher authorities knew he was a drunkard, but he 
was more educated than the rest, though his education had 
stopped at the spot where drunkenness had got hold of him. 
He was bold, adroit, of imposing appearance, and showed 
tact even when tipsy ; therefore, he was appointed, and was 
allowed to retain so public and responsible an office. 

Nekhliidoff told him that the person he was interested in 
was a woman, that she was sentenced, though innocent, and 
that a petition had been sent to the Emperor in her behalf. 

" Yes, well ? " said the General. 

" I was promised in Petersburg that the news concern- 
ing her fate should be sent to me not later than this month 
and to this place " 

The General stretched his hand with its stumpy fingers 
towards the table, and rang a bell, still looking at Nekhlii- 
doff and puffing at his cigarette. 

" So I would like to ask you that this woman should be 
allowed to remain here until the answer to her petition 

The footman, an orderly in uniform, came in. 

"Ask if Anna Vasilievna is up," said the General to the 
orderly, " and bring some more tea." Then, turning to 
Nekhliidoff, "Yes, and what else?" 

" My other request concerns a political prisoner who is 
with the same gang." 

" Dear me," said the General, with a significant shake of 
the head. 

" He is seriously ill — dying, and he will probably be left 
here in the hospital, so one of the women prisoners would 
like to stay behind with him." 

" She is no relation of his ? " 

" No, but she is willing to marry him if that will enable 
her to remain with him." 

The General looked fixedly with twinkling eyes at his in- 
terlocutor, and, evidently with a wish to discomfit him, lis- 
tened, smoking in silence. 

When Nekhliidoff had finished, the General took a book 
off the table, and, wetting his finger, quickly turned over the 
pages and found the statute relating to marriage. 

Resurrection 495 

"What is she sentenced to? " he asked, looking up from 
the book. 

"She? To hard labour." 

" Well, then, the position of one sentenced to that cannot 
be bettered by marriage." 

" Yes, but—" 

" Excuse me. Even if a free man should marry her, she 
would have to serve her term. The question in such cases 
is, whose is the heavier punishment, hers or his ? " 

" They are both sentenced to hard labour." 

" Very well ; so they are quits," said the General, with a 
laugh. She's got what he has, only as he is sick he may be 
left behind, and of course what can be done to lighten his 
fate shall be done. But as for her, even if she did marry him, 
she could not remain behind." 

" The Generaless is having her coffee," the footman an- 

The General nodded and continued : 

" However, I shall think about it. What are their names ? 
Put them down here." 

Nekhludoff wrote down the names. 

NekhludofFs request to be allowed to see the dying man 
the General answered by saying, " Neither can I do that. 
Of course I do not suspect you, but you take an interest in 
him and in the others, and you have money, and here with 
us anything can be done with money. I have been told to 
put down bribery. But how can I put down bribery when 
everybody takes bribes ? And the lower their rank the more 
ready they are to be bribed. How can one find it out across 
more than three thousand miles? There any official is a 
little Tsar, just as I am here," and he laughed. " You have 
in all likelihood been to see the political prisoners ; you gave 
money and got permission to see them," he said, with a 
smile. " Is it not so? " 

" Yes, it is." 

" I quite understand that you had to do it. You pity a 
political prisoner and wish to see him. And the inspector 
or the convoy soldier accepts, because he has a salary of 
twice twenty copecks and a family, and he can't help accept- 
ing it. In his place and yours I should have acted in the 
same way as you and he did. But in my position I do not 
permit myself to swerve an inch from the letter of the law, 
just because I am a man, and might be influenced by pity. 

496 Resurrection 

But I am a member of the executive, and I have been placed 
in a position of trust on certain conditions, and these condi- 
tions I must carry out. Well, so this business is finished. 
And now let us hear what is going on in the metropolis. " 
And the General began questioning with the evident desire 
to hear the news and to show how very human he was. 

Resurrection 497 



fi "^THE-WAY, where are you staying?" asked the Gen- 
era 1 , as he was taking leave of Nekhludoff. "At Duke's? 
Well, it's horrid enough there. Come and dine with us at five 
o'clock. You speak English ? " 

" Yes, I do." 

" That's good. You see, an English traveller has just 
arrived here. He is studying the question of transportation 
and examining the prisons of Siberia. Well, he is dining 
with us to-night, and you come and meet him. We dine at 
five, and my wife expects punctuality. Then I shall also give 
you an answer what to do about that woman, and perhaps it 
may be possible to leave some one behind with the sick pris- 

Having made his bow to the General, Nekhludoff drove 
to the post-office, feeling himself in an extremely animated 
and energetic frame of mind. 

The post-office was a low-vaulted room. Several officials 
sat behind a counter serving the people, of whom there was 
quite a crowd. One official sat with his head bent to one side 
and kept stamping the envelopes, which he slipped dexter- 
ously under the stamp. Nekhludoff had not long to wait. 
As soon as he had given his name, everything that had come 
for him by post was at once handed to him. There was a 
good deal : letters, and money, and books, and the last num- 
ber of Fatherland Notes. Nekhludoff took all these things 
to a wooden bench, on which a soldier with a book in his 
hand sat waiting for something, took the seat by his side, 
and began sorting the letters. Among them was one regis- 
tered letter in a fine envelope, with a distinctly stamped 
bright red seal. He broke the seal, and seeing a letter from 
Selenin and some official paper inside the envelope, he felt 
the blood rush to his face, and his heart stood still. It was 
the answer to Katusha's petition. What would that answer 
be ? Nekhludoff glanced hurriedly through the letter, written 
in an illegibly small, hard, and cramped hand, and breathed a 
sigh of relief. The answer was a favourable one. 

498 Resurrection 

" Dear friend/' wrote Selenin, " our last talk has made a 
profound impression on me. You were right concerning 
Maslova. I looked carefully through the case, and see that 
shocking injustice has been done her. It could be remedied 
only by the Committee of Petitions before which you laid it. 
I managed to assist at the examination of the case, and I en- 
close herewith the copy of the mitigation of the sentence. 
Your aunt, the Countess Katerina Ivanovna, gave me uie 
address which I am sending this to. The original document 
has been sent to the place where she was imprisoned before 
her trial, and will from there be probably sent at once to the 
principal Government office in Siberia. I hasten to communi- 
cate this glad news to you and warmly press your hand. 


" Selenin. 5 ' 

The document ran thus : " His Majesty's office for the 
reception of petitions, addressed to his Imperial name " — 
here followed the date — " by order of the chief of his Maj- 
esty's office for the reception of petitions addressed to his 
Imperial name. The meschanka Katerina Maslova is hereby 
informed that his Imperial Majesty, with reference to her 
most loyal petition, condescending to her request, deigns to 
order that her sentence to hard labour should be commuted to 
one of exile to the less distant districts of Siberia." 

This was joyful and important news ; all that Nekhliidoff 
could have hoped for Katusha, and for himself also, had 
happened. It was true that the new position she was in 
brought new complications with it. While she was a con- 
vict, marriage with her could only be fictitious, and would 
have had no meaning except that he would have been in a 
position to alleviate her condition. And now there was noth- 
ing to prevent their living together, and Nekhliidoff had not 
prepared himself for that. And, besides, what of her rela- 
tions to Simonson? What was the meaning of her words 
yesterday? If she consented to a union with Simonson, 
would it be well ? He could not unravel all these questions, 
and gave up thinking about it. " It will all clear itself up 
later on," he thought ; " I must not think about it now, but 
convey the glad news to her as soon as possible, and set her 
free. He thought that the copy of the document he had 
received would suffice, so when he left the post-office he told 
the isvostchik to drive him to the prison. 

Though he had received no order from the governor to visit 

/ Resurrection 499 

the prison that morning, he knew by experience that it was 
easy to get from the subordinates what the higher officials 
would not grant, so now he meant to try and get into the 
prison to bring Kattisha the joyful news, and perhaps to get 
her set free, and at the same time to inquire about Kryltzoff's 
state of health, and tell him and Mary Pavlovna what the 
general had said. The prison inspector was a tall, imposing- 
looking man, with moustaches and whiskers that twisted 
towards the corners of his mouth. He received Nekhludoff 
very gravely, and told him plainly that he could not grant 
an outsider the permission to interview the prisoners with- 
out a special order from his chief. To NekhludofFs remark 
that he had been allowed to visit the prisoners even in the 
cities he answered : 

" That may be so, but I do not allow it," and his tone 
implied, " You city gentlemen may think to surprise and 
perplex us, but we in Eastern Siberia also know what the 
law is, and may even teach it you." The copy of a document 
straight from the Emperor's own office did not have any 
effect on the prison inspector either. He decidedly refused 
to let Nekhludoff come inside the prison walls. He only 
smiled contemptuously at NekhludofFs naive conclusion, that 
the copy he had received would suffice to set Maslova free, 
and declared that a direct order from his own superiors 
would be needed before any one could be set at liberty. The 
only things he agreed to do were to communicate to Maslova 
that a mitigation had arrived for her, and to promise that he 
would not detain her an hour after the order from his chief 
to liberate her would arrive. He would also give no news 
of Kryltzoff, saying he could not even tell if there was such 
a prisoner ; and so Nekhludoff, having accomplished next to 
nothing, got into his trap and drove back to his hotel. 

The strictness of the inspector was chiefly due to the fact 
that an epidemic of typhus had broken out in the prison, 
owing to twice the number of persons that it was intended 
for being crowded in it. The isvostchik who drove Nekhlu- 
doff said, " Quite a lot of people are dying in the prison every 
day, some kind of disease having sprung up among them, 
so that as many as twenty were buried in one day." 

^cro Resurrection 



In spite of his ineffectual attempt at the prison, Nekhlti- 
doff, still in the same vigorous, energetic frame of mind, 
went to the Governor's office to see if the original of the 
document had arrived for Maslova. It had not arrived, so 
Nekhliidoff went back to the hotel and wrote without delay- 
to Selenin and the advocate about it. When he had finished 
writing he looked at his watch and saw it was time to go to 
the General's dinner party. 

On the way he again began wondering how Katiisha 
would receive the news of the mitigation of her sentence. 
Where she would be settled ? How he should live with her ? 
What about Simonson ? What would his relations to her be ? 
He remembered the change that had taken place in her, and 
this reminded him of her past. " I must forget it for the 
present," he thought, and again hastened to drive her out of 
his mind. " When the time comes I shall see," he said to 
himself, and began to think of what he ought to say to the 

The dinner at the General's, with the luxury habitual to 
the lives of the wealthy and those of high rank, to which 
Nekhliidoff had been accustomed, was extremely enjoyable 
after he had been so long deprived not only of luxury but 
even of the most ordinary comforts. The mistress of the 
house was a Petersburg grande dame of the old school, a 
maid of honour at the court of Nicholas I., who spoke 
French quite naturally and Russian very unnaturally. She 
held herself very erect and, moving her hands, she kept her 
elbows close to her waist. She was quietly and somewhat 
sadly considerate for her husband, and extremely kind to all 
her visitors, though with a tinge of difference in her be- 
haviour according to their position. She received Nekhlii- 
doff as if he were one of them, and her fine, almost imper- 
ceptible flattery made him once again aware of his virtues 
and gave him a feeling of satisfaction. She made him feel 
that she knew qi that honest though rather singular step of 

Resurrection 501 

his wHlch haa Drought him to Siberia, and held him to be 
an exceptional man. This refined flattery and the elegance 
and luxury of the General's house had the effect of making 
Nekhliidoff succumb to the enjoyment of the handsome sur- 
roundings, the delicate dishes and the ease and pleasure of 
intercourse with educated people of his own class, so that the 
surroundings in the midst of which he had lived for the last 
months seemed a dream from which he had awakened to 
reality. Besides those of the household, the General's daugh- 
ter and her husband and an aide-de-camp, there were an 
Englishman, a merchant interested in gold mines, and the 
governor of a distant Siberian town. All these people 
seemed pleasant to Nekhliidoff. The Englishman, a healthy 
man with a rosy complexion, who spoke very bad French, 
but whose command of his own language was very good and 
oratorically impressive, who had seen a great deal, was very 
interesting to listen to when he spoke about America, India, 
Japan and Siberia. 

The young merchant interested in the gold mines, the son 
of a peasant, whose evening dress was made in London, 
who had diamond studs to his shirt, possessed a fine library, 
contributed freely to philanthropic work, and held liberal 
European views, seemed pleasant to Nekhliidoff as a sample 
of a quite new and good type of civilised European culture, 
grafted on a healthy, uncultivated peasant stem. 

The governor of the distant Siberian town was that same 
man who had been so much talked about in Petersburg at the 
time Nekhliidoff was there. He was plump, with thin, curly 
hair, soft blue eyes, carefully-tended white hands, with rings 
on the fingers, a pleasant smile, and very big in the lower 
part of his body. The master of the house valued this gov- 
ernor because of all the officials he, was the only one who 
would not be bribed. The mistress of the house, who was 
very fond of music and a very good pianist herself, valued 
him because he was a good musician and played duets with 

Nekhliidoff was in such good humour that even this man 
was not unpleasant to him, in spite of what he knew of his 
vices. The bright, energetic aide-de-camp, with his bluey 
grey chin, who was continually offering his services, pleased 
Nekhludoff by his good nature. But it was the charming 
young couple, the General's daughter and her husband, who 

pleased Nekhludoff lbe§t< Th§ daughter was a pWn-JoQkmg, 

5° 2 


simple-minded young woman, wholly absorbed in her two 
children. Her husband, whom she had fallen in love 
with and married after a long struggle with her parents, was 
a Liberal, who had taken honours at the Moscow University, 
a modest and intellectual young man in Government service, 
who made up statistics and studied chiefly the foreign tribes, 
which he liked and tried to save from dying out. 

All of them were not only kind and attentive to Nekhlu- 
doff, but evidently pleased to see him, as a new and interest- 
ing acquaintance. The General, who came in to dinner in 
uniform and with a white cross round his neck, greeted 
Nekhludoff as a friend, and asked the visitors to the side 
table to take a glass of vodka and something to whet their 
appetites. The General asked Nekhludoff what he had been 
doing since he left that morning, and Nekhludoff told him 
he had been to the post-office and received the news of the 
mitigation of that person's sentence that he had spoken of in 
the morning, and again asked for a permission to visit the 

The General, apparently displeased that business should 
be mentioned at dinner, frowned and said nothing. 

" Have a glass of vodka?" he said, addressing the English- 
man, who had just come up to the table. The Englishman 
drank a glass, and said he had been to see the cathedral and 
the factory, but would like to visit the great transportation 

" Oh, that will just fit in," said the General to Nekhludoff. 
" You will be able to go together. Give them a pass," he 
added, turning to his aide-de-camp. 

" When would you like to go? " Nekhludoff asked. 

" I prefer visiting the prisons in the evening," the English- 
man answered. " All are indoors and there is no prepara- 
tion ; you find them all as they are." 

" Ah, he would like to see it in all its glory ! Let him do 
so. I have written about it and no attention has been paid to 
it. Let him find out from foreign publications," the Gen- 
eral said, and went up to the dinner table, where the mistress 
of the house was showing the visitors their places. Nekhlu- 
doff sat between his hostess and the Englishman. In fiont 
of him sat the General's daughter and the ex-director of the 
Government department in Petersburg. The conversation at 
dinner was carried on by fits and starts ; now it was India 
that the Englishman talked about, now the Tonkin expedi- 

Resurrection 503 

tion that the General strongly disapproved of, now the 
universal bribery and corruption in Siberia. All these topics 
did not interest Nekhludoff much. 

But after dinner, over their coffee, Nekhludoff and the 
Englishman began a very interesting conversation about 
Gladstone, and Nekhludoff thought he had said many clever 
things which were noticed by his interlocutor. And Nekh- 
ludoff felt it more and more pleasant to be sipping his coffee 
seated in an easy-chair among amiable, well-bred people. 
And when at the Englishman's request the hostess went up 
to the piano with the ex-director of the Government depart- 
ment, and they began to play in well-practised style Beet- 
hoven's fifth symphony, Nekhludoff fell into a mental state 
of perfect self-satisfaction to which he had long been a 
stranger, as though he had only just found out what a good 
fellow he was. 

The grand piano was a splendid instrument, the symphony 
was well performed. At least, so it seemed to Nekhludoff, 
who knew and liked that symphony. Listening to the beau- 
tiful andante, he felt a tickling in his nose, he was so touched 
by his many virtues. 

Nekhludoff thanked his hostess for the enjoyment that he 
had been deprived of for so long, and was about to say good- 
bye and go when the daughter of the house came up to him 
with a determined look and said, with a blush, " You asked 
about my children. Would you like to see them? " 

" She thinks that everybody wants to see her children," 
said her mother, smiling at her daughter's winning tactless- 
ness. " The Prince is not at all interested." 

" On the contrary, I am very much interested," said Nekh- 
ludoff, touched by this overflowing, happy mother-love. 
" Please let me see them." 

" She's taking the Prince to see her babies," the General 
shouted, laughing from the card-table, where he sat with his 
son-in-law, the mine owner and the aide-de-camp. " Go, go, 
pay your tribute." 

The young woman, visibly excited by the thought that 
judgment was about to be passed on her children, went 
quickly towards the inner apartments, followed by Nekh- 
ludoff. In the third, a lofty room, papered with white and 
lit up by a shaded lamp, stood two small cots, and a nurse 
with a white cape on her shoulders sat between the cots. She 
had a kindly, true Siberian face, with its high cheek-bones. 

504 Resurrection 

The nurse rose and bowed. The mother stooped over the 
first cot, in which a two-year-old little girl lay peacefully 
sleeping with her little mouth open and her long, curly hair 
tumbled over the pillow. 

" This is Katie," said the mother, straightening the white 
and blue crochet coverlet, from under which a little white 
foot pushed itself languidly out. 

" Is she not pretty? She's only two years old, you know." 


" And this is Vasiiik, as i grandpapa ' calls him. Quite a 
different type. A Siberian, is he not? " 

" A splendid boy," said Nekhludoff, as he looked at the 
little fatty lying asleep on his stomach. 

" Yes," said the mother, with a smile full of meaning. 

Nekhludoff recalled to his mind chains, shaved heads, 
fighting debauchery, the dying Kryltzoff, Katusha and the 
whole of her past, and he began to feel envious and to wish 
for what he saw here, which now seemed to him pure and 
refined happiness. 

After having repeatedly expressed his admiration of the 
children, thereby at least partially satisfying their mother, 
who eagerly drank in this praise, he followed her back to the 
drawing-room, where the Englishman was waiting for him 
to go and visit the prison, as they had arranged. Having 
taken leave of their hosts, the old and the young ones, the 
Englishman and Nekhludoff went out into the porch of the 
General's house. 

The weather had changed. It was snowing, and the snow 
fell densely in large flakes, and already covered the road, the 
roof and the trees in the garden, the steps of the porch, the 
roof of the trap and the back of the horse. 

The Englishman had a trap of his own, and Nekhludoff, 
having told the coachman to drive to the prison, called his 
isvostchik and got in with the heavy sense of having to fulfil 
an unpleasant duty, and followed the Englishman over the 
soft snow, through which the wheels turned with difficulty. 

Resurrection 505 


maslova's decision. 

The dismal prison house, with its sentinel and lamp burn- 
ing under the gateway, produced an even more dismal im- 
pression, with its long row of lighted windows, than it had 
done in the morning, in spite of the white covering that now 
lay over everything — the porch, the roof and the walls. 

The imposing inspector came up to the gate and read the 
pass that had been given to Nekhliidoff and the Englishman 
by the light of the lamp, shrugged his fine shoulders in sur- 
prise, but, in obedience to the order, asked the visitors to fol- 
low him in. He led them through the courtyard and then in 
at a door to the right and up a staircase into the office. He 
offered them a seat and asked what he could do for them, 
and when he heard that Nekhliidoff would like to see Mas- 
lova at once, he sent a jailer to fetch her. Then he prepared 
himself to answer the questions which the Englishman be- 
gan to put to him, Nekhliidoff acting as interpreter. 

" How many persons is the prison built to hold ? " the 
Englishman asked. " How many are confined in it ? How 
many men? How many women? Children? How many 
sentenced to the mines? How many exiles? How many 
sick persons? " 

Nekhliidoff translated the Englishman's and the inspect- 
or's words without paying any attention to their meaning, 
and felt an awkwardness he had not in the least expected at 
the thought of the impending interview. When, in the midst 
of a sentence he was translating for the Englishman, he 
heard the sound of approaching footsteps, and the office door 
opened, and, as had happened many times before, a jailer 
came in, followed by Katiisha, and he saw her with a kerchief 
tied round her head, and in a prison jacket, a heavy sensation 
came over him. " I wish to live, I want a family, children, 
I want a human life/' These thoughts flashed through his 
mind as she entered the room with rapid steps and blinking 
her eyes. 

5° 6 


He rose and made a few steps to meet her, and her face 
appeared hard and unpleasant to him. It was again as it had 
been at the time when she reproached him. She flushed and 
turned pale, her fingers nervously twisting a corner of her 
jacket. She looked up at him, then cast down her eyes. 

" You know that a mitigation has come? " 

" Yes, the jailer told me." 

" So that as soon as the original document arrives you 
may come away and settle where you like. We shall con- 
sider " 

She interrupted him hurriedly. " What have I to con- 
sider? Where Valdemar Simonson goes, there I shall fol- 
low." In spite of the excitement she was in she raised her 
eyes to Nekhludoff's and pronounced these words quickly 
and distinctly, as if she had prepared what she had to say. 


" Well, Dmitri Ivanovitch, you see he wishes me to live 
with him " and she stopped, quite frightened, and cor- 
rected herself. " He wishes me to be near him. What more 
can I desire? I must look upon it as happiness. What else 
is there for me " 

" One of two things," thought he. " Either she loves 
Simonson and does not in the least require the sacrifice I 
imagined I was bringing her, or she still loves me and re- 
fuses me for my own sake, and is burning her ships by 
uniting her fate with Simonson." And Nekhludoff felt 
ashamed and knew that he was blushing. 

" And you yourself, do you love him ? " he asked. 

" Loving or not loving, what does it matter? I have given 
up all that. And then Valdemar Simonson is quite an ex- 
ceptional man." 

" Yes, of course," Nekhludoff began. " He is a splendid 
man, and I think " 

But she again interrupted him, as if afraid that he might 
say too much or that she should not say all. " No, Dmitri 
Ivanovitch, you must forgive me if I am not doing what you 
wish," and she looked at him with those unfathomable, 
squinting eyes of hers. " Yes, it evidently must be so. You 
must live, too." 

She said just what he had been telling himself a few mo- 
ments before, but he no longer thought so now and felt very 
differently. He was not only ashamed, but felt sorry to lose 
all he was losing with her. " I did not expect this," he said. 

Resurrection 507 

" Why should you live here and suffer ? You have suf- 
fered enough/' 

" I have not suffered. It was good for me, and I should 
like to go on serving you if I could/' 

" We do not want anything," she said, and looked at him. 
" You have done so much for me as it is. If it had not been 

for you " She wished to say more, but her voice 


" You certainly have no reason to thank me," Nekhludoff 

" Where is the use of our reckoning? God will make up 
our accounts," she said, and her black eyes began to glisten 
with the tears that filled them. 

" What a good woman you are," he said. 

" I good ? " she said through her tears, and a pathetic smile 
lit up her face. 

" Are you ready ? " the Englishman asked. 

" Directly," replied Nekhludoff, and asked her about 

She got over her emotion and quietly told him all she 
knew. Kryltzoff was very weak and had been sent into the 
infirmary. Mary Pavlovna was very anxious, and had asked 
to be allowed to go to the infirmary as a nurse, but could 
not get the permission. 

" Am I to go ? " she asked, noticing that the Englishman 
was waiting. 

" I will not say good-bye ; I shall see you again," said 
Nekhludoff, holding out his hand. 

" Forgive me," she said so low that he could hardly hear 
her. Their eyes met, and Nekhludoff knew T by the strange 
look of her squinting eyes and the pathetic smile with which 
she said not Good-bye " but " Forgive me," that of the two 
reasons that might have led to her resolution, the second was 
the real one. She loved him, and thought that by uniting 
herself to him she would be spoiling his life. By going 
with Simonson she thought she would be setting Nekhludoff 
free, and felt glad that she had done what she meant to do, 
and yet she suffered at parting from him. 

She pressed his hand, turned quickly and left the room. 

Nekhludoff was ready to go, but saw that the Englishman 
was noting something down, and did not disturb him, 
but sat down on a wooden seat by the wall, and suddenly a 
feeling of terrible weariness came over him. It was not 3, 

508 Resurrection 

sleepless night that had tired him, not the journey, not the 
excitement, but he felt terribly tired of living. He leaned 
against the back of the bench, shut his eyes and in a moment 
fell into a deep, heavy sleep. 

" Well, would you like to look round the cells now ? " the 
inspector asked. 

Nekhludoff looked up and was surprised to find himself 
where he was. The Englishman had finished his notes and 
expressed a wish to see the cells. 

Nekhludoff, tired and indifferent, followed him. 

Resurrection 509 



When they had passed the anteroom and the sickening, 
stinking corridor, the Englishman and Nekhliidoff, accom- 
panied by the inspector, entered the first cell, where those 
sentenced to hard labour were confined. The beds took up 
the middle of the cell and the prisoners were all in bed. 
There were about 70 of them. When the visitors entered 
all the prisoners jumped up and stood beside the beds, ex- 
cepting two, a young man who was in a state of high fever, 
and an old man who did nothing but groan. 

The Englishman asked if the young man had long been ill. 
The inspector said that he was taken ill in the morning, but 
that the old man had long been suffering with pains in the 
stomach, but could not be removed, as the infirmary had been 
overfilled for a long time. The Englishman shook his head 
disapprovingly, said he would like to say a few words to 
these people, asking Nekhliidoff to interpret. It turned out 
that besides studying the places of exile and the prisons of 
Siberia, the Englishman had another object in view, that of 
preaching salvation through faith and by the redemption. 

" Tell them," he said, " that Christ died for them. If they 
believe in this they shall be saved." While he spoke, all the 
prisoners stood silent with their arms at their sides. " This 
book, tell them," he continued, "says all about it. Can any 
of them read ?" 

There were more than 20 who could. 

The Englishman took several bound Testaments out of a 
hang-bag, and many strong hands with their hard, black 
nails stretched out from beneath the coarse shirt-sleeves 
towards him. He gave away two Testaments in this cell. 

The same thing happened in the second cell. There was 
the same foul air, the same icon hanging between the win- 
dows, the same tub to the left of the door, and they were all 

5 1 o Resurrection 

lying side by side close to one another, and jumped up in the 
same manner and stood stretched full length with their arms 
by their sides, all but three, two of whom sat up and one re- 
mained lying, and did not even look at the new-comers ; these 
three were also ill. The Englishman made the same speech 
and again gave away two books. 

In the third room four were ill. When the Englishman 
asked why the sick were not put all together into one cell, the 
inspector said that they did not wish it themselves, that their 
diseases were not infectious, and that the medical assistant 
watched them and attended to them. 

" He has not set foot here for a fortnight," muttered a 

The inspector did not say anything and led the way to the 
next cell. Again the door was unlocked, and all got up and 
stood silent. Again the Englishman gave away Testaments. 
It was the same in the fifth and sixth cells, in those to the 
right and those to the left. 

From those sentenced to hard labour they went on to the 

From the exiles to those evicted by the Commune and those 
who followed of their own free will. 

Everywhere men, cold, hungry, idle, infected, degraded, 
imprisoned, were shown off like wild beasts. 

The Englishman, having given away the appointed num- 
ber of Testaments, stopped giving any more, and made no 
speeches. The oppressing sight, and especially the stifling 
atmosphere, quelled even his energy, and he went from cell 
to cell, saying nothing but " All right " to the inspector's 
remarks about what prisoners there were in each cell. 

Nekhludoff followed as in a dream, unable either to refuse 
to go on or to go away, and with the same feelings of weari- 
ness and hopelessness. 

Resurrection 5 1 1 



In one of the exiles' cells Nekhludoff, to his surprise, rec- 
ognised the strange old man he had seen crossing the ferry 
that morning. This old man was sitting on the floor by the 
beds, barefooted, with only a dirty cinder-coloured shirt on, 
torn on one shoulder, and similar trousers. He looked 
severely and enquiringly at the new-comers. His emaciated 
body, visible through the holes of his shirt, looked miserably 
weak, but in his face was even more concentrated seriousness 
and animation than when Nekhludoff saw him crossing the 
ferry. As in all the other cells, so here also the prisoners 
jumped up and stood erect when the official entered, but the 
old man remained sitting. His eyes glittered and his brows 
frowned with wrath. 

" Get up/' the inspector called out to him. 

The old man did not rise and only smiled contemptuously. 

" Thy servants are standing before thee. I am not thy ser- 
vant. Thou bearest the seal " The old man pointed to 

the inspector's forehead. 

" Wha-a-t ? " said the inspector threateningly, and made a 
step towards him. 

" I know this man," Nekhludoff hastened to say ; " what is 
he imprisoned for? " 

" The police have sent him here because he has no pass- 
port. We ask them not to send such, but they will do it," 
said the inspector, casting an angry side look at the old man. 

" And so it seems thou, too, art one of Antichrist's 
army ? " the old man said to Nekhludoff. 

" No, I am a visitor," said Nekhludoff. 

" What, hast thou come to see how Antichrist tortures 
men? There, look, he has locked them up in a cage, a whole 
army of them. Men should eat bread in the sweat of their 
brow. And he has locked them up with no work to do, and 
feeds them like swine, so that they should turn into beasts." 

" What is he saying? " asked the Englishman. 

5 1 2 Resurrection 

Nekhludoff told him the old man was blaming the in- 
spector for keeping- men imprisoned. 

" Ask him how he thinks one should treat those who do 
not keep to the laws/' said the Englishman. 

Nekhludoff translated the question. The old man laughed 
in a strange manner, showing his teeth. 

" The laws ? " he repeated with contempt. " He first 
robbed everybody, took all the earth, all the rights away from 
men, killed all those who were against him, and then wrote 
laws, forbidding robbery and murder. He should have writ- 
ten these laws before." 

Nekhludoff translated. The Englishman smiled. "Well, 
anyhow, ask him how one should treat thieves and mur- 
derers at present ? " 

Nekhludoff again translated his question. 

" Tell him he should take the seal of Antichrist off him- 
self," the old man said, frowning severely ; " then there will 
be no thieves and murderers. Tell him so." 

" He is crazy," said the Englishman, when Nekhludoff had 
translated the old man's words, and, shrugging his 
shoulders, he left the cell. 

" Do thy business and leave them alone. Every one for 
himself. God knows whom to execute, whom to forgive, 
and we do not know," said the old man. " Every man be his 
own chief, then the chiefs will not be wanted. Go, go ! " he 
added, angrily frowning and looking with glittering eyes 
at Nekhludoff, who lingered in the cell. " Hast thou not 
looked on long enough how the servants of Antichrist feed 
lice on men ? Go, go ! " 

When Nekhludoff went out he saw the Englishman stand- 
ing by the open door of an empty cell with the inspector, 
asking what the cell was for. The inspector explained that 
it was the mortuary. 

" Oh," said the Englishman when Nekhludoff had trans- 
lated, and expressed the wish to go in. 

The mortuary was an ordinary cell, not very large. A 
small lamp hung on the wall and dimly lit up sacks and logs 
of wood that were piled up in one corner, and four dead 
bodies lay on the bedshelves to the right. The first body had a 
coarse linen shirt and trousers on ; it was that of a tall man 
with a small beard and half his head shaved. The body was 
quite rigid ; the bluish hands, that had evidently been folded 
on the breast, had separated; the legs were also apart and 

Resurrection 5 1 3 

the bare feet were sticking out. Next to him lay a bare- 
footed old woman in a white petticoat, her head, with its thin 
plait of hair, uncovered, with a little, pinched yellow face and 
a sharp nose. Beyond her was another man with something 
lilac on. This colour reminded Nekhludoff of something. 
He came nearer and looked at the body. The small, pointed 
beard sticking upwards, the firm, well-shaped nose, the high, 
white forehead, the thin, curly hair; he recognised the 
familiar features and could hardly believe his eyes. Yester- 
day he had seen this face, angry, excited, and full of suffer- 
ing; now it was quiet, motionless, and terribly beautiful. 
Yes, it was Kryltzoff, or at any rate the trace that his ma- 
terial existence had left behind. "Why had he suffered? 
Why had he lived ? Does he now understand ? " Nekhludoff 
thought, and there seemed to be no answer, seemed to be 
nothing but death, and he felt faint. Without taking leave of 
the Englishman, Nekhludoff asked the inspector to lead him 
out into the yard, and feeling the absolute necessity of being 
alone to think over all that had happened that evening, he 
drove back to his hotel. 

5 1 4 Resurrection 



Nekhludoff did not go to bed, but went up and down his 
room for a long time. His business with Katusha was at an 
end. He was not wanted, and this made him sad and 
ashamed. His other business was not only unfinished, but 
troubled him more than ever and demanded his activity. All 
this horrible evil that he had seen and learned to know lately, 
and especially to-day in that awful prison, this evil, which 
had killed that dear Kryltzoff, ruled and was triumphant, and 
he could foresee no possibility of conquering or even know- 
ing how to conquer it. Those hundreds and thousands of de- 
graded human beings locked up in the noisome prisons by in- 
different generals, procureurs, inspectors, rose up in his im- 
agination ; he remembered the strange, free old man accusing 
the officials, and therefore considered mad, and among the 
corpses the beautiful, waxen face of Kryltzoff, who had died 
in anger. And again the question as to whether he was mad 
or those who considered they were in their right minds 
while they committed all these deeds stood before him with 
renewed force and demanded an answer. 

Tired of pacing up and down, tired of thinking, he sat 
down on the sofa near the lamp and mechanically opened the 
Testament which the Englishman had given him as a remem- 
brance, and which he had thrown on the table when he 
emptied his pockets on coming in. 

" It is said one can find an answer to everything here," he 
thought, and opened the Testament at random and began 
reading Matt, xviii. 1-4: " In that hour came the disciples 
unto Jesus, saying, Who then is greatest in the Kingdom of 
Heaven ? And He called to Him a little child, and set him 
in the midst of them, and said, Verily I say unto you, Except 
ye turn and become as little children, ye shall in nowise enter 
into the Kingdom of Heaven. Whosoever therefore shall 
humble himself as this little child the same is the greatest 
in the Kingdom of Heaven." 

" Yes, yes, that is true," he said, remembering that he had 

Resurrection 515 

known the peace and joy of life only when he had humbled 

" And whosoever shall receive one such little child in My 
name receiveth Me, but whoso shall cause one of these little 
ones to stumble, it is more profitable for him that a great 
millstone should be hanged about his neck and that he 
should be sunk in the depths of the sea." (Matt, xviii. 5, 6.) 

" What is this for, ' Whosoever shall receive ? ' Receive 
where ? And what does ' in my name ' mean ? " he asked, 
feeling that these words did not tell him anything. " And 
why ' the millstone round his neck and the depths of the sea? ' 
No, that is not it : it is not clear," and he remembered how 
more than once in his life he had taken to reading the Gos- 
pels, and how want of clearness in these passages had re- 
pulsed him. He went on to read the seventh, eighth, ninth, 
and tenth verses about the occasions of stumbling, and that 
they must come, and about punishment by casting men into 
hell fire, and some kind of angels who see the face of the 
Father in Heaven. " What a pity that this is so incoherent,"' 
he thought, " yet one feels that there is something good in 

" For the Son of Man came to save that which was lost," 
he continued to read. 

" How think ye ? If any man have a hundred sheep and 
one of them go astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine 
and go